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STPM

960/2 PHYSICS
2007
Q1 /2007
A cylinder of mass 10 kg and
radius 0.2 m rolls down an inclined
plane of height 1.0 m without
slipping from rest. Calculate the
linear velocity of the cylinder when
it reaches the ground. [4]

[ Moment of Inertia of a
cylinder of mass m and radius is r ]
U is transform to K, Ui = Kf-total

1 2 1 2 3
K to ta l = m v + Iw …1 mv = mgh …..1
2
2 2 4
2
1 2 1  1 2  v  4
= mv +  m r   v = (9.81)(1.0)
2

2 2 2  r  3
3 2 v = 13 .08
2
= mv ……………1
4 v = 3.6ms −1
……1
Q2/2007
(a) On the same axes, sketch graphs
of displacement against time to show
underdamped, critically damped and
overdamped oscillation. Label your
graphs. [3]

(b) What is meant by resonance in


forced oscillation? [2]
overdamped
Critically
damped

underdamped

(b) Resonant occurs when the forced


frequency equals the natural frequency
and at this instant the amplitude of the
oscillation is maximum.
Q3/2007
(a) In each of the following cases, state
any change in the interference pattern
of a two-slit arrangement.
(i) One slit is covered by an opaque
material. [1]
(ii) The distance between the slit is
decrease. [1]
(b) Explain how interference can be
used to determine the flatness of lens
surface. [2]
(a) (i) The interference pattern changes to a
diffraction pattern of a single slit. …………….1
(ii) d decreases, therefore ∆y increases. ……1

(b) Some have the same optical path


difference………………………………….1

During the interference, the maximum


bright and the minimum dark intensity
pattern is seen distorted/irregular ……..1
Q4/2007. A cylindrical brass rod with
Young’s modulus 9.7 x 1010 Pa and original
diameter 10.0 mm experiences only elastic
deformation when a tensile load of 200 N
is applied. Calculate
(a) the stress that produces the deformation.
[3]
(b) If the original length of the rod is 0.25 m,
calculate the change in the length of the
rod. [2]
F stress …….1
σ= …………1 E=
strain
A0
σl 0
200 ∆l =
= −3 2
...1 E
(10 × 10 ) (2.5 × 10 )(0.25)
6
π =
4 97 × 10 9

= 2.5 × 10 Pa …..1
6
= 6.4 × 10 −6 m ….1
Q5/2007
A 1.5 F capacitor and a 2.0F capacitor are
connected in series across a 24 V source.
(a)Calculate the equivalent capacitance
across the source. [2]
(b)(b) Calculate the charge stored on each
capacitor [2]

(c) If a dielectric is added to each capacitor,


explain what happens to the charge stored on
each capacitor [2]
.
1 1 1 1 1
(a) = + = + .........................1
C eq C1 C 2 1.5 2.0
C eq = 0.86µ F ......................................1

(b)Q = Ceq V …………………………...1


= 0.86 x 24
= 20.6 μC …………………………1

(c) The charge will increase because


dielectric increases the capacitance of
each capacitor …………………………1,1
Q6/2007
An ideal solenoid consists of 1000
turns of wire per cm wound around an air
filled cylindrical structure. The solenoid
is 2.0 cm long and cross-sectional area
1.8 cm2. A current of 2.0 A passes
through the wire.
(a) Calculate the magnetic flux in the
solenoid. [3]
(b)Calculate the self-inductance of the
solenoid. [2]
Φ B = B. A …………………………..1
µ 0 IN
B= …………………………..1
l
µ 0 IN
Φ= A
l
4π × 10−7 × 2.0 × 2000
Φ= × 1.8 × 10− 4
0.02
Φ = 4.52 × 10−5Wb ……..…………….1
(b) Self-inductance

NΦB
L= ………………………….1
I
−5
(1000 ) × (4.52 ×10 )
L=
2.0
−2
L = 4.52 ×10 H …………… …1
Q7/2007
A light beam of wavelength 0.110 nm
collides with an atom. After the collision,
an electron is emitted with kinetic energy
180 eV.

