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IP Addresses

IP Addresses:
Classful Addressing

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
CLASSFULADDRESSING
Different Network Classes
Subnetting
ClasslessAddressing
Supernetting
CIDR(classlessInterdomainRouting)

4.1
INTRODUCTION

What is an IP Address?
AnIPaddressisa
32bit
address.
TheIPaddresses
are
unique.

Address Space
..

..
addr1
addr15
addr2 ..
..
..
addr41 addr226
addr31
..
..

Address space rule


..

..
addr1
addr15
addr2 ..
Theaddressspaceinaprotocol
..
..
ThatusesNbitstodefinean
addr41 addr226
Addressis:
addr31
..
.. 2N

IPv4 address space


TheaddressspaceofIPv4is
232
or
4,294,967,296.

Binary Notation

01110101100101010001110111101010

Figure 4-1

Dotted-decimal notation

Hexadecimal Notation

01110101100101010001110111101010
75951DEA
0x75951DEA

Example 1

ChangethefollowingIPaddressfrombinary
notationtodotteddecimalnotation.
10000001000010110000101111101111
Solution

129.11.11.239

Example 2

ChangethefollowingIPaddressfrom
dotteddecimal notation to binary
notation:
111.56.45.78
Solution

01101111001110000010110101001110

Example 3
Find the error in the following IP Address
111.56.045.78

Solution
There are no leading zeroes in
Dotted-decimal notation (045)

Example 3 (continued)

Find the error in the following IP Address


75.45.301.14

Solution

In decimal notation each number <= 255


301 is out of the range

Example 4
Change the following binary IP address
Hexadecimal notation
10000001 00001011 00001011 11101111

Solution

0X810B0BEF or

810B0BEF16

CLASSFUL
ADDRESSING

Figure 4-2

Occupation of the address space

In classful addressing the address space is


divided into 5 classes:
A, B, C, D, and E.

Figure 4-3

Finding the class in binary notation

Figure 4-4

Finding the address class

Example 5

Show that Class A has


231 = 2,147,483,648 addresses

Example 6
Find the class of the following IP addresses
00000001 00001011 00001011 11101111
11000001 00001011 00001011 11101111

Solution
00000001 00001011 00001011 11101111
1st is 0, hence it is Class A
11000001 00001011 00001011 11101111
1st and 2nd bits are 1, and 3rd bit is 0 hence, Class C

Figure 4-5

Finding the class in decimal notation

Example 7
Find the class of the following addresses
158.223.1.108
227.13.14.88

Solution
158.223.1.108
1st byte = 158 (128<158<191) class B
227.13.14.88
1st byte = 227 (224<227<239) class D

IP address with appending port


number
158.128.1.108:25
the

for octet before colon is the IP address


The number of colon (25) is the port number

Figure 4-6

Netid and hostid

Figure 4-7

Blocks in class A

MillionsofclassAaddresses
arewasted.

Figure 4-8

Blocks in class B

ManyclassBaddresses
arewasted.

Figure 4-9

Blocks in class C

Thenumberofaddressesin
aclassCblock
issmallerthan
theneedsofmostorganizations.

ClassDaddresses
areusedformulticasting;
thereisonly
oneblockinthisclass.

ClassEaddressesarereserved
forspecialpurposes;
mostoftheblockiswasted.

NetworkAddresses
Thenetworkaddressisthefirstaddress.
Thenetworkaddressdefinesthenetworktothe
restoftheInternet.
Giventhenetworkaddress,wecanfindthe
classoftheaddress,theblock,andtherangeof
theaddressesintheblock

Inclassfuladdressing,
thenetworkaddress
(thefirstaddressintheblock)
istheonethatisassigned
totheorganization.

Example 8

Given the network address 132.21.0.0, find the


class, the block, and the range of the addresses

Solution
The 1st byte is between 128 and 191.
Hence, Class B
The block has a netid of 132.21.
The addresses range from
132.21.0.0 to 132.21.255.255.

Mask

A mask is a 32-bit binary number.

