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Item- 200 AGGREGATE

SUBBASE COURSE
REVISION
Table 200.1 Grading Req.

0.075

9.5

Conditions
1. The fraction passing the 0.75 mm (200) sieve
should not be greater than 0.666 (2/3) of the
fraction passing the 0.425 mm No. 40 sieve.
0.075 mm
3. The coarse portion retained on a 3.0 mm (No.
10) sieve shall have a mass percent of wear not
exceed 50 by Los Angeles Abrasion Tests as
determined by AASHTO T- 96.
2.0 mm
4. The material shall have a soaked CBR value not
less than 25% as determined by AASHTO T- 193.
CBR value should be obtained at a maximum dry
density as determined by AASHTO T-180 Method
D

200.3.2Placing
The aggregate subbase material shall be
placed at a uniform mixture on prepared
subgrade in a quantity which will provide the
required compacted thickness. When more
than 1 layer is reqd., each layer shall be
shaped & compacted before the succeeding
layer is placed.
Placing shall be from vehicle especially
equipped to distribute the material in a
continuous uniform layer or windrow. The
layer or windrow shall be such size that when
spread & compacted the finished layer will be
in reasonably close conformity to the nominal
thickness shown on the plans.

200.3.3 Spreading &


Compacting
When uniformly mixed, the mixture shall be
spread to the plan thickness, for compaction.
When the reqd. thickness is 150 mm or less,
the material may be spread & compacted in
one layer. When the reqd. Thickness is more
than 150 mm, the aggregate subbase shall
be spread & compacted in two or more layers
of approximately equal thckness, & the
maximum compacted thickness of any layer
shall not exceed 150 mm. all subsequent
layers shall be spread & compacted in similar
manner.

Immediately ff. final spreading &


smoothening, each layer shall be
compacted to the full width by means of
approved compaction equipment. Rolling
shall progress gradually from the sides to
the center, parallel to the centerline of
the road & shall continue until the whole
surface has been rolled. Any irregularities
that develop shall be corrected by
loosening the material at these places &
adding or removing material until surface
is smooth & uniform.

Along curbs, headers, & walls, & at all


places not accessible to the roller, the
subbase material shall be compacted
throughly with approved tampers or
compactors.
if the layer of subbase material, or part
thereof, does not conform to the reqd.
finish, the contractor shall, at his own
expense, make the necessary corrections.

200.3.4 Trial Sections


Before subbase construction is started,
the Contractor shall spread and compact
trial sections as directed by the engr. The
purpose of the trial section is to check
the suitability & the efficiency of the
equipment & construction method. One
trial section of about 500 m2 shall be
made for every type of material & or
construction equipment/procedure
proposed for used.

After final compaction of each trial section, the


contractor shall carry out such field density tests
& other tests reqd. as directed by the Engr.
if a trial section shows that the proposed
materials, equipment or procedures in the
Engr.s opinion are not suitable for subbase, the
material shall be removed at the contractors
expense, & new trial section shall be
constructed.
if the basic conditions regarding the type of
material or procedure change during the
execution of the work, new trial sections shall be
constructed.

Item 201- AGGREGATE BASE COURSE


201. 1 DESCRIPTION
This item shall consist of furnishing, placing &
compacting an aggregate base course on a prepared
subgrade/subbase in accordance with this specification
& the lines, grades, thickness & typical cross-sections
shown on the Plans, or as established by the Engr.
201.2 MATERIAL REQUIREMENT
Aggregates for base course shall consist of hard,
durable particles of fragments or crushed stones,
crushed slag or crushed or natural gravel & filler or
natural crushed sand or other firmly divided mineral
matter. The composite material should be free of
vegetable matter & lumps or balls of clay that could be
compacted readily to form a firm stable base.

in some areas where the conventional


base course materials are non-available,
the use of 40% weathered limestone
blended with 60% crushed stones or
gravel shall be allowed, provided that the
blended materials meet the requirements
of this item.
The base course material shall conform
to table 201.1, whichever is called for in
the Bill of Quantities.

37.5 19 12.5

Conditions
1. That the fraction passing the 0.075 mm
(No. 200) sieve shall have a mass percent
of wear not exceed 50.
- That the fraction passing the 0.075 mm
(No. 200) sieve shall not be greater than
0.66 (2/3) of the fraction passing the
o.425 mm(NO. 40).
3. The coarse portion retained on a 2.0
mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a mass
percent of wear not to exceed 50.
No. 10

4. The materials passing 20 mm (3/4)


sieve shall have a soaked CBR value of
not less than 80%.
19 mm

201.3.1 Preparation of Existing Surfaces

The existing surface shall be graded &


finished as provided under item 105,
subgrade preparation, before placing the
base material.