(a)Calculate the energy absorbed by the


atom. [3]
(b)Calculate the velocity of the electron
emitted. [2]
(a) E0 = hf 0 …………………………..….1
hc …………………………..….1
E0 =
λ0
 6.63 ×10 −34 
 
−19 
(3 .00 × 10 8
)
 1.60 ×10 
=
0.111×10 −9
= 113.01×10 2 eV
= 1.13 ×10 eV ………………………1
4
1 ………………..1
(b) KE = me v 2

2
 2 ×180 × 1.60 ×10 
−19
v =  −31


 9.11× 10 
−1
v = 7.95 × 10 ms
6
……………1
Q8/2007
In a nuclear reactor, a very slow moving
neutron is absorbed by a stationary boron
atom. The equation for the nuclear
reaction is
0
1
n + 5 B →3 Li + 2 He
10 7 4

After the reaction, the speed of the helium


atom is 9.10 x 106 ms-1 and the kinetic
energy of the neutron is approximately
zero. [ me = 1.0087 u, mB = 10.0130 u,
mLi = 7.0160 u, mHe = 4.0026 u]
(a) Calculate the kinetic energy og Lithium atom
after the reaction.

KE of Li = Δ mc2 – KE of He ………………………1
Δmc2 = (1.0087u – 7.0160u – 4.0026u + 10.0130u) c2

= 3.1 x 10-3 x 1.66 x 10-27 x (3.0 x 108)2


= 4.631 x 10-13 J ………………………………1
KE of Li = 4.631x10-13 –

½(4.0026 x1.66 x 10-27 )(9.10x106)2 ………….1

= 1.88 x 10-13 eV
or = 1.88 MeV ………………………………..1
(b) Calculate the reaction energy. [2]

Reaction energy = (mn + mB – mLi - mHe ) c2


(1.0087+ 10.0130− 7.0160− 4.0026)(1.66× 10− 27 )(3.00× 108 ) 2
=
1.6 × 10−19
= 2.89 Mev
Q9 (a) An object is projected with initial
speed v at an angle θ with the horizontal.
Derive an equation for the path of the
projectile. [3]
Horizontal displacement, x = (v cos θ)t …….1
Vertical displacement, y = (v sin θ)t – ½ gt2...1
Substitute for t, 2
 x  1  x 
y = (v sinθ )  − g 
 v cosθ  2  v cosθ 
g ……...1
y = x tanθ − 2 2 x 2

2v cos θ
9(b) The diagram below shows a jeep travelling
at constant speed 10 ms-1 towards a security
post.

bullet
Security jeep
15 m
post

0.7 km

A security guard holding his rifle 15 m above the


ground shoots horizontally when the jeep is 0.7 km
from the security post. The bullet strikes the jeep.
Calculate
(i) The time taken by the bullet to strike the jeep. [2]
Using s = ut + ½ gt2 ……………………………1
15 = 0 + ½ (9.81) t2
t = 1.75 s ……………………………….1

(ii)
The distance of the jeep from the security post
when it is struck, [2]

Distance of moving jeep is = 10 (1.75)


= 17.5 ……………1
Distance from security post = 700 -17.5
= 682.5 m ……...1
(iii) The initial speed of the bullet, [2]

Initial speed of the bullet,


u = distance from security post /time ..1
= 682.5 = 390ms −1 ………………….1
1.75
(iv) The speed and direction of the bullet when
it strike the jeep. [6]

The speed of the bullet when it strike the jeep’


vx = u = 390 ms-1
vy = v0 sin θ + gt ……………………………1
v = v x2 + v 2y = 390 2 + 17.2 2 = 0 + 9.81 ( 1.75) = 17.2 ms-1
v = v x2 + v y2
2………….………1
v = 390 + 17.2
.
2

V= 390.4 ms-1 …………………………..1


vy
tan θ = ………….1
vx
 vy  −1  17 .2 
θ = tan  −1
 = tan   v   17.2 
θ = tan −1  y  = tan −1  

 vx  390 
 vx   390 

vy
θ = 2.5
tan θ =
v
0
.…………………………1
x

The angle strike is 2.50 below


the horizontal …………………1
10 (a) What is meant by Doppler effect? [2]
Doppler effect is the change in frequency …….1
due to relative motion between the source and
an observer. ……...………………………………1

(b) A toy car with the siren on is approaching a


wall at a speed of 2.0 ms-1 . The siren produces a
sound wave in the form
y = 2.5 x 10-5 sin 2π ( 500 t – 1.4 x )
Where x is in metres and t in seconds. Calculate
the speed and frequency of the sound wave. [4]
y = 2.5 x 10-5 sin 2π ( 500 t – 1.4 x )

w

v= ………..1
k
W = 2 π f …...1
2π (500)
v= = 500 Hz …..1
2π (1.4)
−1
• v = 357ms …...1
(c)The sound wave in (b) is then reflected from the
wall. A detector is fixed on the ground behind
the source of the sound wave to observe any
frequency changes. Determine
(i) The frequencies detected by the detector. [4]

