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ADANI POWER MAHARASHTRA LIMITED

5 X 660MW
SUPER CRITICAL UNIT
OPERATION EXPERIENCES

Presented by

BHASKARPRASAD

What is Supercritical Technology ?

The critical point in steam water cycle


is nothing but the thermodynamic
state where there is no clear
distinction between the Water and
Steam phase in the Rankine Cycle

Water reaches to this state at a


pressure above 22.1 Mpa.

Rankine Cycle Supercritical

Diff. Between Subcritical &


Supercritical units

Major changes are boiler area, water


chemistry and steam turbine metallurgy.

Subcritical Unit

The power plant Rankine cycle operating


pressure below 18 MPa in the evaporator part
of the boiler

Cycle medium is non homogeneous mixture of


water and steam in the boiler. The boiler cycle
is known as subcritical.

The steam needs to be separated from water,


using steam drum.
5

Controlled Circulation

V/s

Once Through System

Supercritical Boiler
Features
There are two design
features utilized in boiler water
wall design for once through supercritical boilers
The spiral tube furnace arrangement:

The modern supercritical once through furnace water wall


are exposed to the higher heat flux of all heat absorbing
surface

Intense radiant heat from the furnace firing zone or fireball.

Spiral tube wall design (wrapped around the unit) helps to


increase the adequate mass flow of steam/water mixture
through each tube

Mass flow improves heat transfer between the tube metal


and the fluid inside, so the tube metal is sufficiently cooled
despite of the high heat flux.

Boiler pressure parts weight is lower than the subcritical


boiler
7

Supercritical Boiler
The vertical Features
tube furnace arrangement:

The vertical tube designs are used for larger units with
internal ribbed tube to enhance heat transfer.

Suitable for making high-pressure boiler to improve the


efficiency by preventing the forming of steel film

Improved materials helps the maximum steam cycle


performance at the furnace wall exit, superheated and
reheated outlets tubes

Generate swirl flow


Centrifugal action

RIBBED TUBES

Result water force towards the wall


Expensive --- Slight increase in P

LTRH
Inlet HDR

Emergency DSH

LTRH
Outlet HDR

FRH
Inlet HDR

FRH
Outlet HDR

Micro flow
DSH

Eco
Inlet
Header

Storage
Tank &
BCP

Eco Header
Under LTSH

Eco Header
Under
LTRH

Vertical
Walls &
Upper
Header

Separators

Transition
Intermediate
Header & Walls

Back pass extended


side walls
Roof I/H

FSH
I/O
HDR

Eco HDR or
Hanger (F&R)
Under LTSH
Band

Platen
SH

Water
wall
lower
header

Butterfly panel

Back pass
F&R Wall

LTSH
I/O
HDR

Spiral
Water
walls

Eco
Hanger
Outlet

Back pass
O HDR
Divisional
Wall, Spacer
tube & Lower
HDR

Back pass
side walls &
Upper HDR

Divisional
Upper I/H

HRH
LINE

MS
LINE411
C,

SEPARATOR

G
C
O
N
D
E
N
S
E
R

LPT

S
T
O
R
A
G
IPT
HPT E

LPT

T
A
N
K

492C,

FUR ROOF
I/L HDR

ECO HGR O/L


HDR

411
C,
FINAL SH
FINAL
RH
DIV PANELS SH

LTRH

PLATEN
SH

VERTIC
AL WW

329C,
45Ksc

569
C,

571C,
254 Bar

ECO
JUNCTION
HDR

ECONOMISER

ECO I/L

al
r
i
Sp ter
wa lls
wa
FEED WATER

BWRP
FUR LOWER HDR

292C,
FRS

PF FIRING OPTIONS - COMPARISON

BURNER

FIRE
BALL

BURNER

Tangential Corner Fired Unit

Theoratical Arrangement

Benefits of Supercritical
Unit

Supercritical technology provides electricity generation at lower


operating fuel cost (15-20 % reduction)

Higher unit cycle efficiency (40-44%)

Superior environmental Performance (15 -20 % CO2 reduction)

Operating flexibility Sliding pressure capability without loss of


cycle efficiency

Increased availability, reliability, fuel flexibility and faster load


response capability

Lower water losses because no continuous blow down.

Reduced auxiliary power consumption

16

Environmental Benefits

Reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) and


other greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions by 25 %, Provides carbon
credit mainly due to less fuel
consumption.

Emissions may be reduced by using


fuel through efficient generating
electricity within the Rankine cycle.

17

Boiler equipment

The capacity for APML project is 5x660MW. The


boiler was designed and manufactured by
Shanghai Boiler Works Limited. It is the full
suspended type, once-through boiler with
the supercritical pressure, primary
intermediate reheating, single furnace
balanced ventilation, semi-enclosed
arrangement, dry bottom, all-steel framework.
The model is SG-2111/25.4 M986.
2111-Steam flow in TPH.
25.4-Steam operating pressure in Mpa.
M986-Boiler serial number.