201.3.2 Placing
It shall be in accordance with all
requirements of Subsection 200.3.2, placing.

201.3.3 Spreading & Compacting


It shall be in accordance with all
requirements of Subsection 200.3.3,
Spreading & Compacting.

201.3.3 Trial Sections


It shall be in accordance with all
requirements of Subsection 200.3.4.

ITEM 202- Crushed Aggregate Base Course

202.1 Description
This item shall consist of furnishing,
placing & compacting crushed gravel,
crushed stone or crushed rock on a
prepared subgrade/subbase in one or
more layers in accordance with this
specifications & lines, grades, thickness &
typical cross-sections shown on the plans
or stablished by the Engr.

202.2.1 Crushed Aggregates


It shall consist of hard, durable particles
of fragments of stone or gravel crushed to
the size & the quality requirements of this
item. It shall be clean & free of vegetable
matter & lumps or balls of clay.

37.5 19

12.5

Conditions
4. The material passing the 20 mm (3/4)
sieve shall have a minimum soaked CBR
value of 80%.
19mm

202.3 Construction Requirements


same as subsections 201.3.1 through
201.3.5

Item- 203 Lime Stabilized Road Mix


Base Course

202.1 Description
This item shall consist of a foundation for a
surface course composed of soil aggregate, lime
& water in proper proportions, road-mixed &
constructed on a prepared subgrade/subbase in
with this specifications & lines, grades,
thickness & typical cross-sections shown on the
plans or established by the Engr.

Conditions
1. Materials passing the 4.75 mm (No. 4)
sieve produced in the crushing operation
of either stone or gravel shall be
incorporated in the base material to the
extent permitted by the gradation
requirements. The plasticity index shall
not be less than 4 nor more than 10.
2. The aggregate shall have a mass
percent of water not exceeding 50.

203.2.1.1 New Soil- Aggregate


It shall conform to the applicable requirements of
Subsection 203.2.1, Soil Aggregate
203.2.1.2

Salvage Soil- Aggregate


Where soil-aggregate required is already in place,
the contractor shall not be responsible for its
grading or quality except for removal or oversized
materials as directed by Engr. In general, salvaged
soil-aggregate to be used for lime stabilized road
mix base course will consist of material meeting the
requirements given in Subsection 203.2.1, Soil
Aggregate.
203.2.2 Hydrated Lime
It

shall conform to the requirements of Item 701,


Construction Lime

203.2.3 Water
It shall conform to the requirements of item 714,
Water

203.2.4 Proportioning of Mixture


The amount of lime to be added to the soil
aggregates shall be from 3 to 12 mass % of the dry
soil. The exact percentage to be added shall be
fixed by the Engr. On the basis of preliminary
laboratory tests & trial mixes of materials furnished.

203. 2.5 Strength Requirement


CBR Test for gravelly soils. The mixture passing
the 19mm (3/4) sieve shall be obtained at
the maximum dry density determined
according to AASHTO T- 193.

203.3 Construction Requirement


203.3.1 Weather Limitations
lime shall not be applied during windy,
rainy or impending bad weather. In the
event rain occurs during the operations,
work shall be promptly stopped & the
entire section shall be reconstructed in
accordance with this Specification.
203.3.2 Construction Equipment
-same-

203.3.3 Preparation of Soil- Aggregate


-same203.3.4 Application of Lime
-same203.3.5 Mixing
- During the mixing operations, care shall be
taken to avoid cutting into the underlying
course. When directed, the mixing process
shall be confined to part of the width or area
of the road so as to allow traffic to pass.
- the spreading of the mix shall not be done
when the surface to be covered is in an
unsatisfactory condition

203.3.6 Spreading Compacting &


Finishing
The materials are spread by self- propelled
pneumatic tire blade grader or mechanical
spreader of approved type. In spreading from
the windrow, care shall be taken to avoid
cutting into underlying course. Cutting into
the underlying course should be avoided.
After spreading, surface shall be rolled. the
surface is leveled to the road center line,
then to the outer edges of the road
overlapping the shoulder. Each pass should
terminate at least 910 mm in advance or to
the rear of the end of preceding pass.

