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Hormones

and
FeedbackMechanisms

03.01.05
Howtheendocrinesystemcontrols
everything

TheEndocrineSystem
I.
II.
III.
IV.

GeneralOverview
BasicAnatomy
Controloftheendocrinesystem
Specificendocrineevents

I.AGeneralOverview
ES(endocrinesystem)andhomeostasis
Anatomy
Endocrineglands,cells,neurosecretorycells
Hormones
Targetcells

ESasaControlSystem
Hormone+target=changeincellfunction
(returntohomeostasis)

ESandHomeostasis
Homeostasis

FeedbackMechanisms
Stimulus
changeinhomeostaticenvironment
signalsenttoCNS

Response
signalsentfromCNS
produceeffect
bodyreturnstohomeostasis

BasicEScont.
ESandNS=2main
controlsystemsof
body
Endocrineorgans
locatedthroughout
body
Actionsmediateall
tissues
ControlofESthrough
feedbackmechanisms

II.ESanatomybasics
A. Exocrinegland

Ducts
Lumenandsurfaces

B. Endocrinegland

Chemicalmessengers
Bloodstream

C.Hormones
Chemicalmessenger
Secretedbyendocrine
gland
Specifictotarget
Activatecellular
change
Of4differentchemical
types

C.4ClassesofHormones
1.
2.
3.
4.

Peptide/Protein
Steroid
Amine
Eicosanoid

Hormone+Receptor

Protein/PeptideHormones

Hydrophilic
Large
Can'tfitthroughmembrane
Secondmessengermechanismofaction
Mosthormones
Example:Insulin

SteroidHormones

Small
Hydrophobic/Lipophilic
Travelinbloodw/carrier
Cytoplasmicornuclearreceptors
changeproteinsynthesis
Example:estradiol

Amine
Synthesizedfroma
singleaminoacid
Melatoninfrom
tryptophan
Thyroidhormonefrom
tyrosine
Catecholamines(EPI,
DA)fromtyrosine

Eicosanoid
Producedfrom20
carbonfattyacid,
arachadonicacid
Producedinallcells
exceptRBCs
2ndmessenger
Prostaglandinsand
leukotrienes
inflammation

Hormone+Receptor

WhereareHormonesMade?

TheHPA
HypothalamicPituitaryAxis
Mostfeedbackloopsrunthroughthisaxis
HPAmediatesgrowth,metabolism,stress
response,reproduction.
issecondarilyinchargeofalmost
everythingelse.

p.503

D.NeurosecretoryCells
1. Specializedneurons

Synthesizeand
secretehormones

2. Extendfrom
HYPOTHALAMUS
toPOSTERIOR
PITUITARY

2.Neurosecretorycellsin
Hypothalamus
Nucleisynthesizeand
secretehormones
Neuronalconnection
toPOSTERIOR
pituitary
AntidiureticHormone
(ADH),Oxytocin

E.Hypothalamus(general)
Connectiontopituitary
Neuronalto
POSTERIOR
PITUITARY
Endocrineto
ANTERIOR
PITUITARY
RH=Pituitaryreleasing
hormones
RIH=Pituitaryrelease
inhibitinghormones

WhyistheHypothalamusso
Important?
Secretesregulatory
homones
RH
RIH

"Directs"pituitary

STIMULUS
Hypothalamus
ReleasingHormone
(ReleaseInhibitingHormone)

Pituitary
Stimulating
Hormone
Gland
Hormone

Target

HypothalamicHormomes
ReleaseInhibitingHormones
Somatostatin
ProlactinreleaseinhibitinghormonePIH

ReleasingHormones
ThyrotropinreleasinghormoneTRH
GrowthhormonereleasinghormoneGHRH

1.PosteriorPituitaryHormones
ManufacturedinHypothalamus,releasedfrom
Post.Pit.
Oxytocin
Target=smoothms.UterusandBreast(&brain)
Function=laboranddelivery,milkejection,(pair
bonding)

ADH(VasopressinAVP)
Target=kidneys
Function=waterreabsorption

Howaboutinfrogs?
Hormonestructure/functiontightlyconserved
Mesotocin
yolkingofeggs
egglaying

Vasotocin(AVT)
waterbalance
REPRODUCTIVEBEHAVIORS

E.Pituitarygland
MASTERGLAND
Anteriorand
posteriorportions
1. Posteriorconnected
tohypothalamusby
infundibulum
2. Anteriorconnected
viabloodstream

2.AnteriorPituitaryHormones
HORMONE

TARGET

FUNCTION

Thyroid(TSH)
Stimulating

Thyroidgland

THsynthesis&
release

Growth(GH)

Manytissues

growth

Adrenocortico Adrenalcortex
Tropin(ACTH)

Cortisolrelease
(androgens)

Prolactin(Prl)

Breast

Milkproduction

Follicle(FSH)

Gonads

Egg/spermprod.

