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Manajemen Strategik

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ABFI Institute Perbanas

KONSEP DASAR
MANAJEMEN STRATEGIK
(Basic Concept of Strategic
Management)
Harry Sardjono, SE,M.M.

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Manajemen Strategik

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JADWAL KULAIH MANAJEMEN STRATEGIK


1
Konsep Dasar Menstrat
2
Analisis Lingkungan Eksternal
3
Diskusi/Tugas Walt Disney Company 50--71
4
Analisis Lingkungan Internal
5
Analisis Lingkungan Internal
6
Diskusi /Tugas Walt Disney Company 50--71
7
Visi Misi Tujuan
8
Generic Strategy - 273
9
UTS
10
Grand Strategy- 252 - 272
11
Analisis dan Pilihan Strategi
12
Diskusi/Tugas Strategi yang digunakan
Walt Disney Company
13
Implementasi Strategi
14
Evaluasi Strategi - Balance Scorecard
247
15
Diskusi/Tugas
Menilai Kinerja Perusahaan dgn B.Scorecard
16
UAS

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Bab 1
Bab 3
Bab 4

Bab 2
Bab 5
Bab 5
Bab 6

Bab 7
Bab 9

Manajemen Strategik

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Tujuan Pembelajaran
1. Mahasiswa dapat memahami dan menjelaskan:

Pengertian Strategi & Manajemen Strategik


KonsepDasar, Model & Tugas Pokok Manajemen Strategik
Manfaat Strategi dan Manajemen Strategik
Perkembangan Manajemen Strategik

2. Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan:

Pentingnya strategi bagi suatu organisasi


Peran manajemen strategik di dalam suatu organisasi
Relevansi antara strategi dan tujuan organisasi

3. Mahasiswa dapat belajar berfikir sistemik & strategik

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Berdasarkan tujuan dan arah yang jelas


Melalui proses pengambilan keputusan dan analisis yang komprehensif
Bertindak berdasarkan perencanaan yang baik
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Manajemen Strategik

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Pokok Bahasan

Pengertian tentang Strategi


Pengertian Manajemen Strategi
Perkembangan Manj. Strategik
Model Dasar Manajemen Strategik
Tugas Pokok Manajemen Strategik
Characteristic of Effective Strategy
Strategic Thinking
Manfaat Manajemen Strategik

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Manajemen Strategik

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Why Strategy is needed?


Without a strategy the organization is like a
ship without a rudder, going around in circles.
Joel Ross and Michael Kami

What is Strategy?
The

essence of strategy lies in creating


tomorrows competitive advantages faster than
competitors mimic the one you possess today
Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad
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Manajemen Strategik

What is Strategy?

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Alfred D. Chandler (1962)


The determination of the long run goals and objectives of an enterprise,
and the adoptions of courses of action and the allocation of resources
necessary for carrying out these goals.
Christensen & Guth (1965):
Alat untuk menciptakan keungulan bersaing. Berkaitan dengan bisnis,
fokus strategi itu memutuskan apakah suatu bisnis perusahaan itu harus
ada atau tidak.
Henry Mintzberg (1970):
Respons secara terus-menerus dan adaptasi terhadap faktor ancaman
dan peluang dari lingkungan eksternal serta faktor kelemahan dan
kekuatan dari lingkungan internal yang mempengaruhi organisasi.
Michael E. Porter (1985)
An integrated set of actions a company designs to produce a sustainable
competitive advantage and thus attain superior performance. Strategy is
about making necessary choices to perform different activities from rivals
or perform similar activities in different ways.

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Manajemen Strategik

What is Strategy?