During the time of compaction, the surface


shall be dragged or bladed as necessary to fill
ruts & remove incipient corrugation or other
surface irregularities. Rolling shall continue
until after the surface is in uniform texture
satisfactorily compacted. Initial rolling shall
be performed with a pneumatic tire roller &
final rolling with a 3- wheel or tandem-type
steel wheel roller. Rolling should be stopped
whenever there is an excessive pulverizing of
the aggregate or displacement of the mixture.
When the compacted thickness of the road mix

lime stabilized base course is to be more than


150 mm, the mixture shall be spread from the
windrow & compacted in two (2)
approximately equal layers, the first layer to
be bladed & rolled before the second layer is
spread.
203.3.7 Protection, Curing & Maintenance
4. Apply on the surface a liquid membrane
curing compound of the type & quantity
approved by the Engr.
203.3.8 Trial Section
Trial sections of stabilized base shall be
constructed at least 2 weeks before actual
base construction.

203.3.9 Tolerances
The stabilized base course shall be laid to
the designed level & transverse slopes
shown on the plans. The allowable
tolerances shall be in accordance with
Subsection 201.3.5, tolerance.

203.3.10 Traffic
the contractor will not be permitted to drive
heavy equipment over completed portions
prior to the end of five (5) days curing
period except pneumatic tired equipment
reqd. for constructing adjoining sections.

Item 204 Portland Cement


Stabilized Road Mix Base
Course
This item consist of a foundation for
surface course composed of soil
aggregate, Portland cement & water in
proper proportions, road-mixed &
constructed on a prepared sub-grade or
sub-base in accordance with this
Specification & the lines, grades, & typical
cross-section shown in the plans or as
established by the Engr.
204.2 Material Requirement
204.2.1 Soil Aggregate

204.2.3 Water
204.2.4 Proportioning Mixture
The amount of cement to be added to the soil
aggregates shall be from 6 to 10 mass % of the
dry soil. The exact percentage to be added shall be
fixed by the Engr. On the basis of preliminary
laboratory tests & trial mixes of materials
furnished by the Contractor.
204.2.5 Strength Requirement
204.2.6 Construction Requirement
Construction requirements & procedures shall be
as prescribed under Subsection 203.3.1 through
203.3.1. in all cases, the word lime shall be
replaced & deleted with Portland Cement.

Item 205 Asphalt Stabilized Road


Mixed Base Course
This item shall consist of a foundation for a
surface course composed of soil
aggregate, & asphaltic material in proper
proportions, road-mixed & constructed on
a prepared subgrade/subbase in
accordance with this specifications & the
lines, grades, thickness & typical crosssections shown on the plans or stablished
by the Engr.

205.2.1 Soil Aggregates


It shall conform to the applicable
requirements of item 703, aggregates,
gradation A / B shall be used.
205.2.2 Asphaltic Material
Asphalt materials shall be anionic or
Cationic Emulsiofied asphalt of the slow
setting type.
205.2.3 Proportioning of Mixture
The amount of asphalt material to be
added to the aggregate should be from 4
to 7 mass percent of the dry aggregate.

205.3 Construction Requirement


Construction requirements & procedures shall
be as prescribed under Subsection 306.3.1
through 306.3.7. in all cases, the word
aggregate shall be replaced & deleted
with soil-aggregate.
Trial Sections shall conform to the applicable
requirements of Subsection 200.3.4
The allowable tolerances shall be in
accordance with Subsection 201.3.5.

Item 206 Portland Cement Treated Plant


Mix base Course
206.1 Description
This item shall consist of a foundation for a
surface course composed of aggregate,
Portland Cement & water in proper proportions,
mixed by a travel plant or in a central plant &
spread & compacted on a prepared
subgrade/subbase in one or more layers in
accordance with this Specifications & lines,
grades, thickness & typical cross-sections
shown on the plans or stablished by the Engr.

206.2 Material Requirement


Same as Subsection 204.2.1

206.3 Construction Requirement


206.3.1 Weather Limitations
Portland Cement shall not be applied
during windy, rainy, or impending bad
weather. In the event rain occurs, work
shall be promptly stopped & the entire
section shall be reconstructed in
accordance with this Specification.

206.3.2 Travel Plant Method


The salvage or new aggregate shall be pulverized
until at least 80 mass percent of all the materials
other than stone or gravel will pass a 4.75 mm
(No. 4) sieve.
Any material retained on a 50 mm (2) sieve &
other unsuitable materials are shall be removed. If
additional material is specified, it shall be blended
with existing material. All butt joints at existing
pavements or other structures shall be cleared
prior to mixing.
The subgrade/subbase shall support all equipment
reqd. in the construction of the base course. Soft
or yielding areas shall be corrected prior to
mixing.