The mask is ANDeD with IP address to get

The bloc address (Network address)


Mask And IP address = Block Address

Figure 4-10

Masking concept

Figure 4-11

AND operation

Thenetworkaddressisthe
beginningaddressofeachblock.
Itcanbefoundbyapplying
thedefaultmaskto
anyoftheaddressesintheblock
(includingitself).
Itretainsthenetidoftheblock
andsetsthehostidtozero.

Default Mak
Class

A default mask is 255.0.0.0


Class B default mask is 255.255.0.0
Class C Default mask 255.255.255.0

Chapter 5

Subnetting/Supernetting
and
Classless Addressing

CONTENTS
SUBNETTING
SUPERNETTING
CLASSLESSADDRSSING

5.1
SUBNETTING

IPaddressesaredesignedwith
twolevelsofhierarchy.

Figure 5-1

A network with two levels of


hierarchy (not subnetted)

Figure 5-2

A network with three levels of


hierarchy (subnetted)

Note
Subnetting

is done by borrowing bits from the


host part and add them the network part

Figure 5-3

Addresses in a network with


and without subnetting

Figure 5-5

Default mask and subnet mask

Finding the Subnet Address


GivenanIPaddress,wecanfindthe
subnetaddressthesamewaywefoundthe
networkaddress.Weapplythemasktothe
address.Wecandothisintwoways:
straightorshortcut.

StraightMethod
Inthestraightmethod,weusebinary
notationforboththeaddressandthe
maskandthenapplytheANDoperation
tofindthesubnetaddress.

Example 9

What is the subnetwork address if the


destination address is 200.45.34.56 and the
subnetmaskis255.255.240.0?

Solution

11001000001011010010001000111000
11111111111111111111000000000000
110010000010110100100000
0000 00000000
Thesubnetworkaddressis200.45.32.0.

ShortCutMethod
**Ifthebyteinthemaskis255,copy
thebyteintheaddress.
**Ifthebyteinthemaskis0,replace
thebyteintheaddresswith0.
**Ifthebyteinthemaskisneither255
nor0,wewritethemaskandtheaddress
inbinaryandapplytheANDoperation.

Example 10

What is the subnetwork address if the


destination address is 19.30.80.5 and the
maskis255.255.192.0?
Solution

Seenextslide

Figure 5-6

Solution

Figure 5-7

Comparison of a default mask and


a subnet mask

Thenumberofsubnetsmustbe
apowerof2.

Example 11

A company is granted the site address


201.70.64.0 (class C). The company needs
sixsubnets.Designthesubnets.
Solution

The number of 1s in the default


maskis24(classC).

Solution (Continued)

Thecompanyneedssixsubnets.Thisnumber
6isnotapowerof2.Thenextnumberthatis
apowerof2is8(23).Weneed3more1sin
the subnet mask. The total number of 1s in
thesubnetmaskis27(243).

The total number of 0s is 5 (32 27). The


maskis

Solution (Continued)

11111111111111111111111111100000
or
255.255.255.224
Thenumberofsubnetsis8.
The number of addresses in each subnet is 25 (5 is the
numberof0s)or32.

Figure 5-8

Example 3

Example 12

A company is granted the site address


181.56.0.0 (class B). The company needs
1000subnets.Designthesubnets.
Solution

The number of 1s in the default mask is 16


(classB).

Solution (Continued)

The company needs 1000 subnets. Thi


numberisnotapowerof2.Thenextnumbe
thatisapowerof2is1024(210).Weneed10
more1sinthesubnetmask.
Thetotalnumberof1sinthesubnetmaski
26(1610).
Thetotalnumberof0sis6(3226).

Solution (Continued)

Themaskis

11111111111111111111111111000000
or
255.255.255.192.
Thenumberofsubnetsis1024.
Thenumberofaddressesineachsubnetis26
(6isthenumberof0s)or64.
Seenextslide

Figure 5-9

Example 4

Figure 5-10

Variable-length subnetting

SUPERNETTING

What is suppernetting?
Supernetting

is the opposite of subnetting


In subnetting you borrow bits from the host
part
Supernetting is done by borrowing bits from
the network side.
And combine a group of networks into one
large supernetwork.

