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Chapter2: Motion Along a Straight

Line
OBJECTIVES:

Displacement, Time , and Average Velocity


Consider the motion of a car below.

At time t1 = 1s , the car is at position x1 =19m and At time t2


= 4s , the car is at position x2 = 277m.
The displacement of the car
is:
The time interval is:
The average velocity of the car
is:

x x2 x1 277 m 19m 258m


t t 2 t1 4 s 1s 3s

x
vav
t
vav

vav

258m
86m / s
3s

x2 x1
t 2 t1

t (s)

x (m)

x (m)

x (m)

Graphs of Motion Part 1: Position vs. Time

t (s)

The object is moving


with
constant
velocity
in
the
positive direction.

The object is moving


with
constant
velocity
in
the
negative direction.

x (m)

x (m)

The object is at
rest.

t (s)

t (s)

The object is moving


with
increasing
velocity
(accelerating).

t (s)

The object is moving


with
decreasing
velocity
(decelerating).

EXAMPLE 1:

(a)
speed

average

vave

(200m) (280m)
480m

4.4m / s
200 m
280 m
5m / s 4m / s
40 s 70s

(b) average velocity

vave

(200m) (280m)
80m

0.73m / s
200 m
280 m
5m / s 4m / s
40 s 70s

Instantaneous Velocity
instantaneous velocity (v) is the velocity of a body at a specific
instant of time or at any specific point along the path.
instantaneous velocity (v) is the limit of average velocity of a
body as the time interval approaches zero.

x
v(t ) lim
t 0 t
instantaneous velocity (v) is the derivative of displacement
with respect to time.

dx
v(t )
dt

EXAMPLE
2:

(a)

x(t ) (2.40m / s 2 )t 2 (0.120m / s 3 )t 3


x(0) (2.40)(0) 2 (0.120)(0) 3 0
x(10) (2.40)(10) 2 (0.120)(10) 3 120m
vave

x2 x1 120m 0

12m / s
t 2 t1
10m 0

EXAMPLE
2:

(b)

dx d
v(t )
(2.40t 2 0.120t 3 ) (4.80m / s 2 )t (0.360m / s 3 )t 2
dt dt
v(0) (4.80)(0) (0.360)(0) 2 0
v(5) (4.80)(5) (0.360)(5) 2 33m / s
v(10) (4.80)(10) (0.360)(10) 2 12m / s
(c)

0 4.80t 0.360t 2 t 13.3s

Average and Instantaneous Acceleration


acceleration (a) is the time rate of change in velocity.

average
(aav)

acceleration

v v2 v1
aav

t t 2 t1

instantaneous acceleration (a) is the limit


acceleration as the time interval approaches zero.

v
a (t ) lim
t 0 t

dv
a (t )
dt

of

average

EXAMPLE
3:

(a)

v(t ) (3.00m / s ) (0.100m / s 3 )t 2


v(0) (3.00m / s ) (0.100m / s 3 )(0) 2 3.00m / s
v(5) (3.00m / s ) (0.100m / s 3 )(5s ) 2 3.500m / s
v2 v1 (3.00m / s ) (0.500m / s )
aave

0.500m / s 2
t 2 t1
(5s 0)

(b)

a(t ) (0.200m / s 3 )t

a (0) (0.200m / s 3 )(0) 0


a (5) (0.200m / s 3 )(5s ) 1.00m / s 2

EXAMPLE
3:

(c)

Graphs of Motion Part 2: Velocity vs. Time

t (s)

v
(m/s)

v (m/s)

v (m/s)

t (s)

t (s)

The object is moving


with
constant
velocity
in
the
positive direction.

The object is moving


with
constant
velocity
in
the
negative direction.

v (m/s)

v (m/s)

The object is at
rest.

t (s)

The object is moving


with
increasing
velocity
(uniformly
accelerating).

t (s)

The object is moving


with
decreasing
velocity
(uniformly
decelerating).

a
(m/s2)

The object is moving


with
constant
velocity
in
the
positive direction.

t (s)

The object is moving


with
increasing
velocity
(uniformly
accelerating).

a
(m/s2)

t (s)

t (s)

The object is moving


with
constant
velocity
in
the
negative direction.
a
(m/s2)

a
(m/s2)

? Graphs of Motion Part 3: Acceleration vs.


Time

t (s)

The object is moving


with
decreasing
velocity
(uniformly
decelerating).

Uniformly Accelerated Motion (UAM)


uniformly accelerated
acceleration.

motion

is

motion

with

Equations of Uniformly Accelerated


Motion
x
assuming that t0 = 0.
Equation 1: vav

Equation 2:

vo v
vav
2

Equation 3:

v vo
a
t

assuming that t0 = 0.

constant

Equations of Uniformly Accelerated


Motion
x
dx
dx
Recall: v
dx v dt

dt

Equation 4:

dv
Recall: a
dt

xo

x xo vot 12 at 2

to

to

vdt (vo at )dt

x vot 12 at 2

dx
dv a dt
vdv a dt adx
dt
2
x
1 v
1 v 2 vo

x xo

xo dx a vo vdv
a 2
2
2
2
v vo
Equation 5:
x
2a

EXAMPLE
4:

GIVEN: x = 70.0m ; t = 7.00 s ; v = 15.0 m/s


FIND: (a) vo and (b) a
(a)

x 70m
vav

10.0m / s
t
7s

v vo 15m / s vo
vav

10.0m / s
2
2

vo 2(10m / s ) (15m / s) 5.00m / s


(b)

v vo (15m / s ) (5m / s )
a

1.43m / s 2
t
7s

EXAMPLE
5:

EXAMPLE
5:

Free Fall (UAM along the y-axis)


free fall is motion under the action of the force of gravity alone
(air resistance is neglected).
a freely-falling body has a constant acceleration called the
acceleration due to gravity g = - 9.80 m/s2 (always directed
downward).

Equations of Free
Fall
Equation 1: vav
Equation 2:
Equation 3:
Equation 4:
Equation 5:

y
t
vo v
vav
2
v vo
g
t
y vot 12 gt 2
v 2 vo
y
2g

NOTE: Follow correct sign


convention. All quantities with
downward
direction
should
have a negative sign.
downward velocity: - v
upward velocity: +v
downward displacement: - y
upward displacement: + y
acceleration: g= -9.80 m/s2

EXAMPLE
6:

EXAMPLE
7:

ANSWERS:
(a) y1 = 10.1m; v1 = 5.2 m/s and y4 = -18.4 m; v1 =-24.2 m/s
(b) v =11.3 m/s
(c) y =+11.5 m
(d) a = g = - 9.8 m/s2

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