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Hamel & Prahalad (1995):


Tindakan manajemen suatu organisasi yang bersifat incremental dan terusmenerus,yang dilakukan berdasarkan sudut pandang tentang apa yang diharapkan
oleh para pelanggan di masa depan.
Hunger & Wheelen (1996):
Comprehensive master plan that stating how the corporation will achieves it mission
and objectives.It maximizes competitive advantage and minimize competitive
disadvantage.
Pola sasaran, maksud atau tujuan dan kebijakan serta rencana-rencana penting untuk mencapai

tujuan itu, yang dinyatakan dengan cara seperti menetapkan bisnis yang dianut oleh perusahaan, dan
jenis atau akan menjadi jenis apa perusahaan tersebut. (Kenneth Andrew, 1977)

A unified, comprehensive, and integrated plan designed to ensure that the basic objectives of
the enterprise are achieved. (Glueck, 1980)
Gareth R. Jones (1998):
The specific pattern of decisions and actions that managers take to use core
competences and resources to generate competitive advantages, in order to achieve
the organizational goals and outperform competitors.
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Manajemen Strategik

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Other Definitions of Strategy


Set of managerial decisions and actions that determines long-run
performance (Hunger and Wheelen)
Upaya mengubah kekuatan perusahaan yang sebanding dengan
kekuatan pesaing dengan cara yang paling efisien. (Kenichi
Ohmae, 1983)

Strategy is managements game plan to

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Attract and please customers


Stake out a market position
Conduct operations
Compete successfully
Achieve organizational objectives

Manajemen Strategik

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Kotler Model of Market Positition


Market Leader
(Pemimpin Pasar)

Market Challenger
(Penantang Pasar)

Market Follower
(Pengikut Pasar)

Market Nicher
(Perelung/Ceruk Pasar)
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Manajemen Strategik

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What is Strategy Look Like?

Set of managerial
decisions and actions
that determines the long-run
performance of a firm.

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Manajemen Strategik

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Strategy = Strategic Decision & Action


What makes a decision strategic?
Strategic decisions deal with the long-run future of the entire
organization and have three characteristics:

1. RARE:
Strategic decisions are unusual and
typically have no precedent to follow.
2. CONSEQUENTIAL:
Strategic decisions commit substantial
resources and demand a great deal of
commitment.
3. DIRECTIVE:
Strategic decisions set precedents for
lesser decisions and future actions
throughout the organization.
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Manajemen Strategik

What is Strategic Management?

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Defined as:
An art and a science of formulating,
implementing, and evaluating crossfunctional decisions that enable an
organization to achieve its future
objectives. (Fred R. David).
The process by which managers choose
and implement or adapt a set of strategies
for the enterprise to pursue its vision and
mission.
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Manajemen Strategik

What is Strategic Management?

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The process of examining both present


and future environments, formulating
the organizational objectives, making
and implementing strategy, and
controlling decisions focused on
achieving these objectives in the
present and future environments. (Smith,
Arnold & Bizzell, 1988)

The process whereby managers establish an


organizations long term direction, set
specific performance objectives, developing
strategies, to achieve these objectives in
light of all the relevant internal and external
circumstance, and undertake to execute the
chosen action plans. (Thompson & Strickland, 1987)
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Manajemen Strategik

Strategic Management

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Not always a formal process:


Where is the organization now?
Where are we now? How is our company position?
If no changes are made, where will we be in the future?

Where do we want to go?


What kind of business we want to be in and which market
position we want to stakeout?
Which buyer needs and groups we want to serve?
What is outcomes we want to achieve?

How will we get there?


What specific actions should management undertake?
What are the risks and payoffs involved?
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Manajemen Strategik

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Four Phases of Strategic Management


(Glueck, Kaufman& Walleck, 1982)
1.

Basic Financial Planning (1900s)


Mengupayakan pengendalian operasional dan manajerial yang
baik dengan menggunakan anggaran sebagai alatnya.

2.

Forecast-Based Planning (1950s)


Mengupayakan sistem perencanaan yang lebih efektif dengan
memper-kirakan keadaan masa depan untuk kurun waktu yang
lebih panjang.

3.

Externally-Oriented Planning/Strategic Planning (1960s)


Mengupayakan peningkatan kepekaan terhadap perubahan pasar
dan persaingan dengan cara mencoba untuk berpikir strategik.

4.