(i) The detector received the note from the


reflected sound. Then
 v  ………………….1
f =
'
 v −v  f
 s 

 357 
f ' = 500
 357 − 2 
………………….1
f ' = 502 .8 Hz
The detector received the note from the
reflected sound. Then

 v  …………………1
f " =   f
 v + vs 
 357 
f "=  500
 357 + 2 
f " = 497.2 Hz …………………..1
(ii) The beat frequency [2]
Beats, Δf =| f’ – f” | ……………………1
= 5.6 Hz ……………………1

(iii) The equation of the reflected wave [1]


y = 2.5 x 10-5 sin 2π ( 500 t + 1.4 x ) ……..1

(iv) The intensity ratio of the approaching


wave to the reflected wave. [2]
Intensity 
(amplitude)
I1 2 .........................1
=1
I2 ..…………………………….1
Q11 The following is a pV diagram for 0.2 mol
ideal monoatomic gas.
p/Pa
A
3 x 105 Pa

C B

V/(x10-3 )m3
2.0 12.0

The gas expands isothermally from A to B and is


compressed from B to C at constant pressure. It
finally undergoes a constant volume process from
C to A. Calculate,
(a)The temperature at A, B and C [5]
At point A,
p AVA = nRT A …………………………..1
−3
p AVA (3.0 ×10 )( 2.0 ×10 )
5
∴TA = =
nR 0.2(8.31)
TA = 361 K ………………………………………1

At point B (Isothermal), therefore TA = TB


TB = 361 K ………………………….1
At point C constant pressure

nRT
pB = = 5.0 ×10 Pa
4

VB

pC = pB = 5.0 × 10 Pa
4
……………………1
.

−3
pCVC (5.0 ×10 )(2.0 × 10 )
4
TC = =
nR 0.2(8.31)
TC = 60.2 K ………………………………..1
(b) The nett work done during the cycle [5]
Work done
Along AB

 vB 
W = nRTA ln  …………………..1
 vA 
 12.0 ×10 −3

W = (0.2)(8.31)(361) −3

 2.0 × 10 
W = 1.07 × 10 J
3
Along BC WBC = nR∆T ………………….1

.

WBC = nR (TB − TC ) ………..1

WBC = 0.2(8.31)(361 − 60.2)


WBC = 500 J
ΔW = WAB – WBC ……………………1
= 1.07 X 103 – 5.00 X 102
= 5.7 X 102 J ………………….1
(c) The nett heat absorbed by the gas [5]

dQ = dU + dW ………………………….1
Since it is a complete cycle:
T is the same .......................................….1
dU = 0 …………………………1
dQ = dW ………………………..1
= 5.7 x 102 J ………………..1
Q 12 (a) A 0.3 μF capacitor is connected to a
source of alternating current with output voltage
V = 240 sin 120 πt.
(i) Calculate the reactance of the capacitor. [3]
For a capacitor the reactance decreases as the
frequency increases 1 ………….1
Xc =
wc
The frequency of the voltage source.
W = 120 π rad s-1 …...............1
1
Xc =
(120π )(0.3 × 10 −6 )
X c = 8842Ω ……………….1
(ii) Determine the r.m.s. current
flowing through the capacitor. [3]

V0
Vrms = ……………….……1
2
Vrms
I rms = ……………….……1
Xc
240
I rms = 2
8842
I rm s = 1.92 ×10 − 2 A ………………1
(b)A rectifier is a device which conducts electric
current in one direction only such as diode.
(i) Describe briefly a full wave rectifier.
A full-wave rectifier can be constructed by
using 4 diodes which allow current flowing
through a load (resistance R) in one direction
only. ……………………………….…...............1

A full-wave rectifier can be constructed by


using 2 diode with centre-tapped
transformer which allow current flowing
through a load (resistance R) in one
direction only. ………………………………….1
When the voltage cycle is positive,
diode D1 and D3 conduct to
complete the circuit and allow
current to pass through the load
from A to B. (region 1)………………1

When the voltage cycle is negative,


diodes D2 and D4 conducts to allow
current through the load from A to B.
(Region 2) …………………………1
(b) (ii) With the aid of diagrams describe
briefly the process of smoothing rectified
alternating current voltages. [5]

