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XenServer Storage Management and Troubleshooting Daniel Lazar Lead Escalation Engineer May 11, 2010
XenServer Storage Management and Troubleshooting Daniel Lazar Lead Escalation Engineer May 11, 2010

XenServer Storage Management and Troubleshooting

Daniel Lazar Lead Escalation Engineer May 11, 2010

Agenda

XenServer Storage Overview Management and Monitoring Troubleshooting and Diagnosing Common Storage Issues Q & A

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XenServer Storage Overview

XenServer Storage Overview

XenServer Storage Objects

SRs, VDIs, PBDs and VBDs

Virtual Disk Data Formats

File-based VHD, LVM and StorageLink

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XenServer Storage Objects

What is an SR (Shared Repository)?

Describes a particular storage target in which Virtual Disk Images (VDIs) are stored.

Flexible—supports a wide variety of storage types. Centralized—easier to manage, more reliable with a XenServer pool. Must be accessible to each XenServer host.

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XenServer Storage Objects

VDIs, PBDs, VBDs

Virtual Disk Images are a storage abstraction that is presented to a VM.

Physical Block Devices represent the interface between a physical server and an attached SR.

Virtual Block Devices are connector objects that allow mappings between VDIs and VMs.

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XenServer Storage Objects

SR PBD VDI VBD XenServer Host Virtual Machine VDI VBD PBD XenServer Host Virtual Machine VDI
SR
PBD
VDI
VBD
XenServer Host
Virtual Machine
VDI
VBD
PBD
XenServer Host
Virtual Machine
VDI
VBD
PBD

XenServer Host

Virtual Disk Data Formats

File-based VHD

VM images are stored as thin-provisioned VHD format files on either a local non-shared file system (EXT type SR) or a shared NFS target (NFS type SR).

What is VHD?

A Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) is a file formatted to be structurally identical to a physical Hard Disk Drive.

Image Format Specification was created by Microsoft in June, 2005.

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Virtual Disk Data Formats

Logical Volume (LVM)-based VHDs

The default XenServer block device-based storage inserts a Logical Volume manager on a disk. VDIs are represented as volumes within the Volume manager.

Introduced LVHD in XenServer 5.5

Enhances LVM for SRs Hosts VHD files directly on LVM volumes Adds Advanced Storage features like Fast Cloning and Snapshots Fast and simple upgrade Backwards compatible

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Virtual Disk Data Formats

StorageLink (LUN per VDI)

LUNs are directly mapped to VMs as VDIs by SR types that provide an array-specific plug-in (NetApp, Equallogic or StorageLink type SRs). The array storage abstraction therefore matches the VDI storage abstraction for environments that manage storage provisioning at an array level.

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Virtual Disk Data Formats

StorageLink Architecture

XenServer calls direct to Array API‘s to provision and adjust storage on demand.

Fully leverages array hardware capabilities. Virtual disk drives are individual LUNs. High performance storage model.

Only the server running a VM connects to the individual LUN(s) for that VM.

A special master server coordinates which servers connect to which LUNs

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Virtual Disk Data Formats StorageLink Architecture • XenServer calls direct to Array API‘s to provision and

LVM vs. StorageLink

XenServer 5.5

XenServer 5.5

iSCSI / FC

iSCSI / FC

XenServer 5.5

XenServer 5.5

iSCSI / FC

iSCSI / FC

+

LVM vs. StorageLink XenServer 5.5 XenServer 5.5 iSCSI / FC iSCSI / FC XenServer 5.5 XenServer
Storage Repository Storage Repository LUN VHD header VHD header VHD header VHD header LVM LVM LUN
Storage Repository
Storage Repository
LUN
VHD header
VHD header
VHD header
VHD header
LVM
LVM
LUN
LUN
LUN
LUN
Logical
Logical
Volume
Volume
LVM Volume Group
VM Virtual Disk

Storage Management and Monitoring

Management and Monitoring Overview

Understanding how XenServer Perceives the Storage Monitoring Storage Protecting Your Data

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Management and Monitoring

Understanding the physical disk layout

# fdisk –l

# Lists the physical block devices on the host

Management and Monitoring Understanding the physical disk layout # fdisk –l # Lists the physical block