The soil-aggregates to be treated shall be


placed in a uniform windrow & spread to a
uniform thickness to the required depth.
The specified quantity Portland cement
shall be applied uniformly in a trench on
top of the windows or spread uniformly
over the soil-aggregates. Spread cement
that has been lost shall be replaced,
without addtl compensation, before
mixing is started.
Mixing shall be accomplished by means
of a mixer that will thoroughly blended
the cement with soil aggregate.

the mixer shall be equipped with watering


metering device that will introduce the reqd.
quantity of water during the mixing cycle.
The cement soil- aggregate mixture shall be
sufficiently blended to prevent the formation
of cement balls when water is applied.
A maximum time of 2 hrs. shall be permitted
for wet mixing, laydown, & finishing when
this method is used.
206.3.3 Central Plant Method
The soil-aggregate shall be proportioned &
mixed with cement & water in central mixing
plant.

The plant shall be equipped with feeding &


metering devices that will introduce the
cement, soil-aggregate & water into the mixer
in quantities specified. Mixing shall continue
until a uniform mixture has been obtained.

206.3.4 Spreading, Compacting &


Finishing
The mixture shall be spread on a prepared &
moistened subgrade/subbase in a uniform
layer by an approved equipment. Not more
than 60 min. shall elapse between the start of
mixing & the time of starting compaction of
the spread mixture.

After spreading, the mixture shall be


compacted & finished conforming to the
procedures/requirements specified under
Subsection 203.3.6
After the compaction & finishing shall be
completed within 2 hrs. of the time water is
added to the mixture.

206.3.5 Protection, Curing &


Maintenance
The completed cement treated base shall be
cured with a bituminous curing seal applied as
soon as possible after the completion of final
rolling. The surface shall be kept moist until the
seal is applied.

The rate of application shall be between


0.5 L/m to 1.00 L/m of surface. The
exact rate will be determined by the Engr.
Curing seal will be applied in sufficient
quantity to provide a continuous film over
base. The film shall be maintained at least
5 days unless the treated base is
protected by a subsequent course.
The contractor shall be responsible for
adequate maintenance of the base at all
times as specified under subsection
203.3.7

206.3.6 Trial Sections


same as Subsection 203.3.8

206.3.7 Tolerances
Same as subsection 203.3.9

206.3.8 Traffic
Same as Subsection 203.3.10

CLEARING AND
GRUBBING

THIS
WORK
INCLUDES
CLEARING,
GRUBBING, REMOVING, AND DISPOSING
VEGETATION AND DEBRIS WITHIN THE LIMITS
OF CONSTRUCTION.

ALL OBJECTS DESIGNATED TO REMAIN


MUST
BE
FREE
FROM
INJURY
OR
DEFACEMENT.

CLASSIFIED UNDER ITEM 100 OF THE DPWH.

CLEARING VS GRUBBING
CLEARING
- REMOVAL OF ALL OBJECTS OR
DEBRIS RESTING OR
PROTRUDING
THROUGH THE GROUND SURFACE.
LIKE: TREES, BRUSH, STUMPS, LOGS,
GRASS,
WEEDS,
ROOTS,
DECAYED
VEGETABLE MATTER, POLES, BOULDERS
OF (M)

GRUBBING
- DISPOSAL OF ALL OBJECTIONABLE
MATTER WHICH ARE EMBEDDED IN THE
UNDERLYING SOIL.
LIKE:
SIDEWALKS,
DRIVEWAYS,

SPECIFICATIONS
ALL SURFACE OBJECTS AND ALL TREES, STUMPS,
ROOTS, AND OTHER PROTRUDING OBSTRUCTIONS,
NOT DESIGNATED TO REMAIN SHOULD BE CLEARED
AND/OR GRUBBED INCLUDING THE MOWING REQUIRED
AS FOLLOWS:

REMOVAL OF UNDISTURBED STUMPS, ROOTS AND


NON-PERISHABLE OBJECTS 90 CENTIMETERS BELOW
SUBGRADE WILL NOT BE REQUIRED.

OUTSIDE

THE GRADING LIMIT OF CUT AND


EMBANKMENT
AREAS,
STUMPS
AND
NON
PERISHABLE OBJECTS SHOULD BE CUT OFF NOT
MORE THAN 15 cm ABOVE THE GROUND LINE OR
BELOW LOW WATER LEVEL.