Figure 5-11

A supernetwork

Rules:
Thenumberofblocksmustbeapowerof2(1,2,
4,8,16,...).
Theblocksmustbecontiguousintheaddress
space(nogapsbetweentheblocks).
Thethirdbyteofthefirstaddressinthe
superblockmustbeevenlydivisiblebythenumber
ofblocks.Inotherwords,ifthenumberofblocksis
N,thethirdbytemustbedivisiblebyN.

Example 5

A company needs 600 addresses. Which of


the following set of class C blocks can be
usedtoformasupernetforthiscompany?
198.47.32.0 198.47.33.0 198.47.34.0
198.47.32.0 198.47.42.0 198.47.52.0 198.47.62.0
198.47.31.0 198.47.32.0 198.47.33.0 198.47.52.0
198.47.32.0 198.47.33.0 198.47.34.0 198.47.35.0

Solution
1:No,thereareonlythreeblocks.
2:No,theblocksarenotcontiguous.
3:No,31inthefirstblockisnotdivisibleby4.
4:Yes,allthreerequirementsarefulfilled.

Insubnetting,
weneedthefirstaddressofthe
subnetandthesubnetmaskto
definetherangeofaddresses.

Insupernetting,
weneedthefirstaddressof
thesupernet
andthesupernetmaskto
definetherangeofaddresses.

Figure 5-12

Comparison of subnet, default,


and supernet masks

Example 13

We need to make a supernetwork out of 16


classCblocks.Whatisthesupernetmask?
Solution
Weneed16blocks.For16blocksweneedtochangefour1sto0sin
thedefaultmask.Sothemaskis

11111111111111111111000000000000
or

255.255.240.0

Example 14

A supernet has a first address of 205.16.32.0 and a


supernet mask of 255.255.248.0. A router receives three
packetswiththefollowingdestinationaddresses:
205.16.37.44
205.16.42.56
205.17.33.76
Whichpacketbelongstothesupernet?

Solution

We apply the supernet maskto see ifwecanfind


thebeginningaddress.
205.16.37.44AND255.255.248.0 205.16.32.0
205.16.42.56AND255.255.248.0

205.16.40.0

205.17.33.76AND255.255.248.0

205.17.32.0

Onlythefirstaddressbelongstothissupernet.

Example 15
A supernet has a first address of 205.16.32.0 and a
supernetmaskof255.255.248.0.Howmanyblocksarein
thissupernetandwhatistherangeofaddresses?

Solution
Thesupernethas211s.Thedefaultmaskhas241s.Since
thedifferenceis3,thereare23or8blocksinthissupernet.
The blocks are 205.16.32.0 to 205.16.39.0. The first
addressis205.16.32.0.Thelastaddressis205.16.39.255.

5.3
CLASSLESS
ADDRESSING

Figure 5-13

Variable-length blocks

NumberofAddressesinaBlock
Thereisonlyoneconditiononthenumber
ofaddressesinablock;itmustbeapower
of2(2,4,8,...).Ahouseholdmaybe
givenablockof2addresses.Asmall
businessmaybegiven16addresses.Alarge
organizationmaybegiven1024addresses.

BeginningAddress
Thebeginningaddressmustbeevenlydivisible
bythenumberofaddresses.Forexample,ifa
blockcontains4addresses,thebeginning
addressmustbedivisibleby4.Iftheblockhas
lessthan256addresses,weneedtocheckonly
therightmostbyte.Ifithaslessthan65,536
addresses,weneedtocheckonlythetwo
rightmostbytes,andsoon.

Example 16

Which of the following can be the beginning address of a block


thatcontains1024addresses?
205.16.37.32
190.16.42.0
17.17.32.0
123.45.24.52

Solution
Tobedivisibleby1024,therightmostbyteofanaddressshouldbe
0 and the second rightmost byte must be divisible by 4. Only the
address17.17.32.0meetsthiscondition.

