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Surveying I.

Lecture 1.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Outline

Introduction
Historical Surveying
Surveying - Science and
Profession
Methods of height determination
Levelling
The surveyors level

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Introduction
Lecturers:
Lectures
Dr. Szabolcs Rzsa
Department of Geodesy and Surveying,
K. building groundfloor 16.

Practicals
Dr. Lrnt Fldvry
Department of Geodesy and Surveying,
K. building groundfloor 16.
Mr. Albert Kiss
Department of Geodesy and Surveying
K. building groundfloor 16.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Introduction
Course details:
First part of a two-semester-course
4 hours/week (equally divided between lectures
and practicals)

Communication:
Activities involve lectures, practicals, tutorials and
a field practice
Lectures - provide the theoretical background of the
topics
Practicals - practical sessions, in which Youll carry
out measurements and process them.
Tutorials - if theres a need for additional guidance
in the preparation for assessments. Please note that
You have to arrange an appointment in due time.
Field practice - a 9-day-long intensive course after
the course Surveying II.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Introduction
Attendance:
Please attend all scheduled lectures,
seminars and practicals
Please note: attendance falling below 70% may
lead to failing the course irrespective of the
academic performance.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Introduction
Classroom tests:
Altogether 4 classroom assessments:
Practicals 1-4 (10 points)
Using a theodolite must pass
Practicals 10-11 (10 points)
Theory (involving the topics of the lectures)
80 points

Course Evaluation:

Youre required to achieve a minimum of 50% in each


classrom test to pass the course.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Introduction
Learning resources:
Some of the lecture notes are available for
download on the website of the department:
http://www.geod.bme.hu/index_e.html

However You shall write own notes during the


lectures, too.
Youll be suplied with computational sheets, field
notes etc. during the course.
Textbook:
A. Bannister - S. Raymond - R. Baker: Surveying
(Seventh Edition, Prentice Hall, 1998)
Cca. 16000 HUF

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Website
Lecture notes can be downloaded from:

http://www.geod.bme.hu/index_e.html

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Website

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Outline

Introduction
Historical Surveying
Surveying - Science and
Profession
Methods of height determination
Levelling
The surveyors level

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Historical Surveying
What is Surveying?
The art of making measurements of the relative
positions of natural and man-made features on the
Earths surface, and the presentation of this
information either graphically or numerically.

Since when?
The first surveying works date back to the antiquity,
the Greek provided the first account of surveying
techniques.
Euclid founded the theoretical background for
surveying by the development of his geometry.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Historical Surveying
Eratosthenes
(ca. 250 BC)
Spherical Earth

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Historical Surveying

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Outline

Introduction
Historical Surveying
Surveying - Science and Profession
Methods of height determination
Levelling
The surveyors level

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Surveying - Science and Profession


Surveying vs. Geodesy
in most languages there are no distinctions
between the terms
in English (according to Vanicek - Krakiwsky):
Surveying: the practice of positioning
Geodesy: the theoretical foundation of
surveying

Geodesy is the scientific background of


Surveying as a profession.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Surveying - Science and Profession


Surveying:
The art of making measurements of the relative
positions of natural and man-made features on the
Earths surface, and the presentation of this
information either graphically or numerically.

Geodesy:
Geodesy is the discipline that deals with the
measurements and representation of the Earth,
including its gravity field, in a three-dimensional
time varying space.

Geodesy focus on the Earth and neglect any manmade features on it (e.g. buildings, public utilities,
etc.), while surveying use the results of geodesy for
positioning and mapping of these features.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Basic principles of Surveying


Recall the definition of Surveying:
positioning is usually
The art of making measurements of the The
relative
separated
positions of natural and man-made features
on theinto horizontal (2D)
Earths surface, and the presentation ofand
thisvertical (1D) positioning.
information either graphically or numerically.

How to achieve this?

Nowadays 3D positioning can


be achieved using satellite
techniques, too.

Lets determine the position (XP, YP) of point P!


Absolute vs Relative positioning
Y

XP

dBP

dAP

B
(XB,YB)

YP

Control points
(known coords;
marked on the field)

(XA,YA)
l AB
X

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Basic principles of Surveying


Lets determine the position of a third, unknown point
(C).
We have two unknowns: XP, YP

We need two measurements:

two distances

one distance and an angle


two angles

dBP
dAP
dAP

(XB,YB)

A
(XA,YA)

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Classification of Surveying

Plane Surveying

According to the space


involved:

relatively small areas


surface of earth can supposed to
be flat

Note: The two radii can supposed


to be parallel, when the l(A,B) is
small.

measurements plotted represent a


horizontal projection of the actual
field measurements

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Geodetic Surveying

Classification of Surveying

Dont forget! Size does matter!


large areas
surface of the Earth can not supposed to be flat
the curvature of the Earth is taken into account

Mostly used for establishing control networks, determining the size


and shape of the Earth and determining the gravity field of the Earth.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

How to create a countrywide coordinate system?