IN AREAS TO BE ROUNDED AT THE


TOP OF CUT SLOPE, STUMPS SHOULD
BE CUT OFF FLUSH WITH OR BELOW
THE SURFACE OF THE FINAL SLOPE
LINE.

GRUBBING OF PITS, CHANNEL


CHANGES, AND DITCHES WILL BE
REQUIRED ONLY TO THE DEPTH
NECESSARY BY THE PROPOSED
EXCAVATION WITH SUCH AREAS.

BURNING SHOULD BE UNDER


CONSTANT CARE OF COMPETENT
WATCHMAN THAT THE SURROUNDING

METHODS OF MEASUREMENT
AREA BASIS - WORK IS
MEASURED BY DETERMINING THE
AREA TO BE CLEARED OR
GRUBBED IN HECTARES OR
FRACTION.
LUMP SUM BASIS NO
MEASUREMENT OF AREA WILL BE
MADE FOR THIS ITEM.

INDIVIDUAL UNIT BASIS IN


THIS METHOD DIAMETER OF TREES
ARE MEASURED 1.4 M ABOVE THE
GROUND. TREES
WITH DIAMETER
LESS AT
THAN
15 CM ARE NOT
INCLUDED
HEIGHT 1.4
PAY ITEM
FOR
THE
PAYMENT.
METERS
DESIGNATED
150mm
DIAMETER
900mm
DIAMETER >
900mm

SMALL
LARGE

ITEM 101 REMOVAL OF STRUCTURES

- refers to the removal


and satisfactory disposal
of obstructions (Existing
Structures) like buildings,
fences, old pavements,
abandoned pipelines, etc.
which are not permitted to
remain.
- it also includes the

Removal of existing Bridges, Culverts, and


other Drainage Structures
All existing bridges, culverts, and other drainage structures in use

by the traffic shall not be removed until satisfactory arrangement


have been made to accommodate traffic.
Steel bridges when specified to be salvaged shall be carefully
dismantled without damaged. All steel and wood members shall
be match mark.
Structures designated to become property of the contractor shall
be removed right of way.
Blasting and other operation for the removal of structures that
may damages new construction shall be done earlier before the
start of the new work.

Removal of Pipes other


than Pipe culverts
All pipes shall be carefully removed and

every precaution shall be taken to avoid


damaged
Pipes to be relayed shall be removed
and stored so that there will be no loss
or damaged before relaying.
Damages and lost from storage is in the
name of the contractor.

Removal of Existing Pavement, Sidewalks,


Curbs, etc.
All concrete pavement, base coarse,

sidewalks, curbs, gutters, etc.,


designated for removal shall be:
Broken into pieces and used riprap of
the project.
Size of broken pieces shall not exceed
300 mm in any dimensions and shall
be properly stockpiled.

EXCAVATION
- IS THE PROCESS OF
LOOSENING AND REMOVING
EARTH OR ROCK FROM ITS
ORIGINAL POSITION IN A CUT
AND TRANSPORTING IT TO A
FILL OR TO A WASTE
DEPOSIT.

ITEM 102 -ROADWAY


EXCAVATION
- is the excavation
and grading for
roadways. Slope
rounding including the
removal of unsuitable
materials from the

CONSTRUCTION
REQUIREMENTS

PRE - CONSTRUCTION SURVEY


EXCAVATION

SHOULD BE DONE ONLY AFTER


CLEARING AND GRUBBING THE AREA.
EXCAVATIONS SHOULD BE FINISHED TO SMOOTH
AND UNIFORM SURFACE.
MATERIALS OUTSIDE THE LIMITS OF SLOPE
SHOULD
NOT
BE
DISTURBED
BY
THE
EXCAVATION OPERATIONS.
TOP SOIL ENCOUNTERED IN THE EXCAVATION
AND ON AREAS WHERE EMBANKMENT IS TO BE
PLACED SHOULD BE REMOVED TO THE DEPTH AS
THE ENGINEER MAY DETERMINE AND SHOULD BE
TRANSPORTED AND DEPOSITED IN STORAGE
PILE DESIGNATED AREA SEPARATED FROM
OTHER EXCAVATED MATERIALS FOR LATER USE.

CLASSIFICATION OF ROAD
EXCAVATION
UNCLASSIFIED EXCAVATION
COMMON EXCAVATION
ROCK EXCAVATION
MUCK EXCAVATION

UNCLASSIFIED
EXCAVATION
is the excavation and
disposal of all materials
of whatever character
encountered in the work,
not
classified
and
included as pay item.