Disk /dev/cciss/c0d0: 146.7 GB, 146778685440 bytes

Denotes a SCSI block device

locally attached to the system

(HP RAID array in this case)

Management and Monitoring Understanding the physical disk layout # fdisk –l # Lists the physical block

255 heads, 32 sectors/track, 35132 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 8160 * 512 = 4177920 bytes

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System The first partition on the disk /dev/cciss/c0d0p1 * 1
Device
Boot
Start
End
Blocks
Id
System
The first partition
on the disk
/dev/cciss/c0d0p1
*
1
981
4002464
83
Linux
contains the boot
/dev/cciss/c0d0p2
982
1962
4002480
83
Linux
information for the
OS.
/dev/cciss/c0d0p3
1963
35132
135333600 83
Linux

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Management and Monitoring

Understanding the physical disk layout (continued)

Implies a block device using the SCSI

Generic (sg) driver. It is likely

attached via a separate interface such

as iSCSI or FC HBA

# fdisk –l

# Continued output

Management and Monitoring Understanding the physical disk layout (continued) Implies a block device using the SCSI
Management and Monitoring Understanding the physical disk layout (continued) Implies a block device using the SCSI

Disk /dev/sda: 107.3 GB, 107374182400 bytes

255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 13054 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

This disk is part of a Storage

Repository using an LVM file

system and therefore does

not require a local partition

table.

Management and Monitoring Understanding the physical disk layout (continued) Implies a block device using the SCSI
Disk /dev/sda doesn't contain a valid partition table
Disk /dev/sda doesn't contain a valid partition table

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Management and Monitoring

Understanding the physical disk layout (continued)

# sg_map –x

# Displays the mapping between Linux sg and regular SCSI devices

/dev/sg0 0 0 0 0 13 /dev/sg1 0 0 0 1 0 /dev/sda /dev/sg2 0 0
/dev/sg0
0 0
0 0
13
/dev/sg1
0 0
0 1
0
/dev/sda
/dev/sg2
0 0
0 2
0
/dev/sdb
/dev/sg3
1 0
0 0
13
/dev/sg4
1 0
0 1
0
/dev/sdc
/dev/sg5
1 0
0 2
0
/dev/sdd
Host
Bus
SCSI
LUN
SCSI
Number
ID
Type
Management and Monitoring Understanding the physical disk layout (continued) # sg_map –x # Displays the mapping

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Management and Monitoring

Understanding the physical disk layout (continued)

# ll /dev/disk/by-id

# List the attached block devices by SCSI ID.

cciss-3600508b1001035373120202020200003 -> .. .. / /cciss/c0d0 cciss-3600508b1001035373120202020200003-part1 -> / /cciss/c0d0p1 cciss-3600508b1001035373120202020200003-part2 -> / /cciss/c0d0p2 cciss-3600508b1001035373120202020200003-part3 ->
cciss-3600508b1001035373120202020200003 ->
.. ..
/
/cciss/c0d0
cciss-3600508b1001035373120202020200003-part1 ->
/
/cciss/c0d0p1
cciss-3600508b1001035373120202020200003-part2 ->
/
/cciss/c0d0p2
cciss-3600508b1001035373120202020200003-part3 ->
/
/cciss/c0d0p3
scsi-360a98000503350642f4a553833616b57 ->
.. ..
/
/sda
Unique ID assigned by
This SCSI device is
udev. It corresponds to
mapped to /dev/sda
individual block devices.

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Management and Monitoring

Understanding the physical disk layout (continued)

To identify a specific SR based on the SCSI ID, compare /dev/disk/by-id with the SR in XenCenter

Management and Monitoring Understanding the physical disk layout (continued) To identify a specific SR based on

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Management and Monitoring

LVM-related commands

# pvs

# Lists physical volumes

Management and Monitoring LVM-related commands # pvs # Lists physical volumes PV /dev/sda Linux sg device
PV /dev/sda Linux sg device
PV
/dev/sda
Linux sg
device

# vgs

VG Fmt Attr VG_XenStorage-40bbf542-b9d9-ffa1-6efe-aa9c56aadd95 lvm2 a- LVM Volume Group stored on the SR UUID physical volume.
VG
Fmt
Attr
VG_XenStorage-40bbf542-b9d9-ffa1-6efe-aa9c56aadd95 lvm2 a-
LVM Volume Group stored on the
SR UUID
physical volume.

