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Switching Realization

Switch and Circuit Realization

Transistor, BJT, MOSFET, IGBT, Diodes,

How are switches arranged?

To realize circuit requirements and to satisfy
KVL and KCL of circuits
For quadrant operations

Realization of Switch
Realization of switch: Depends on
Polarity of voltage that the devices must block
in the OFF state
Polarity of the current the device must
conduct during the conduction state

Realization of Switch contd..

Refer the figure above
Switch A must block positive voltage Vg when
in OFF state
Must conduct positive current IL in positive
direction in the ON-state

If for all operating conditions the current

and blocking voltage lie in a single

Realization of Switch contd..

The operation can be realized using a

transistor and/or a diode
SPST-Single Pole, Single Throw

Passive Switches
Single-Quadrant Switches SPST Passive
and Active Switches
Passive switches have terminals 1 and 0
while active switches have additional terminal
C for control action
Passive switches operate in ON and OFF
positions depending on the voltage and
current waveforms [V,I]

Passive Switches : Diode

Passive Switch- Diode

Ideal Diode: Requires V(t), I(t) waveforms
to turn ON/OFF
Diode OFF,
Diode ON,

I 0
I 0

when V (t ) 0
when V (t ) 0

Active Switches: BJT

Active Switch- With Control C
Thyristor, BJT, MOSFET, IGBT

BJT: Bipolar Junction Transistor

Active Switches: MOSFET

MOSFET: Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field
Effect Transistor

Active switches contd..

When control terminal C causes device to
be OFF I 0 and the device is capable of
blocking positive voltage V 0
When control terminal C causes device to
be in ON-state V = 0 and is capable of
conducting positive current I 0
The reverse block characteristics of BJT
and IGBT are poor or non-existent

Active switches contd..

MOSFET is able to conduct current in
reverse direction but is rarely used

Active Switches contd..

Switch A can be IGBT, BJT or MOSFET

Switch B can be Diode i.e. OFF when

VB 0

Current Bidirectional 2-Quadrant

DC-AC Inverters require switches to
conduct both negative and positive
currents but block only positive voltages
A current Bidirectional two Quadrant SPST
switch can be realized using a transistor
and an anti-parallel diode

Current Bidirectional 2 Quadrant

Switches contd..

A SPDT-single pole double throw current

bidirectional two quadrant switch can be
derived using two SPST switches

Current Bidirectional 2 Quadrant

Switches contd..
Two quadrant SPDT switch
A current Bidirectional SPDT switch
Conducts both positive and negative currents
Blocks positive voltage

Three phase DC-AC Inverter

Has 3 two quadrant SPDT switches one
per phase
Each switch block input voltage Vg,
conduct output currents

Three phase DC-AC inverter


Three phase Inverter

Battery Charger
Battery charger

Vbus > 0, Vbatt > 0

Q1, Q2, D1, D2 block positive voltage Vbatt

Battery Charger contd..

Charging mode:
IL > 0, Q1 and D2 alternately conduct current

Discharging mode:
IL < 0, Q2, D1 alternately conduct current

Voltage Bidirectional Two Quadrant


I > 0, V < 0

Voltage Bidirectional two quadrant

switches contd..
Switch must block both positive and
negative voltages and conduct positive
Requires an SPST switch using a series
connected transistor and diode

Voltage Bidirectional 2- Quadrant

Switches contd..
In OFF state, controller turns OFF the
transistor. Diode blocks negative voltage
and transistor blocks positive voltage
Blocks negative voltage up to diode
voltage rating
Blocks positive voltage up to transistor
voltage rating
Example: DC-AC Buck-Boost Inverter

DC-AC Buck Boost Inverter

Inverter mode IL > 0

All switches conduct only positive current
Switches must block output AC line-line

Four Quadrant SPST switch

Four quadrant switch capable of
conducting currents of either polarity and
blocking voltages of either polarity

Four Quadrant SPST switch contd..

Three ways of implementing a four-quadrant

SPST switch