In order to use the relative positioning, a proper number of
control points are needed. These points:
are coordinated points;
are marked.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Control Networks
Why is it necessary to have a common countrywide
coordinate system?
Many engineering tasks cover a large area (highways,
bridges, tunnels, channels, land registry, etc.), where the
common coordinate system (reference system) should be
available.
The Control Network provide us with control points given in
the same refence system (coordinate system).
Thus measuring the relative positions of unknown points
using these control points, the coordinates of the new
points can be computed in the same reference system.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

The role of Surveying in Civil Engineering Practice


Surveyors are needed:
to maintain the geometric order during the
construction process
to provide fundamental data for the design
and planning process
to provide quantity control during the
construction process (for example: earthwork
quantities)
to monitor the structure after the construction
(subsidence, deformations,
etc.)
What is this?
Wrong
the
structure geometry,
is not functional!
Laying geometry
them in the
appropriate
outstanding structures can be created!

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

The role of Surveying in Civil Engineering Practice


Surveying activities during the construction
process
Before Construction

Under construction

After construction

Planning and
data collection

Setting out on each


phase
of construction

Final (as-built)
plan or map
on the construction

Observations
in the field

Field checks of
construction

Presenting
documentation
to the client

Processing the
observations
(office)

Providing data
and services to
the client

Deformation
Monitoring/
Load Tests

Drawing maps,
plans or providing
numerical data
Presenting
documentation
to the client

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Outline

Introduction
Historical Surveying
Surveying - Science and
Profession
Methods of height determination
Levelling
The surveyors level

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Methods of height determination


Question 1:
What does the height (elevation) of a point mean?
Question 2:
What does it mean, when point B is at a higher
elevation than point A?

Answer 1:
The height of a point represents its energy level
above a reference level.
Answer 2:
For example water flows from point B to point A.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Methods of height determination


Definition of height systems:
The potential energy of a point should be represented by the
height of a point. Hence water should flow from the higher
elevation towards the lower elevation.
Should have metric unit.

What should be the reference of height determination?


What is the 0 level?
Since the height systems should represent the potential
energy level, we need a reference surface, which is an
equipotential surface of Earths gravity field.
The surface of calm water forms an equipotential surface
Mean Sea Level Kronstadt (Baltic Sea) is used in Hungary
(formerly Triest, Adriatic Sea).

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Methods of height determination


Equipotential surfaces

B
A

HB

HA
MSL

equipotential
surface

Gravity vector is always perpendicular to the equipotential surface.


Equipotential surface

(=)

horizontal surface

Gravity vector

(=)

vertical direction

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Methods of height determination


1D position determination - determining the height
We can not determine absolute heights above the
reference level
Relative height determination - determining the height
differences
Levelling benchmarks are needed - control points for
which the elevation is known.
B
H BA H B H A
A
HB
HA

Reference level

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Methods of height determination


How can we determine the height difference?
Two solutions:
setting a horizontal plane, and measuring the offset from this
plane
measuring the slope and slope distance between the points
Levelling
Trigonometrical height determination
B

l AB
H BA H B H A
A

HB
HA

Reference level

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Outline

Introduction
Historical Surveying
Surveying - Science and
Profession
Methods of height determination
Levelling
The surveyors level

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

The principle of levelling

Line of sight

A
(lA)

lA

equipo
tential
surfac
e

lB

(lB)

HAB
B

HAB=lA-lB=(lA)- A-(lB)+ B

aphy
topogr

When A= B (spherical approximation, equal distance to A and B)

HAB=(lA)-(lB)

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Levelling
Over short distances the horizontal line and level line coincide.
For a distance of 100m the effect of the curvature is less than 1 mm.
The levelling device (called level) must be set up so, that the line of sight
is perpendicular to the gravity vector (plumb line). -> the line of sight is
horizontal.

Horizontal
line of sight
Graduated staff

Level

Graduated staff

Difference
in height

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Levelling

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Outline

Introduction
Historical Surveying
Surveying - Science and
Profession
Methods of height determination
Levelling
The surveyors level

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

The Surveyors level


Tilting level
Bubble tube
Diaphragm

Tilting screw

Circular bubble

Tilting axis

Levelling head

Clamping screw - to fix the telescope in one vertical plane


Tangent screw (slow motion screw) - to finely rotate the
telescope along a vertical axis

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

Elements of Surveyors level


How to set the line of sight to be exactly horizontal?
More general: how to set anything to be exactly horizontal?

The bubble tube

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

The bubble tube


The radius determines the sensitivity of the bubble
tube:

R1

R2

R1 greater than R2

Sensitivity: how much the bubble moves due to a


given amount of inclination. The more the bubble
moves, the more sensitive the bubble tube is.

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture

The bubble tube


The determination of sensitivity:

R1

R1

l2 l1
radians
L

l1
L

l2

" radians 206264.8

Sz. Rzsa: Surveying I. Lecture