# Lists volume groups

PSize

PFree

99.99G 59.88G

Management and Monitoring LVM-related commands # pvs # Lists physical volumes PV /dev/sda Linux sg device

VG

#PV #LV #SN Attr

VSize

VFree

VG_XenStorage-40bbf542-b9d9-ffa1-6efe-aa9c56aadd95

1

4

0

wz--n-

99.99G 59.88G

Management and Monitoring LVM-related commands # pvs # Lists physical volumes PV /dev/sda Linux sg device

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Management and Monitoring

LVM (continued)

# lvs

Management and Monitoring LVM (continued) # lvs LV # Lists the logical volumes VG VHD-c67a887f-3a1a-41f4-8d40-1b21f6307c4a VG_XenStor

LV

# Lists the logical volumes

VG

VHD-c67a887f-3a1a-41f4-8d40-1b21f6307c4a VG_XenStor

...

VHD-c9b919a7-b93b-49ea-abe5-00acb8240cf5 VG_XenStor

...

VHD-f3d26dde-254f-4d80-a3bb-d993e904bd63 VG_XenStor

...

Management and Monitoring LVM (continued) # lvs LV # Lists the logical volumes VG VHD-c67a887f-3a1a-41f4-8d40-1b21f6307c4a VG_XenStor

The ‘a’ and ‘o’

attributes indicate

the LV is ‘active’

and ‘open’ implying

it is attached to a

running VM

Attr

LSize

-wi--- 24.00G

Management and Monitoring LVM (continued) # lvs LV # Lists the logical volumes VG VHD-c67a887f-3a1a-41f4-8d40-1b21f6307c4a VG_XenStor
Management and Monitoring LVM (continued) # lvs LV # Lists the logical volumes VG VHD-c67a887f-3a1a-41f4-8d40-1b21f6307c4a VG_XenStor

-wi-ao 8.00G

-wi--- 24.00G

LV-e056f479-b0f3-49f3-bc5d-6c226657ae6c VG_XenStor

Management and Monitoring LVM (continued) # lvs LV # Lists the logical volumes VG VHD-c67a887f-3a1a-41f4-8d40-1b21f6307c4a VG_XenStor

...

Represents Logical Volume containers

for individual VDIs.

LV-ebdcad46-66d9-4020-baa1-0d5b6ac439c7 VG_XenStor ...

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-wi-ao 10.00G

Tip: Type ‘lvm help’ for a

-wi-ao 24.00G

complete list of LVM command

options.

Management and Monitoring

Understanding how the physical storage is represented as virtual objects in XenServer using the XenAPI

# xe sr-list type=lvmoiscsi params=name-label,uuid,VDIs,PBDs # Lists the SRs configured for the pool

name-label ( RW)

: NetApp - iSCSI

uuid ( RO)

: 40bbf542-b9d9-ffa1-6efe-aa9c56aadd95

: f3d26dde-254f-4d80-a3bb-d993e904bd63; c67a887f-3a1a-41f4 ... : 27d05ffc-07d3-4f02-d265-3594a2179f8f Note that the VDI UUID is the same as the
: f3d26dde-254f-4d80-a3bb-d993e904bd63; c67a887f-3a1a-41f4 ...
: 27d05ffc-07d3-4f02-d265-3594a2179f8f
Note that the VDI UUID is the
same as the logical volume ID.
We will make a note of this UUID
to refer back to.