COMMON EXCAVATION
is

the
most
frequently
encountered
type
of
excavation.

the specifications state


that,
"common
excavation
shall consist of all excavation
not
included
as
rock
excavation
or
excavation
which is otherwise classified
and paid for, including asphalt

STRUCTURE EXCAVATION: ITEM


103
this item includes the necessary ecxavation

for foundation of bridges, culverts,


underdrains, and other structures not
otherwise provided for in this specification.
it also includes furnishing and placing of
approved foundation fill material to replace
unsuitable material encountered below the
foundation elevation of the structures.

THE USE OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS


EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE
SHOULDERS
SLOPE
BEDDING
BACKFILL FOR STRUCTURES
NOTE: DISPOSE
ALL
MATERIALS
CANNOT BE PROPERLY COMPACTED.

THAT

BORROW MATERIALS ARE PLACED AFTER ALL


OTHER ACCESSIBLE ROADWAY EXCAVATION
ARE USED.

PRE WATERING
AND
PRE SPLITTING

PRE WATERING
- EXCAVATION AREAS AND
BORROW PITS ARE MOISTENED TO
THE FULL DEPTH FROM THE
SURFACE TO THE BOTTOM OF
EXACAVATION.

PRE SPLITTING
- IS DRILLING AND BLASTING
PROCEDURE THAT MAY BE
EMPLOYED TO CONTROL OVER
BRAKE AND TO GIVE UNIFORM FACE
TO THE BACK SLOPE OR ROCK CUTS.

PROCEDURES FOR PRE SPLITTING


1. DRILLING

HOLE

AT

UNIFORM

INTERVALS ALONG THE SLOPE LINES.


2. LOADING AND STEMMING THE HOLES

WITH APPROPRIATE EXPLOSIVES AND


STEMMING MATERIALS.
3. DETONATING

SIMULTANEOUSLY.

THE

HOLES

EMBANKMENT
- IS THE PLACING AND COMPACTING OF
APPROVED MATERIALS WITHIN THE
ROADWAY WHERE UNSUITABLE
MATERIALS HAS BEEN REMOVED, AND
THE PLACING AND COMPACTING OF
MATERIAL IN HOLES, PITS AND OTHER
DEPRESSIONS WITHIN THE ROADWAY
AREA.

CONSTRUCTION OF FILL AND EMBANKMENTS


STABLE EMBANKMENT
IS ATTAINED SPREADING THE MATERIALS INTO
A THIN LAYER AND COMPACTED TO A MOISTURE
CONTENT CLOSER TO OPTIMUM.
- COMPACTING THICK LAYERS ARE
UNNECESSARY CAUSE IT WILL CREATE VARYING
DENSITY AND MOISTURE CONTENT FROM ONE
SPOT TO ANOTHER WHICH WILL RESULT TO
DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT AND SWELL BETWEEN
THE ADJACENT AREAS OF THE EMBANKMENT.

FIELD CONTROL
- IS A MANNER OF ASCERTAINING
AND DEFINING THE SPECIFIC
PROCEDURES TO BE DONE. WHAT IS
IMPORTANT IS THE MANNER AND
METHOD THAT WILL YIELD THE
EXPECTED RESULT.

EMBANKMENT CONTROL
TWO PROCEDURES EMPLOYED TO ASSURE
SPECIFIED EMBANKMENT DENSITY.
TO SPECIFY THE EXPECTED VALUE TO THE

MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE AMOUNT OF RELATIVE


COMPACTION AND TO ASCERTAIN TO THE FILL
DENSITY TEST THAT THE SPECIFIED VALUE IS
OBTAINED.
TO SPECIFY THE MANNER AND METHODS OF
CONSTRUCTING THE EMBANKMENT
PARTICULARLY THE LAYER THICKNESS,
MOISTURE CONTROL AND THE NUMBER OF
PASSES BY A ROLLER OF SPECIFIED TYPE AND
WEIGHT.

