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Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiple Access
(OFDMA)
Khaja Mohammad Shazzad

Outline
1.

Background

2.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing


(OFDM) Based Multiple Access (OFDMA)

3.
4.

Multiple Access (MA) Methods

Orthogonality Principle
OFDM
OFDM-FDMA

Advantages and Disadvantages of OFDMA


Conclusion
2

Multiple Access (MA)

General wireless cellular systems are multi-users


systems
Radio resource are limited

Limited Bandwidth
Limited number of channels

The radio resource must be shared among multiple


users
Multiple Access Control (MAC) needed

Contention-based
Non-contention-based

Contention-based
Multiple Access(MA)

Contention-based

Each terminal transmits in a decentralized way


No central controller (Base stations or access points)
Example:

ALOHA
Carrier Sensing Multiple Access (CSMA)

Standard:

GSM [l] uses the slotted ALOHA in the terminals initial


access process
IEEE 802.11 uses CSMA/CA based contention access
scheme
4

Non-contention-based
Multiple Access (MA)

A logic controller (BS or AP) is needed to


coordinate the transmissions of all the terminals
The controller informs each device when and on
which channel it can transmit
Collisions can be avoided entirely
Two Subdivisions
1. Non-channelization
2.

Channelization

Non-channelization

Non-contention-based MA

Terminals transmit sequentially using the same


channel
Example:

Polling based medium access

Standard:

IEEE 802.15(WPAN)
IEEE 802.11(WLAN)

Channelization

Non-contention-based MA

Terminals transmit simultaneously using different channels


Most commonly used protocols in cellular systems
Example:
1. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
2. Code Division Multiple Access( CDMA)
1. Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
Standard
1. GSM (TDMA)
2. IS-95 (CDMA)
3. American Mobile Phone System, AMPS (FDMA)

Time Division Multiple Access


(TDMA)

GSM

Time slot 0.577 ms


Frame 4.6 ms
8 time slots per frame
Frequency band 20 KHz

Code Division Multiple Access


(CDMA)

IS-95

Orthogonal Walsh codes


64 codes (channels)
One pilot channel
Seven paging channels
55 traffic channels
Each carrier 1.25 MHz

Frequency Division Multiple Access


(FDMA)

American Mobile Phone


System (AMPS)

Total Bandwidth 25 MHz


Each Channel 30 KHz

Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplexing (OFDM) Based Multiple
Access (OFDMA)
Orthogonality Principle
OFDM
OFDM-FDMA

Orthogonality Principle

Vector space

A, B and C vectors in
space are orthogonal to
each other
A.B=B.C=C.A=0
(A+B+C).A=(mod A)^2
(A+B+C).B=(mod B)^2
(A+B+C).C=(mod C)^2

12

A
C

Orthogonality Principle cont..

Real Function space


f1 (t ) A sin( wt )
f 2 (t ) B cos( wt )
T

f1 (t ) f 2 (t ) dt 0

f m (t ) M sin( mwt )
f n (t ) N cos( nwt )
T

f m (t ) f n (t ) dt 0

Orthogonality Principle cont..

f (t ) sin( wt ) sin( 2 wt )

m.n
T
sin(mwt)sin(nwt)dt 0 where m n
0
T
sin(mwt)cos(nwt)dt 0
0

Here mw and nw are called


m-th and n-th harmonics of
w respectively

Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplexing(OFDM)
It

is a special kind of FDM


The spacing between carriers are such that
they are orthogonal to one another
Therefore no need of guard band between
carriers.
One example makes the thing clear

15

Example of OFDM
Lets

we have following information bits

1, 1, -1, -1, 1, 1, 1, -1, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, 1, -1, -1,

Just

converts the serials bits to parallel bits


C1

C2

C3

C4

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

Example of OFDM cont..


Modulate each column with corresponding sub-carrier using BPSK

Modulated signal for C1

Modulated signal for C2

Modulated signal for C3

Modulated signal for C4

Example of OFDM cont..

Final OFDM Signal = Sum of all signal


N 1

V (t ) I (t ) sin( 2nt )
n 0

Generated OFDM signal, V(t)

V(t)

OFDM-FDMA (OFDMA)

Each terminal occupies


a subset of sub-carriers
Subset is called an
OFDMA traffic channel
Each traffic channel is
assigned exclusively to
one user at any time

user4
user3
user2
user1

OFDM-FDMA (OFDMA)
The

IEEE 802.16e/ WiMax use OFDMA as


Multiple access technique

Bandwidth options 1.25, 5, 10, or 20 MHz


Entire bandwidth divided into 128, 512, 1024 or
2048 sub carriers
20 MHz bandwidth with 2048 sub carriers has 9.8
KHz spacing between sub carriers

OFDM-FDMA (System View)

Advantages of OFDMA
Multi-user

Diversity

broadband signals experience frequency selective


fading
OFDMA allows different users to transmit over
different portions of the broadband spectrum (traffic
channel)
Different users perceive different channel qualities,
a deep faded channel for one user may still be
favorable to others
22

Advantages of OFDMA cont..

Multi-user Diversity

Advantages of OFDMA cont..


Efficient

use of Spectrum
4/3 Hz per symbol

6/5 Hz per symbol

Advantages of OFDMA cont..

Receiver Simplicity
It eliminates the intra-cell interference avoiding
CDMA type of multi-user detection
Orthogonality of code destroyed by selective
fading
Only FFT processor is required
Bit Error Rate performance is better only in Fading
environment

Disadvantages of OFDMA

Peak to average power


ratio (PAPR)

x(t )
PAPR
P

avg

The large amplitude variation increases in-band noise and


increases the BER when the signal has to go through amplifier
nonlinearities.

Disadvantages of OFDMA cont..

Synchronization
Tight Synchronization between users are
required for FFT in receiver
Pilot signals are used for synchronizations
Co-channel interference

Dealing with this is more complex in OFDM than in CDMA

Dynamic channel allocation with advanced


coordination among adjacent base stations
27

Research issues and Conclusion

Future works

Peak-to-average power reduction in OFDM


Timing and Frequency Synchronization
Efficient digital signal processing Implementation of OFDM

Multiple input/Multiple output (MIMO) OFDM

Conclusion

Different variations of OFDMA are proposed and


have different pros and cons
28

Thank You
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