VDIs (SRO)

PBDs (SRO)

Using the PBD UUID from this

command output we will query for its

characteristics in the next slide…

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Management and Monitoring

Understanding how the physical storage is represented as virtual objects in XenServer using the XenAPI (continued)

# xe pbd-list uuid=27d0… params=uuid,sr-uuid,device-config,currently-attached # List PBD params

uuid ( RO)

: 27d05ffc-07d3-4f02-d265-3594a2179f8f

sr-uuid ( RO): 40bbf542-b9d9-ffa1-6efe-aa9c56aadd95

device-config (MRO): port: 3260; SCSIid: 360a98000503350642f4a553833616b57; target: 10.12.45.10; targetIQN: iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.135027806
device-config (MRO): port: 3260; SCSIid: 360a98000503350642f4a553833616b57;
target: 10.12.45.10; targetIQN: iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.135027806

currently-attached ( RO): true

Management and Monitoring Understanding how the physical storage is represented as virtual objects in XenServer using
Management and Monitoring Understanding how the physical storage is represented as virtual objects in XenServer using

‘device-config’ describes all the physical

characteristics of the block device

attached to this PBD. Note the SCSIid as

referenced earlier from /dev/disk/by-id

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Management and Monitoring

Understanding how the physical storage is represented as virtual objects in XenServer using the XenAPI (continued)

# xe vdi-list uuid=f3d26dde-254f-4d80-a3bb-… params=uuid,sr-uuid,vbd-uuids # List VDI params

uuid ( RO)

: f3d26dde-254f-4d80-a3bb-d993e904bd63

sr-uuid ( RO): 40bbf542-b9d9-ffa1-6efe-aa9c56aadd95

Management and Monitoring Understanding how the physical storage is represented as virtual objects in XenServer using

vbd-uuids (SRO): 69afb055-3b52-57e3-63fa-d26b82a9b01d

This tells us what VBDs are attached to this VDI.

We will use this UUID in the next slide to query for

the VBD characteristics and determine which VM

this disk is attached to.

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Management and Monitoring

Understanding how the physical storage is represented as virtual objects in XenServer using the XenAPI (continued)

# xe vbd-list uuid=69afb055-3b52-… params=uuid,vm-uuid,vm-name-label,vdi- uuid,mode

# List VBD params

uuid ( RO)

Management and Monitoring Understanding how the physical storage is represented as virtual objects in XenServer using

: 69afb055-3b52-57e3-63fa-d26b82a9b01d

vm-uuid ( RO): 2c3a0e82-3f96-eab8-4982-db33fdb3bd88

vm-name-label ( RO): Windows 7 Test

vdi-uuid ( RO): f3d26dde-254f-4d80-a3bb-d993e904bd63

mode ( RW): RW

Tip: You can issue ‘xe help

<command>’ to get syntax help for

any ‘xe’ commands.

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Management and Monitoring Understanding how the physical storage is represented as virtual objects in XenServer using

This tells us which VM (name

and UUID) this VBD is attached

to, and which VDI it is providing

to the VM.

Management and Monitoring

Fibre Channel LUN Zoning

Since Enterprise SANs consolidate data from multiple servers and operating systems, many types of traffic and

data are sent through the interface, whether it is fabric or the network.

With Fibre Channel, to ensure security and dedicated resources, an administrator creates zones and zone sets

to restrict access to specified areas. A zone divides the fabric into groups of devices.

Zone sets are groups of zones. Each zone set represents different configurations that optimize the fabric for

certain functions.

WWN - Each HBA has a unique World Wide Name (similar to an Ethernet MAC)

node WWN (WWNN) - can be shared by some or all ports of a device

port

WWN (WWPN) - necessarily unique to each port

Fibre Channel LUN Zoning

Pool1

Pool2

Xen1 Xen1 Xen2 Xen2 Xen3 Xen3 FC Switch
Xen1
Xen1
Xen2
Xen2
Xen3
Xen3
FC Switch
Fibre Channel LUN Zoning Pool1 Pool2 Xen1 Xen1 Xen2 Xen2 Xen3 Xen3 FC Switch Storage FC

Storage

FC Switch example

Management and Monitoring

iSCSI Isolation

With iSCSI type storage a similar concept of isolation as fibre-channel zoning can be achieved by using IP

subnets and, if required, VLANs.

IQN – Each storage interface (NIC or iSCSI HBA) has configured a unique iSCSI Qualified Name

Target IQN – Typically associated with the storage provider interface

Initiator IQN – Configured on the client side, i.e. the device requesting access to the storage.