METHODS OF MEASUREMENT
OVERHAUL

DISTANCE FOR MATERIAL


OBTAINED AND PLACED WITHIN THE
LIMITS OF THE ROADWAY WILL BE
MEASURED ALONG THE CENTERLINE.
IF THE CONTRACTOR CHOOSES TO
HAUL MATERIALS FROM THE OTHER
ROUTE WHICH IS LONGER THAN THE
DESIGNATED SOURCE, PAYMENT WILL
BE
BASED
ON
THE
OVERHAUL
DISTANCE
MEASURED
ALONG
THE
ROUTE DESIGNATED BY THE ENGINEER.
PAYMENT WILL BE MADE BASED ON THE
NHUMBER OF CUBIC METERS OVERHAL

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENT
AND EQUIPMENT
DENSITY TEST REQUIREMENTS
MOISTURE CONTROL
COMPACTION EQUIPMENT

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR


PLACING EMBANKMENT
1) HAULING EQUIPMENT
2) SPREADING EQUIPMENT
3) COMPACTING EQUIPMENT
4) MOISTURE CONTROL
EQUIPMENT

HAULING EQUIPMENTS
1) DUMP TRUCKS
- Used when common excavation is required to be
hauled across a bridge structure or when borrow
material is obtained from a remote source, or hauling
takes place over a road that is open to the public,
2) EARTHMOVERS
- are used in excavating, hauling, and placement of
soil materials that are adjacent to or on the contract.
3) QUARRY TRUCKS
- are used only in rock excavation.

SPREADING
- because embankments are to be
constructed in uniform layers,
spreading equipment is necessary.
Placing uniform layers may be done
with several types of equipment or
groups of equipment.

DISC - is helpful in
creating a uniform layer.

EMBANKMENT ON SWAMPY AREAS

REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT OF UNSUTABLE

MATERIALS.
DISPLACEMENT UNDER THE FOLLOWING
MeTHODS.
SURCHANGING METHOD
VERTICAL SAND DRAIN
FABRIC REINFORCEMENT
WEIGHT REDUCTION

REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT METHOD


IS APPLICABE WHERE THE UNSTABLE
MATERIAL IS SHALLOW OR THIN. UNSTABLE
MATERIAL IS SHALLOW OR THIN. UNSTABLE
MATERIALS ARE REMOVED TO THE LEVEL OF
UNDERLYING MATERIALS BEFORE FILLING.
DISPLACEMENT METHOD
IMPORTED MATERIALS ARE CAREFULLY
PLACED ALONG THE ADVANCING SLOPE
ALLOWED TO FLOW UNDER THE DENSE MUCK
TO DISPLACE IT.SOMETIMES A TRENCH ALMOST
EQUAL TO THE WIDTH OF THE EMBANKMENT
MAY BE BLASTED OUT AND BACKFILLED AT
ONCE WITH STABLE MATERIALS. THE BLAST
PUSHES PART OF THE MUCK OUT OF THE
TRENCH AND THE OTHER PORTION IS LIQUIFIED

RELIEF METHOD
IS ALSO EMPLOYED AFTER THE FILL MATERIALS
ARE DAMPED IN PLACE. RELIEF DITCHES ARE BLASTED
ALONG THE SIDE OF THE FILL TO DISPLACE THE
UNDERLYING MUCK.

SURCHARGING METHOD
APPLIED ON LOW FILL OVER SHALLOW MUCK 30 TO
40 CENTIMETERS DEPTH.

THE VERTICAL SAND DRAIN METHOD


PROVIDES RAPID CONSOLIDATION OF DEEP LAYER
MUCK. SAND DRAINS ARE VERTICAL COLUMSN OF SAND
THAT PENETRATE THE MUCK ALMOST TO SOLID
MATERIALS. ACROSS THIS TOP IS A HORIZONTAL
BLANKET EXTENDING THROUGH THE SIDE SLOPEOF THE
FILL.

THE VERTICAL SAND DRAIN METHOD


PROVIDES RAPID CONSOLIDATION OF
DEEP LAYER MUCK. SAND DRAINS ARE
VERTICAL COLUMSN OF SAND THAT
PENETRATE THE MUCK ALMOST TO SOLID
MATERIALS. ACROSS THIS TOP IS A
HORIZONTAL BLANKET EXTENDING
THROUGH THE SIDE SLOPEOF THE FILL.
THE FABRIC REINFORCEMENT METHOD
IS COVERING THE MUCK WITH
PERMEABLE FABRICS.
WEIGHT REDUCTION METHOD
INSTALLING A BLOCK OF STYROFOAM
OVER THE MUCK TO REDUCE THE WEIGHT
OF THE FILL.

SUBGRADE PREPARATION:
ITEM 105
IS CATEGORIZED UNDER ITEM 105

OF THE DPWH STANDARD


SPECIFICATION.
IS THEN PREPARED FOR THE
SUPPORT OF OVERLAYING
STRUCTURAL LAYERS EXTENDED
TO THE FULL WIDTH OF THE
ROADWAY.