Figure 5-14

Slash notation

Slashnotationisalsocalled
CIDR
notation.

Example 17

Asmallorganizationisgivenablockwiththebeginning
address and the prefix length 205.16.37.24/29 (in slash
notation).Whatistherangeoftheblock?

Solution
The

beginning address is 205.16.37.24. To


find the last address we keep the first 29 bits
and change the last 3 bits to 1s.

Beginning: 11001111 00010000 00100101 00011000


Ending : 11001111 00010000 00100101 00011111
There are only 8 addresses in this block.

Example 17 contd

We can find the range of addresses in Example 17 by


another method. We can argue that the length of the
suffixis3229or3.Sothereare238addressesinthis
block.Ifthefirstaddressis205.16.37.24,thelastaddress
is205.16.37.31(24731).

AblockinclassesA,B,andC
caneasilyberepresentedinslash
notationas
A.B.C.D/n
wherenis
either8(classA),16(classB),or
24(classC).

Example 18
What is the network address if one of the addresses is
167.199.170.82/27?

Solution

Theprefixlengthis27,whichmeansthatwemust
keep the first 27 bits as is and change the
remainingbits(5)to0s.The5bitsaffectonlythe
lastbyte.Thelastbyteis01010010.Changingthe
last 5 bits to 0s, we get 01000000 or 64. The
networkaddressis167.199.170.64/27.

Example 19
An organization is granted the block 130.34.12.64/26. The
organization needs to have four subnets. What are the subnet
addressesandtherangeofaddressesforeachsubnet?

Solution

Thesuffixlengthis6.Thismeansthetotalnumber
of addresses in the block is 64 (26). If we create
foursubnets,eachsubnetwillhave16addresses.

Solution (Continued)

Let us first find the subnet prefix (subnet mask). We need four
subnets,whichmeansweneedtoaddtwomore1stothesiteprefix.
Thesubnetprefixisthen/28.
Subnet1:130.34.12.64/28to130.34.12.79/28.
Subnet2:130.34.12.80/28to130.34.12.95/28.
Subnet3:130.34.12.96/28to130.34.12.111/28.
Subnet4:130.34.12.112/28to130.34.12.127/28.

SeeFigure5.15

Figure 5-15

Example 19 contd

Example 20

An ISP is granted a block of addresses starting with


190.100.0.0/16.TheISPneedstodistributetheseaddressestothree
groupsofcustomersasfollows:
1.Thefirstgrouphas64customers;eachneeds256addresses.
2.Thesecondgrouphas128customers;eachneeds128addresses.
3. The third group has 128 customers; each needs 64 addresses.
Designthesubblocksandgivetheslashnotationforeachsubblock.
Find out how many addresses are still available after these
allocations.

Solution

Group1

Forthisgroup,eachcustomerneeds256addresses.Thismeansth
suffixlengthis8(28256).Theprefixlengthisthen32824.
01:190.100.0.0/24190.100.0.255/24
02:190.100.1.0/24190.100.1.255/24
..
64:190.100.63.0/24190.100.63.255/24
Total6425616,384

Solution (Continued)

Group2

Forthisgroup,eachcustomerneeds128addresses.Thismeansthe
suffixlengthis7(27128).Theprefixlengthisthen32725
Theaddressesare:
001:190.100.64.0/25190.100.64.127/25
002:190.100.64.128/25190.100.64.255/25
..
128:190.100.127.128/25190.100.127.255/25

Solution (Continued)

Group3

For this group, each customer needs 64 addresses. This means the
suffixlengthis6(2664).Theprefixlengthisthen32626.
001:190.100.128.0/26190.100.128.63/26
002:190.100.128.64/26190.100.128.127/26

128:190.100.159.192/26190.100.159.255/26
Total128648,192

Solution (Continued)

Numberofgrantedaddresses:65,536
Numberofallocatedaddresses:40,960
Numberofavailableaddresses:24,576