IQN format is standardized:

iqn.yyyy-mm.{reversed domain name} (e.g. iqn.2001-04.com.acme:storage.tape.sys1.xyz)

iSCSI Isolation

Pool1

Pool2

Xen1 Xen1 Xen2 Xen2 Xen3 Xen3 Network Switch
Xen1
Xen1
Xen2
Xen2
Xen3
Xen3
Network Switch
iSCSI Isolation Pool1 Pool2 Xen1 Xen1 Xen2 Xen2 Xen3 Xen3 Network Switch Storage iSCSI Example

Storage

iSCSI Example

Management and Monitoring

Monitoring XenServer Storage - Alerts

XenServer will generate alerts for certain storage events:

Missing or duplicate IQNs configured HA state file lost or inaccessible PBD plug failure on server startup

XenServer can be configured to send alert notifications via email too.

See the XenServer Administrator’s Guide for more information about configuring alerts.

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Management and Monitoring

Monitoring XenServer Storage – CLI Commands

# iostat –k

# Reports basic I/O stats for devices and partitions

avg-cpu: %user

%nice %system %iowait %steal

%idle

0.12

0.00

0.05

0.09

0.02

99.72

Device:

tps

kB_read/s

kB_wrtn/s

kB_read

kB_wrtn

cciss/c0d0

4.05

0.52

32.11

164361

10156264

sda

0.11

1.38

1.79

437259

566151

Note: iostat is not a great performance indicator for shared

storage devices because it is unaware of external bottlenecks, for

example the network in the case of iSCSI.

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Management and Monitoring

Monitoring XenServer Storage – CLI Commands

# hdparm –t /dev/<device>

/dev/cciss/c0d0:

# Performs timed sequential reads

Timing buffered disk reads:

286 MB in

3.00 seconds =

95.19 MB/sec

Has some limitations:

• Does not measure non-sequential disk reads. • Does not measure disk write speed • May not be accurate with non-local storage devices since it is unaware of underlying bus architecture (iSCSI, FC, etc.) • Must be sampled repeatedly over time to get an accurate picture of I/O read performance.

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Management and Monitoring

Monitoring XenServer Storage – CLI Commands

# dd if=<infile> of=<outfile>

# Simple, common block device copy utility

Management and Monitoring Monitoring XenServer Storage – CLI Commands # dd if=<infile> of=<outfile> # Simple, common

# dd if=/dev/<device> of=/dev/null

if = ‘infile’, the source dd reads from.

of = ‘outfile’, the target dd writes to.

1998929+0 records in

1998929+0 records out

1023451648 bytes (1.0 GB) copied, 13.8456 seconds, 73.9 MB/s

WARNING: NEVER run dd specifying an active, running VHD as the outfile—it

WILL destroy the VM container making it unreadable!!

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Management and Monitoring

Monitoring XenServer Storage – Additional Tips

iSCSI storage throughput can usually be tied directly to network performance. If there is slow throughput for an iSCSI storage array, perform network diagnostics first!!

Many SAN arrays have native logging and monitoring tools that can identify bottlenecks affecting storage performance.

Refer to the Citrix Knowledge Base for best practices and known issues relating to storage performance.

http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX121634

http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX122806

http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX120737

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Management and Monitoring

Protecting Your Data – Backup VM Metadata

Management and Monitoring Protecting Your Data – Backup VM Metadata • Can use xsconsole or the

Can use xsconsole or the CLI.

For more information relating to using XenServer as a Disaster Recovery solution, refer to the Citrix Knowledge Center:

Makes the SR “portable”.

Can be used as part of a Disaster Recovery solution, or, as part of regular

maintenance of the environment.

Can be scheduled within xsconsole.

http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX117258

http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX121099

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Management and Monitoring

Protecting Your Data – Exporting VMs

Virtual machines can be exported directly out of XenServer into XVA files that contain a complete clone of the VM and all of its attached VDIs.

Can be initiated via XenCenter or from the XenServer CLI. VM must be offline (shutdown) during export process.

Since it backs up all the VM data it can take a very long time depending on the size of the VM!

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Management and Monitoring

Protecting Your Data – Creating VM Snapshots

Snapshots create VDI clones of a VM that can be used for backup or quickly provisioned into new VMs or templates.

