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# Module 1: Set of

## Real Numbers &

Algebraic
Expressions
College Algebra
Jerome A. Jimenez, MoM

Algebra

## The science of reduction and cancellation

Deal with operations on unspecified or unknown

## numbers that are designated by symbols or letters

such as x,y,z,a,b and c.
Does we consider the following

x+y

ab

yz

bc

Concept of a Set

## are called elements of the set.

Each particular object must be either in a set or

## not on the set.

A pair of braces { }, is used to describe a set.

Example of a Set

## If S is a set of natural numbers less than 6, then

S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
or
{x, such that x is a natural number less than 6}

Set

## The union of two sets A and B, denoted by A U B is the set of

all elements that are in A or in B or in both A and B.

## The intersection of A and B denoted by A B is the set of all

elements that are in both A and B.

denoted by .

Example

## and C = {2, 10}.

Then,
A U B = {1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 16}
B U C = {1, 2, 4, 9, 10, 16}
A B = {4}

Real Numbers
Real Numbers

## 52, 17, 8, 1 , 0, 7 ,1, 2,18, 72, 3 11, 2, 17,

2
8
Irrational Numbers

Rational Numbers
-52, -17, -8, -, 0, , 1, 2, 18, 72

Integers
-52, -17, -8, 0, 1, 2, 18, 72

Whole
Numbers
0, 1, 2, 18, 72

Natural
Numbers
1, 2, 18, 72

Negative
Integers
-52, -17, -8

Zero
0

3 11, 2, 17,

-,

Properties

## If a and b are real numbers,

a b = d if and only if a = b + d

## Similarly if a and b are real numbers and b 0,

a b = qif and only if a = bq

a b R

ab R

Multiplication)
a+b=b+a

a .b = b .a

## Properties of Real Numbers

a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c

a . (b . c) = (a . b) . c

Distributive

a (b + c) = ab + ac

a+0=a

a.1=a

## (zero is the identity element for addition while 1 is the identity

element for multiplication)

Inverse
a + (-a) = 0

a(1/a) = 1, a 0

## (-a is the additive inverse of a, 1/a is the multiplicative inverse of

a)

Properties of Equality of
Real Numbers
Let a, b, c a set of real numbers. Then the following
properties of equality hold.
Reflexive

a=a
Symmetric

if a = b, then b = a

Properties of Equality of
Real Numbers
Transitive Property

if a = b and b = c, then a = c

Substitution

## if a = b, then a can be replaced by b in any

statement involving a.

Absolute Value

|a| = a

if a 0

|a| = -a

if a < 0

## In case a = 0, its distance from the origin is zero and

hence,
|0| = 0

Algebraic Expressions

## or a combination of constants and variables

connected by a finite number of fundamental
operations including raising to a power and
extraction of a root.

Algebraic Expressions

Definition of Constant

## a symbol whose value does not change.

Definition of Variable

Exercises