Anda di halaman 1dari 38

Introduction to Needs

Analysis
Eng. 119, ESP

Needs Analysis
(A.K.A) Needs Assessment

Pivotal role
Course design

| Course delivery

Whether
ESP or GEC

According to Iwai et al. (1999), needs


analysis generally refers to:
ACTIVITIES
(collecting information )
=
BASIS
NEEDS

MEET

Curriculum Dev.
STUDENTS NEEDS

MEE
T

NEEDS

According to Iwai et al. (1999),


Formal needs analysis is relatively new to
the field of language teaching.

Needs analysis = indisputable in any ESP


course
For Johns (1991), needs analysis is the first
step in course design and it provides
validity and relevancy for all subsequent
course design activities.

Based on Munby's work, Chambers (1980)


introduced the term
Target Situation Analysis.
Then other terms have also been introduced:
Present Situation Analysis
Pedagogic Needs Analysis

Deficiency Analysis
Strategy Analysis or Learning Needs
Analysis
Means Analysis
Register analysis
Discourse analysis
Genre Analysis

TARGET SITUATION ANALYSIS


A study of the situations in which the
language is used.
This provides a guide as to what language
to teach.

Target Situation Analysis (TSA)


Chambers, 1980
For Chambers TSA is communication in
the target situation (p.29).

Munby (1978) Communicative Needs


Processor (CNP)
With the development of the CNP it seemed as
if ESP had come of age. The machinery for
identifying the needs of any group of learners
had been provided: all the course designers
had to do was to operate it.
Hutchinson and Waters (1987: 54)

Munbys CNP
Target needs

|Target level performance


Investigate

Investigate

Target
Situation

Investigate

Investigate

CNP = necessary starting point in materials


or course design
(West, 1998)

Munbys Model
1. Participants: identity and language of the
learners: age, sex, nationality, present
command of target language, other
languages known and extent of command;

2. Communication Needs Processor:


investigates according to sociocultural and
stylistic variables which interact to
determine a profile of such needs;

Profile of Needs: established through the


processing of data in the CNP;

Meaning Processor socioculturally


determined profile of communication needs
are converted into:
semantic subcategories of a predominantly
pragmatic kind, and marked with
attitudinal tone
(Munby, 1978: 42);

The Language Skills Selector: identifies


the specific language skills that are
required to realize the events or activities
that have been identified in the CNP
(Munby, 1978: 40);

The Linguistic Encoder: considers the


dimension of contextual appropriacy
(Munby, 1978: 49), one the encoding stage
has been reached;

The Communicative Competence


Specification: indicates the
target communicative competence of the
participant and is the translated profile of
needs.

Parameters specified by Munby

Purposive domain
Setting
Interaction
Instrumentality
Dialect
Communicative event
Communicative key
Target level

Aims: Munbys CNP


Find the linguistic form a prospective ESP
learner is likely to use in various situations
in his target working environment.

PRESENT SITUATION ANALYSIS


What are the students like at the beginning
of the course?
What is their learning background?

TSA

PSA

Students at the Students at the


end of the course beginning of the course

Dudley-Evans and St. John


(1998: 125)

"a PSA estimates strengths and


weaknesses in language, skills,
learning experiences."

PSA (Present Situation Analysis) was first


proposed by Richterich and Chancerel
(1980).
Sources of information are the students
themselves, the teaching establishment, and
the user-institution, e.g. place of work
(Jordan, 1997).

PSA can be carried out by means of


established placement tests.

PEDAGOGIC NEEDS ANLYSIS


A term which groups together i.e. Lacks
analysis, Learning needs analysis, and
Constraints analysis

Pedagogic needs analysis was proposed


by West (1998)
Umbrella term to describe the following
three elements of needs analysis.

deficiency analysis,
strategy analysis or learning needs
analysis,
means analysis

DEFICIENCY ANALYSIS (Lacks analysis


).
Students are evaluated to see what language
they lack. A diagnostic test is used
in the analysis.

LEARNING NEEDS ANALYSIS (strategy


analysis)
in terms of language, learning
skills such as autonomy etc.

CONSTRAINTS ANALYSIS (means


analysis).
The limitations in the actual teaching
context are identified.