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Module 1: Set of

Real Numbers &


Algebraic
Expressions
College Algebra
Jerome A. Jimenez, MoM

Algebra

The science of reduction and cancellation


Deal with operations on unspecified or unknown

numbers that are designated by symbols or letters


such as x,y,z,a,b and c.
Does we consider the following

x+y

ab

yz

bc

Concept of a Set

A set is a collection of objects, the objects in a set

are called elements of the set.


Each particular object must be either in a set or

not on the set.


A pair of braces { }, is used to describe a set.

Example of a Set

If S is a set of natural numbers less than 6, then

S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
or
{x, such that x is a natural number less than 6}

Union & Intersection of a


Set

The union of two sets A and B, denoted by A U B is the set of


all elements that are in A or in B or in both A and B.

The intersection of A and B denoted by A B is the set of all


elements that are in both A and B.

The set that contains no elements is called the empty set


denoted by .

Example

Suppose A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}, B = {1, 4, 9, 16}

and C = {2, 10}.


Then,
A U B = {1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 16}
B U C = {1, 2, 4, 9, 10, 16}
A B = {4}

Real Numbers
Real Numbers

52, 17, 8, 1 , 0, 7 ,1, 2,18, 72, 3 11, 2, 17,


2
8
Irrational Numbers

Rational Numbers
-52, -17, -8, -, 0, , 1, 2, 18, 72

Integers
-52, -17, -8, 0, 1, 2, 18, 72

Whole
Numbers
0, 1, 2, 18, 72

Natural
Numbers
1, 2, 18, 72

Negative
Integers
-52, -17, -8

Zero
0

3 11, 2, 17,

Noninteger rational numbers

-,

The real number system

Consists of the set of real numbers and two

operations called addition and multiplication.

Subtraction and division of real numbers are

defined in terms of addition and multiplication.

Properties

If a and b are real numbers,


a b = d if and only if a = b + d

Similarly if a and b are real numbers and b 0,


a b = qif and only if a = bq

Note: Division by zero is not defined.

Properties of Real Numbers

Closure (Addition and Multiplication)

a b R

ab R

Commutative Property (Addition and

Multiplication)
a+b=b+a

a .b = b .a

Properties of Real Numbers

Associative (Addition & Multiplication)

a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c

a . (b . c) = (a . b) . c

Distributive

a (b + c) = ab + ac

Properties of Real Numbers

Identity (Addition & Multiplication)


a+0=a

a.1=a

(zero is the identity element for addition while 1 is the identity


element for multiplication)

Inverse
a + (-a) = 0

a(1/a) = 1, a 0

(-a is the additive inverse of a, 1/a is the multiplicative inverse of


a)

Properties of Equality of
Real Numbers
Let a, b, c a set of real numbers. Then the following
properties of equality hold.
Reflexive

a=a
Symmetric

if a = b, then b = a

Properties of Equality of
Real Numbers
Transitive Property

if a = b and b = c, then a = c

Substitution

if a = b, then a can be replaced by b in any


statement involving a.

Absolute Value

The absolute value of a real number a, denoted by

|a|, is a non-negative number defined by


|a| = a

if a 0

|a| = -a

if a < 0

In case a = 0, its distance from the origin is zero and


hence,
|0| = 0

Algebraic Expressions

An algebraic expression is a constant, a variable,

or a combination of constants and variables


connected by a finite number of fundamental
operations including raising to a power and
extraction of a root.

Algebraic Expressions

Definition of Constant

a symbol whose value does not change.

Definition of Variable

a symbol that takes on a different values.

Exercises