Anda di halaman 1dari 21

CELL MEMBRANE

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL

MEMBRANE COMPOSITION
1. MEMBRANE LIPIDS
Phospholipids (75%)
Dynamic
Bilayer
Amphipathic
* Polar part: phosphate-containg head,
hydrophilic
* Nonpolar part: two fatty acid tail, hydrophobic

Glycolipids (5%)
Faces external fluid
For adhesion
Bacterial toxin target
Cell-to cell recognition and communication
Contribute cellular growth and development
Cholesterol (20%)
Strengthen the membrane, decrease flexibility

2. MEMBRANE PROTEIN FUNCTION

Channel

Enzyme

Transporter

Cytoskeleton
Anchor

Receptor

Cell Identify
Marker

MEMBRANE PHYSIOLOGY
1. Communication
Interaction
Other cell
Foreign cell, ligands
2. Electrochemical gradient
Membrane potential
3. Selective permeability
Lipid solubility
Size
Charge
Presence of channel and
transporter

Electrochemical gradient

Membrane potential
- 90 mV

TRANSPORT ACROSS MEMBRANE


PASSIVE TRANSPORT
1. Simple Diffusion

Concentration gradient
Net diffusion
Equilibrium

2. Osmosis

Osmotic pressure
Tonicity
Isotonic
Hypertonic
Hypotonic

3. Bulk Flow

Same direction
Filtration

4. Facilitated Diffusion

Transporter
-

Channel

FACILITATED DIFFUSION

ACTIVE TRANSPOR
1. Primary active transport

Use ATP as the energy source


-

Ca2+ pump
Na+, K+ pump

2. Secondary active transport

Use the ionic concentration difference (gradient)

Symport (co-transport)
-

Glucose transport
Amino acid transport

Antiport (counter transport)


-

Na Ca exchange
Na H exchange

Sodium pump (Na+,K+-ATPase

VESICULAR TRANSPORT
1. Phagocytosis
Pseudopod phagocytic vesicle (phagosome)
2. Pinocytosis
Pinocytic vesicle
3. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Similar to pinocytosis
Import needed materials
4. Exocytosis

Receptor mediated endocytosis


1.

Ligand binds to receptor

2.

Forming endocytic vesicle

3.

Merging endocytic vesicle endosome

4.

Within the endosome receptor separate


from their ligands

5.

Endosome containing receptor pinches


off and moves back to plasma membrane

6.

Endosome containing material merges


with lysosome

MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
1. ION CHANNEL
Leakage (non gated) channel
-

K+ leakage channel > Na+ leakage channel

Gated channel
-

Voltage-gated (voltage-regulated) ion channel

Chemically gated ion channel

Mechanically gated ion channel

Light-gated ion channel

2. RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL


Polarized membrane
Unequal distribution of ion across membrane
Relative permeability of the membrane to Na+ and K+

Potassium equilibrium potential ( 90 mV)

2. GRADED POTENTIAL
The presence of chemically, mechanically, or light-gated
channel
Small deviation from the resting potential that cause by an
appropriate stimulus
Have different name, depend on type of stimulation
Chemically gated ion channel postsynaptic potential;
sensory receptor receptor potential & generator potential
Hyper-polarization & depolarization
Most often in dendrite and body cell, less often in axon
The electrical sign are graded, depending on the strength of
stimulus
Localized current

3. ACTION POTENTIAL

Ionic
Mechanism of
Action Potential

Propagation (Conduction) of Action Potential

Comparison of graded potential and action potential


Graded Potential

Action Potential

Amplitude

A variable size (1-50 mV)

Same size (100 mV)

Duration

Milliseconds minutes

msec. 2 msec.

Channel

Chemical, mechanical &


light gated channel

Voltage gated channels

Location

Dendrite & Cell body

Axon

Propagation

Localized

Propagate

Refractory period

No refractory period

Shows

Operation of Chemical
Synapse