Super heater
:16080m2
Re heater
:24402m2
WW high temp :41290m2
WW intermediate:30054m2
WW low temp
:13095m2
sum :84439m2

Storage tanks & separators : 25.5m3


Water wall
: 67m3
Economizer
:
138m3
Super Heaters
:
221m3
Re Heaters
:
370m3
Sum :
824m3

Boiler

The boiler start system is equipped


with water circulating pump.
The steam separation takes place
inside separator at initial condition.
Two separators for start-up and one
separator water storage tank are
engineered for each boiler.
The separators and the water storage
tanks are set up on upper part of the
boiler front vertically.

Boiler

The main steam temperature is


controlled by water coal ratio and
spray desuperheater.
The normal reheater steam
temperature is controlled by
dampers in second pass.
RH Spray desuperheating devices are
provided for normal & emergency .

Boiler

Pulverizing system uses cold primary fan


positive pressure direct blowing system. Eight
HP1103 intermediate-speed bowl coal mills,
Six mills in operation and Two on standby
under TMCR & seven service, one standby
under BMCR, are provided. Each coal mill is
consistent with a layer of burner.
The system has two axial forced primary draft
fans with moving blade pitch adjustment and
two centrifugal seal air fans.
110-Bowl Dia.
3-No of rollers.

PERFORMANCE DATA
FUEL DATA

Gross as Received

3927 kcal/kg

Total Moisture

10 %

Ash Content

37 %

Volatile Matter

27.6 %

Fixed Carbon

25.4 %

Boiler Efficiency

87.19 % (GCV Basis)

Boiler

The boiler draft fan system is


equipped with two axial forced
draft fans with moving blade
pitch adjustment, two axial
Induced draft fans and two trisector rotary air preheaters.

ESP

The ESP is equipped with double


pass, 10 X 4,10 X 4 Two sets
fields.
ESP having total 80 X 2 =160
hoppers.
Electrostatic
precipitator efficiency99.80

Boiler

Boiler deslagging system adopts


Bottom ash clinker grinder. The
wet process is adopted as the
slurry removal method.
Ash system adopts a dense
phase pneumatic conveying
system with positive pressure
for ash handling.

Unit-operation

The Turbine can be run with a


fixed pressure OR sliding
pressure mode.
When the boiler is running with
low load or starting, sliding
pressure is recommended to
obtain a higher economic
efficiency.

Boiler specification
NO.

Item

Specification

Unit

model

SG2111/25.4 M986

mode

once-through boiler with supercritical pressure

Superheated steam flow

2111

t/h

Superheater outlet pressure

25.4

MPa

Superheater outlet temperature

569

Reheated steam flow

1749.1

t/h

Reheater inlet pressure

4.73

MPa

Reheater outlet pressure

4.49

MPa

Reheater inlet temperature

324

10

Reheater outlet temperature

569

Feedwater pressure

28.8

MPa.g

11

Feedwater temperature

280

12

Separators steam temperature

421

153.3

147.2

13
14

Air preheaters outlet air temperature, uncorrected


After correcting
Calculating thermal efficiency of boiler

87.19% BMCR

15

Guarantee thermal efficiency of boiler

87.2% BRL

16

Pulverizing type

Cold primary fan positive pressure direct blowing


system

17

Burner type

Corner-mounted tangential circle combustion , dry


ash extraction

18

Draft type

19

Design fuel

Indian coal

20

Check fuel

Indian coal

21

100% BMCR Coal consumption (Design)


100% BMCR Coal consumption (Worst)
100% BMCR Coal consumption (Best Coal)

balanced ventilation

390.37

t/h

466.90

t/h

337.80

t/h

22

Fuel oil for startup and ignition

light diesel oil and heavy diesel oil

23

Superheated steam temperature adjustment

Ratio of coal and water, secondary spray


desuperheating

24

Reheated steam temperature adjustment

Burner Tilt controlling, Rear flue gas damper,


primary spray desuperheating

Important parameters to
control:
1. Water / coal ratio 7:1
2. OHDR- 20 to 30
3. Maintaining Pressure at SH and RH
- 25.4 & 4.45
4. Effect of Excess air
5. Water Chemistry
6. Tube metal temperatures

Difference in Operation
1. Boiler initial filling.
2. BCP filling and operation
3. Pressure and Temp rise rate w.r.t Metal temps.
4. Change in Boiler operation phases in Unit
operation
(Wet to Dry state, Subcritical once through to
super critical once through)
5. Boiler tube failures - identification
6. Chemistry parameters methods of chemical
treatment
7. Unit startup and Shutdown(dry to wet opn)
8. Additional Protections for Boiler