XenServer supports two types in version 5.5

Regular – Supports all guest environments, including Linux

Quiesced – Takes advantage of Windows Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS). It requires the manual installation of in-guest components to enable.

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Management and Monitoring

Protecting Your Data – Creating VM Snapshots (continued)

New in XenServer 5.6!

Introduces snapshot “Revert”, a.k.a. “Checkpoint”.

Introduces a new snapshot mode: “Snapshot with disk and memory”

XenCenter GUI enhanced for easier management of VM snapshots and to support Checkpoint feature.

Management and Monitoring Protecting Your Data – Creating VM Snapshots (continued) • New in XenServer 5.6!

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Management and Monitoring

Protecting Your Data – Third-Party Solutions

There are also Third-Party backup options:

In-guest backups can be performed using any guest-supported solution (backup agents running in Windows or Linux, for example).

Volume snapshots performed directly on the storage via StorageLink plugins (for Dell and NetApp).

Backup solutions that plug into the XenAPI to capture VM data, or clone the LVM data directly.

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Troubleshooting and Diagnosing Common Storage Issues

Troubleshooting XenServer Storage

Native Troubleshooting Tools – XenServer Logs

Always check the logs first! XenServer creates several logs that are useful for diagnosing storage problems

/var/log/messages /var/log/xensource.log /var/log/SMlog

# General messages and system related stuff # Logging specific to XenAPI # Logging specific to XenServer storage manager

Often errors logged in any of these files can be searched for in the Citrix Knowledge Center for a solution. See http://support.citrix.com.

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Troubleshooting XenServer Storage

Native Troubleshooting Tools – XenAPI commands

The XenAPI (xe) can be used to troubleshoot storage issues too

# xe sr-scan

# xe sr-probe

# Force XAPI to sync the database with local VDIs present in the underlying substrate.

# Using device-config parameters you can probe a block device for its characteristics, such as existing VM metadata and SR uuid.

# xe pbd-plug/unplug # Manually plug or unplug a PBD for an SR. This can be useful when repairing an SR in XenCenter fails.

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Troubleshooting XenServer Storage

Native Troubleshooting Tools – VHD commands

See and verify mount point of VHD SR

# /var/run/sr-mount/<SR UUID>

“full provision” VHD SR

vhd-util See http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX118842

Check VHD architecture

# hexdump -vC <VDI-UUID>.vhd | less

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Troubleshooting XenServer Storage

Storage Multipathing

Ensure that multipathing is enabled if you have multiple paths zoned to the XenServer

Use ‘sg_map –x’ and check the host and bus IDs

Problems if you do not enable multipath

I/O Errors Decrease in performance Introduce errors with SR.create

What is multipath.conf vs multipath-enabled.conf

multipath.conf is symlink to multipath-enable.conf or multipath-disabled.conf

DMP vs. MPP multipathing

http://support.citrix.com/article/ctx121364

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Troubleshooting XenServer Storage

SAN Debugging

Always start at the hardware adapter, use the Qlogic or Emulex CLI tools to verify the LUNs known to the adapter

For QLogic, run ‘scli’ For Emulex, run ‘hbanywhere’

Use ‘xe sr-probe type=lvmohba’ to trigger a bus refresh

Troubleshooting XenServer Storage SAN Debugging • Always start at the hardware adapter, use the Qlogic or

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Troubleshooting XenServer Storage

Additional Scenarios

• Unable to create SRs

• Verify that XenServer can see the storage/LUN

•Use fdisk and /dev/disk/xxx • Verify that HBA can see the LUN • Use the HBA CLI tools • Verify that iSCSI can login:

•# iscsiadm –m node –L all

# Will force iscsid service to log into the storage array.

• Clearing the device mappings via CMD line

• # echo 1 > /sys/class/scsi_devices/x:x:x:x/device/delete • Be extremely careful what device is being deleted!

• Clean up of orphaned VDIs, XC not displaying the right amount of free storage

•If a logical volume has no corresponding VDI it can be deleted. Be extremely careful with this because if you delete a parent disk, then you lost all differentiated disks.

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