Strategic Management (mid 1970s)


Mengupayakan untuk mengatur semua sumberdaya dan
mengembang-kan daya saing dalam menghadapi perubahan
lingkungan bisnis yang serba cepat, dan menciptakan masa depan
perusahaan yang lebih baik.

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Manajemen Strategik

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Basic Model of
Strategic Management
Four Basic Elements

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Manajemen Strategik

Strategic Management Model

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(Hunger and Wheelen)


Environmental
Scanning
External
Societal
Environment:
General Forces
Task
Environment t:
Industry Analysis

Internal
Structure
Chain of Command
Culture
Beliefs, Expectations,
Values

Strategy
Formulation

Strategy
Implementation

Evaluation
Evaluation
and
Control
and Control
and

Mission
Reason for
existence

Objectives
What results
to
accomplish
by when

Strategies
Plan to
achieve the
mission &
objectives

Policies
Broad
guidelines for
decision
making

Programs
Activities
needed to
accomplish
a plan

Resources
Assets, Skills
Competencies,
Knowledge

Budgets
Cost of the
programs

Procedures
Sequence
of steps
needed to
do the job

Process
to monitor
performance
and take
corrective
action

Performance

Feedback/Learning

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Manajemen Strategik

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Strategic Management Model


(Fred R. David)
External
Audit

Chapter 3

Long-Term
Objectives

Generate,
Evaluate,
Select
Strategies

Implement
Strategies:
Mgmt Issues

Implement
Strategies:
Marketing,
Fin/Acct,
R&D, CIS

Measure &
Evaluate
Performance

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Vision
&
Mission

Chapter 2
Internal
Audit

Chapter 4

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Manajemen Strategik

Strategic Management Model


1. ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING:
Audit external environment
Audit internal environment

2. STRATEGY FORMULATION:

Determine corporate mission and vision


Establish long-term objectives
Evaluate, Generate & Select strategies
Determine policies

3. STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION:
Implement selected strategies

4. STRATEGY EVALUATION AND CONTROL:


Measure & evaluate performance
Making correction

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Manajemen Strategik

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The Five Task of Strategic Management


1

Develop
a strategic
Vision
& Mission

Set
Organizations
goals &
objectives

Revise
as needed

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Revise
as needed

3
Formulate
strategy
to achieve
Organizations
objectives

Improve/
Change

4
Implement
strategy

Improve/
Change

5
Evaluate
&
Control

Make
Correction
&
Recycle
as needed

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Manajemen Strategik

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Perspectives on Strategy
Igor Ansoff:
Environment as a central actor
Adaptation
Michael E. Porter:
Competitive advantage
Low cost
Differentiation
Focus
Hamel & Prahalad:
Build Core competence
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Manajemen Strategik

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Adapting to Change
Key Strategic Management Questions

What kind of business should we become?


Are we in the right fields?
Are there new competitors?
Is there a new technology?
What strategies should we pursue?
How are our customers changing?

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall

Manajemen Strategik

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Why Do Strategies Evolve?

There is always an ongoing need to


react to:

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Shifting market conditions


Fresh moves of competitors
New technologies
Evolving customer preferences
Political and regulatory changes
New windows of opportunity
The crisis of the moment
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Manajemen Strategik

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Effective Strategy

The Characteristics of An Effective Strategy:


1. has clear goals
2. builds on strengths of an organisation
3. brings about initiative and energy for action
4. creates commitment and confidence
5. is politically acceptable
6. is aligned with organisations philosophy &
values
7. works technically
(adapted from J. B. Quinn, J. M. Bryson)

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Manajemen Strategik

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STRATEGIC THINKING
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Systems Perspective (Interconnections)


Focus on Intent (Vision and Capabilities)
Intelligent Opportunism (Whats there?)
Thinking in Time (Past, present, future)
Hypothesis driven (If A, then B?)
Adapted from Jeanne Liedtka, Elements of Strategic Thinking

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Manajemen Strategik

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Benefit of Strategic Management

FINANCIALBENEFITS
More profitable and successful
Improve sales,profitability & productivity
High-performing Firms