IN A FILL SECTION, THE SUBGRADE IS

THE TOP OF THE EMBANKMENT OR THE


FILL.
IN A CUT SECTION THE SUBGRADE IS
THE BOTTOM OF THE CUT (FIGURE 1-1).
THE SUBGRADE SUPPORTS THE SUBBASE
AND/OR THE PAVEMENT SECTION. TO

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
EXCEPT WHEN THE SUBGRADE IS IN

ROCK CUT, ALL MATERIALS BELOW THE


SUBGRADE IS LEVELED TO A DEPTH OF
15 CENTIMETERS OR MORE AS
SPECIFIED TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS
OF SELECTED BORROW TOPPING.
PRIOR TO THE STOP OF THE SUBGRADE
PREPARATION, ALL CULVERTS CROSS
DRAINS, CONDUITS AND THE LIKE
INCLUDING THE BACKFILL, DITCHES,
DRAINS AND DRAINAGE OUTLETS ARE
THOROUGHLY COMPACTED. ANY WORK
ON THE PREPARATION OF THE

IMPORTANT
PROPERTIES OF SOIL
THE SOIL MUST HAVE ADEQUATE STRENGTH.
THE SOIL MUST BE RELATIVELY INCOMPRESSIBLE

TO AVOID INSIGNIFICANT FUTURE SETTLEMENT.


THE SOIL MUST BE STABLE AGAINST VOLUME
CHANGE AS WATER CONTENT OR OTHER FACTORS
VARY.
THE SOIL MUST BE DURABLE AND SAVE AGAINST
DETERIORATION.
THE SOIL MUST POSSESS PROPER PERMEABILITY.

COMPACTION
EQUIPMENTS

COMPACTION
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL CARRY OUT FULL
SCALE COMPACTION TRIALS ON AREAS NOT
LESS THAN 10 METERS WIDE AND 50
METERS LONG. COMPACTION TRIALS WITH
THE MAIN TYPES OF FILL MATERIALS TO BE
USED IN THE WORK SHOULD BE COMPLETED
BEFORE ANY WORK WITH CORRESPONDING
MATERIALS IS ALLOWED TO START.

TAMPING ROLLER VARIES FROM LIGHT

UNIT TEST WEIGHT 6000 10000 LBS FOR


AN 8 FT WIDTH.

GRID ROLLERS IS EFFECTIVE IN

BREAKING DOWN CLODS AND SOFT


ROCK.

PNEUMATIC TIRE ROLLER WITH

RUBBER TIRES, WEIGHING 8 TONS OR


MORE. 200 TONS FOR AIRPORT.

SMOOTH TIRED ROLLER OF TWO OR THREE WHEEELED

TYPE USED TO COMPACT BASES AND BITUMINOUS SURFACE.

HAND VIBRATORY COMPACTOR IS

EFFECTIVE IN COMPACTING STONES OF


MACADAM ROAD.

PROTECTION OF ROAD BED


DURING
CONSTRUCTION

TEMPORARY SLIDE DITCHES


AND GUTTERS.

ROUNDING
EXCEPT SOLID ROCKS, THE TOP AND
BOTTOM OF ALL SLOPES OF DRAINAGE,
DITCHES ARE ROUNDED AS PLANNED. A
LAYER OF EARTH OVERLAPPING ROCK IS
ROUNDED ABOVE AS WAS DONE IN EARTH
SLOPE.

WARPING
ADJUSTMENT IN SLOPES ARE MADE
TO AVOID INJURY TO STANDING TREES OR
MARRING OF WEATHER HEAD ROCK OR TO
HARMONIZE WITH EXISTING LANDSCAPE
FEATURES ADJUSTING TO THE GRADUAL
SLOPE.

FREE HAUL
IS THE SPECIFIED DISTANCE WHERE IN
EXCAVATED MATERIAL WILL BE HAULED
WITHOUT ADDITIONAL COST.
THE FREE HAUL DISTANCE IS 600
METERS
UNLESS
OTHERWISE
SPECIFIED BY THE CONTRACT.

OVERHAUL
AUTHORIZED HAULING IN EXCESS OF
FREE HAUL.
- HAULING OF MATERIALS REQUIRES
ADDITIONAL COST FOR THE OVERHAUL
DISTANCE.

COMPACTION EQUIPMENTS
EQUIPMENT FOR COMPACTION
THE PNEUMATIC OR RUBBER TIRED

ROLLERS.
THE DRUM TYPE ROLLER WITH
PROJECTING FEET OR LOGS CALLED
THE SHEEPS FOOT ROLLER.
VUBRATORY COMPACTORS
SMOOTH DRUM ROLLERS