Smoothing is required to make the pulsating


current constant. This is achieved by
connecting a capacitor in parallel to the load
resistance. ……………………………1

Smoothen voltage in bold reduces pulsating. ….1

The capacitor in parallel charges up when the


current flows through AB. …………………….1
When the voltage across AB starts to
drop ( source changes polarity), the
capacitor discharges through the
resistor, across AB. ……………1

The discharges keeps the voltage


across R (or AB) up. By making the
discharge long enough, i.e. used larger
capacitance (τ = RC) the discharge
through the resistor can continue until
the source voltage become positively
high again. ………………………..1
Q 13 (a) State Bohr’s postulate for an
atom. [2]
Bohr’s postulate:
The electron in an atom moves in a
circular orbit about the nucleus ………1
Only certain permissible/stable/quantised
/ stationary states circular orbit are
allowed.
or angular momentum = nh …………….1

Energy emitted only when electron
transits from higher to lower orbit. …….1
any 2 marks
v
(b) The diagram below m
-e
shows an electron of
mass m and charge – e +e
r

moving at speed v in a
circular orbit of radius r
around a nucleus.
If the force of attraction between the
electron and the nucleus provides the
centripetal acceleration of the electron,
derive an expression for the radius of the
nth orbit of the electron. [5]
(b) Centripetal force = Electrostatic force
mv 2 ke 2 1
= 2 , k= …….( 1, 1)
r r 4π ε0
2
ke
mv 2 = ……………(1)
r
Angular momentum for nth allowed orbit
L = mv n rn ……………………1
nh ……………………1
L=

nh
vn = ………(2) n =1, 2, 3,…..
2πmr n
Substitute equation (2) in equation (1)
2
 nh  e 2
m  =k
 2πmrn  rn
 h  2
2
∴ rn =  2 2
n ………..1
 4π mke 
n = 1, 2, 3,……
(c) An electron in a Bohr orbit has kinetic
energy 8.64 x 10-20 J. (i) Calculate the
speed of the electron. [3]

Kn = ½ mv2 .............................................1
8.64 x 10-20 = ½ [9.11 x 10-31 ] v2 ……….1
−20
2 × 8.64 ×10
v= −31
9.11×10
v = 4.36 ×105 ms −1 ………….1
(ii) Determine the allowed orbit. [3]
nh …………………………1
mvn r =

2
e ………………1
vn = 4.36 × 10 =
5

2ε 0 nh
−19 2
(1.60 ×10 )
n= −12 −34
2 × 8.85 ×10 × 4.36 ×10 × 6.63 ×10
5

n=5 ……………………………………1
(c) Calculate the radius of the orbit. [2]
m vn2 e2
=
r 4π 0εr 2
2
e
r=
4π 0εm v 2
n

(1.60× 10−19 ) 2
r= −12 − 31
….1
4π (8.85× 10 )(9.11× 10 )(4.36× 10 )
5 2

−9
r = 1.33× 10 m ……………………………..1
Q 14 (a) The bombardment of a beryllium
nucleus by an -particle produces a
fundamental particle X, as follows:
α+ Be →C +X
9
4
12
6

(i) Complete the equation above by giving the


proton and nucleon numbers to the -particle
and X. [2]

4
2 α+ Be → C + X
9
4
12
6
1
0 …….2
(ii) What are -particle and X? [2]
 = helium nucleus, X = neutron ……(1,1)
(iii) State two important properties which cause X
difficult to be detected. [2]

-No charge / neutral / does not deflect by


electric field or magnetic field ………………1
-Does not produce ionization effect / no
interaction with matter ……………..1
(b) Determine the equivalent energy in
MeV of a mass of 1 u. [5]

1 u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg ……………………….........1


From E = mc2 ………………………………………1
= (1.66 x 10-27 ) (3.00 x 108)2 (1.60 x 10-19 )-1 ….1
= 9.34 x 108 eV …………………………………1
= 934 MeV …………………………………1
(c)An element of unknown atomic mass is
mixed with a 126C atom in a mass
spectrometer. The radii of curvature of
the element and 126C are 26.2 cm and
22.4 cm respectively.
What is the possible element?
State any assumption you make. [4]
m∝r ……………………..1

m 26.2
=
12 22.4
m = 14 ……………………1
Nitrogen / carbon 14 ………………………….1
Assumption: Both are equally charged …….1
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