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TOLERANCE

LIMIT

Jodie Anne Ferrer

What is Tolerance Limit

A confidence interval covers a population parameter with a stated confidence, that is, a certain proportion of the time. There is also a way to cover a fixed proportion of the population with a stated confidence. Such an interval is called a tolerance interval. The endpoints of a tolerance interval are called tolerance limits. An application of tolerance intervals to manufacturing involves comparing specification limits prescribed by the client with tolerance limits that cover a specified proportion of the population.

In quality control, the limiting values between which measurements must lie if an article is to be acceptable, as distinct from confidence limits.

Difference between confidence and tolerance intervals

Confidence limits are limits within which we expect a given population parameter, such as the mean, to lie. Statistical tolerance limits are limits within which we expect a stated proportion of the population to lie.

Why Use Tolerance Limits for ProcessWhy Use Tolerance Limits for Process Qualification?

Provides a statement of confidence and reliability Provides a statement of confidence and reliability about the process about the process

Accounts for uncertainty due to sample size Accounts for uncertainty due to sample size

Allows comparison of the practical process Allows comparison of the practical process boundaries to the design specification boundaries to the design specification

Using Cpk for process qualification is flawed due to Using Cpk for process qualification is flawed due to the relatively small sample sizes used and the lack of the relatively small sample sizes used and the lack of sufficient process data to establish that the process sufficient process data to establish that the process data is in statistical control data is in statistical control

Example 1

For the computation, assume that all are normal distribution. The sample mean and standard deviation for the given data are 1.0056 and 0.0246. Find the 99% tolerance limits that will contain 95% of the metal pieces produced by this machine.

Solutio n 1:

From the table for n=9, 1-γ=0.99, and 1-α=0.95, we find k= 4.550 for two-sided limits. Hence, the 99% tolerance limits are given by

X + ks = 1.0056 +/- (4.550)(0.0246)

With the bounds being 0.8937 and 1.1175. we are 99% confident that the tolerance interval from 0.8937 to 1.1175 will contain the central 95% of the distribution of the diameters produced.

Example

2:

Ten washers are selected at random from a population that can be described by a normal distribution. The measured thicknesses, in inches, are:

 

.123

.132

.124

.123

.126

.126

.129

.129

.120

.128

Establish an interval that contains at least 90% of the population of washer thicknesses with 95% confidence.

From the sample data

  • X .1260

and

S 0.00359

The K value can be found on Tolerance Limits Table- Two-Sided with gamma 95 and 99 and n=2 to 27.

K

  • 2 K 10,0.90,0.95 2.829

so that

LTL

X

K

2

S

0.1260

2.829 0.00359

0.116

UTL

X

K

2

S

0.1260

2.839 0.00359

0.136

Therefore, with 95% confidence at least 90% of the population of washer thicknesses, in inches, will be contained in the interval

(0.116,0.136).