NONFINANCIAL BENEFITS
Clearer sense of strategic vision for the firm
Sharper focus on strategic issues
Understanding of a rapidly changing environment
Understanding of competitors strategies
Reduced resistance to change
Order and discipline to the firm
View change as opportunity
Awareness of external threats & opportunity
Understand of internal strengths & weaknesses
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Manajemen Strategik

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Benefit of Strategic Management

Improved understanding of competitors strategies


Enhanced awareness of threats
Reduced resistance to change
Enhanced problem-prevention capabilities
Identification of Opportunities
Objective view of management problems
Improved coordination & control
Minimizes adverse conditions & changes
Decisions that better support objectives

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Manajemen Strategik

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Benefit of Strategic Management

Effective allocation of time & resources


Internal communication among personnel
Integration of individual behaviors
Clarify individual responsibilities
Encourage forward thinking
Encourages favorable attitude toward change
Provides discipline and formality to the
management of the business

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Manajemen Strategik

Review
1. Jelaskan pentingnya strategi itu penting bagi
suatu perusahaan/organisasi?

Perkuliahan 1

Koq tidak mengerti?


Tadi Anda kuliah apa
tidur?

2. Jelaskan perbedaan pengertian antara


strategi dan manajemen strategik!
3. Uraikan tugas-tugas pokokmanajemen
strategik dalam suatu organisasi!
4. Jelaskan berbagai manfaat yang dapat
diperoleh manajemen perusahaan/organisasi
yang menerapkan manajemen strategik!
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Manajemen Strategik

Daftar Pustaka

Perkuliahan 1

Hunger, J. David & Thomas L. Wheelen. 1996. Strategic Management.


Fifth Edition. New Jersey: Addison-Wesley.
David, Fred R. 1998.Concept of Strategic Management. Seventh Edition.
Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall,Inc.
David, Fred R. 2006. Manajemen Strategis: Konsep dan Kasus. Edisi 10.
Alih bahasa: Paulyn Sulistio dan Harryadin Mahardika. Jakarta: Penerbit
Salemba Empat.
Pearce II, John A. & Richard B. Robinson, Jr. 2003.Formulation,
Implementation, and Control of Competitive Strategy. Eighth Edition.New
York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Hubeis, Musa dan Mukhamad Nadjib.2008. Manajemen Strategik Dalam
Pengembangan Daya saing Organisasi. Jakarta: PT Elex Media
Komputindo.
Husein Umar. 2001.Strategic Management in Action: Konsep, Teori dan
Teknik Menganalisis Manajemen Strategis, Strategic Business Unit
Berdasarkan Konsep Michael Porter, Fred R. David, dan WheelenHunger. Edisi Pertama. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Setiawan Hari Purnomo& Zulkieflimansyah. 1996. Manajemen Strategi:
Sebuah Konsep Pengantar. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi
Universitas Indonesia.
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Manajemen Strategik

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JADWAL KULAIH MANAJEMEN STRATEGIK


1
Konsep Dasar Menstrak
2
Analisis Lingkungan Eksternal
3
Diskusi/Tugas Krispy Kreme Doughnut 46 61
4
Analisis Lingkungan Internal
bab 4
5
Analisis Lingkungan Internal
6
Diskusi /Tugas Krispy Kreme Doughnuts 46 61
7
Visi Misi Tujuan
8
Strategi Generik - 247
9
UTS
10
Grand Strategi - 228 - 246
11
Analisis dan Pilihan Strategi
12
Diskusi/Tugas Strategi yang digunakan
Krispy Kreme Doughnuts
13
Implementasi Strategi
14
Evaluasi Strategi - Balance Scorecard
15
Diskusi/Tugas
Menilai Kinerja Perusahaan dgn B.Scorecard
Krispy Kreme Doughnts
16
UAS

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Bab 1
Bab 3

Bab 2
Bab 5
Bab 5
Bab 6

Bab 7
Bab 9

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Manajemen Strategik

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Closing Ceremony

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