Luteinizing

(LH)

Gonads

Sexhormones

HormonesToStudy
HypothalamicHormones
PosteriorPituitary(Neurohypophysis)
AnteriorPituitary(Adenohypophysis)
Thyroid
Growth
SexSteroid

III.ControlofEndocrineFunction
A. Positive
B. orNegative
Feedback
mechanisms

Selfregulating
system

STIMULUS
Hypothalamus
ReleasingHormone
(ReleaseInhibiting
Hormone)
Pituitary
StimulatingHormone
Gland
Hormone

Target

A.PositiveFeedback
Notcommon
Classicexample:
Actionof
OXYTOCINon
uterinemuscleduring
birth.

PositiveFeedback

Babypushesoncervix
NervoussignaltoHypothalamus
Hypothal.manufacturesOXY
OXYtransportedtoPOSTERIOR
PITUITARY&released
OXYstimulatesuterinecontraction
Loopstopswhenbabyleavesbirthcanal

Samewithfrogs?

B.NegativeFeedback
Mostcommoncontrol
mechanism
Levelofhormonein
bloodorbodysreturn
tohomeostasisshuts
offloopat
hypothalamusand
pituitary

NegativeFeedback:Thyroid

BasicStructureofFeedback
Loop

EnvironmentalStimulus
StimulatesControlCenter(Brainhypothal.)
Hypothalamichormonesstim.Pituitary
Pituitaryhormonestim.Targetarea
Targetareaproduceschange
Changeactsnegativelyorpositivelyonthecycle.

IV.SpecificEndocrineEvents
A.
B.
C.
D.

ThyroidHormone
GrowthHormone
AdrenalCortexHormones
SexSteroids

A.ThyroidHormone
T3&T4stim.Or
environmentalstim.
Hypothalamus
TRHstim.Anterior
Pituitary
TSHstim.Thyroid
T3&T4shutsoff
TRHandTSH
production

Growth

metabolismand
growth

ThyroidProblems
Whatwouldhappenif
thethyroidcouldno
longerproduceT3and
T4?
Nonegativefeedback
tohypothalamusand
anteriorpituitary

Goiter

HypersecretionofTSHorTH

HyposecretionofTH

B.GrowthHormone
Stimulus=Tissuegrowth/repair
HypothalamusreleasesGHRH
AnteriorPituitaryreleasesGH
Proteinsynthesis,growth,etc.
GHandreleaseofsomatostatinshutsoff
GHRHandGHrelease

WhathappenswithexcessGH?

GHasJuvenile

GHasanAdult

HowDoesHypersecretionofGH
Happen?

GH=pituitarydwarfism

AdrenalGland
Adrenalglandlocatedatopkidney
Outerpart=cortex
SecretesCortisol(stress),Androgens,
Aldosterone(electrolytes)

Innerpart=medulla
SNScontrol
SecretesEPI&NEPI(fightorflight)

AdrenalInsufficiency
Addisonsdiseasehyposecretionof
cortisol
JFK
Darkenedskin(ACTHmimicsMSH)
Weightloss,hypoglycemia
Findtheanomalyinthefeedbackloop.
Inabilitytohandlestress

4.SexSteroids

Stimulus=lowcirculatingTorE
Hypothalamus=GnRH
AnteriorPituitary=FSH&LH
GonadsproduceTandE
HighTandEshutoffGnRHandFSH/LH

Importance
Reproduction/MatingBehavior(duh)
Formationofreproductiveorgans
gonads
brain

Toomanysteroids

Invertebrates
Hormonesinvolvedin:
Molting
Pupation
Metamorphosis

InsectHormones
JuvenileHormone
maintainsjuvenilecuticleforpreadulthoodmolts
secretedbycorpusallatumnearbrain

Ecdysone
MoltingHormone
ProthoracicGlands(inthoraxofinsect)
PTTH=Brainhormonethatstimulates
ProthoracicGlands

Ecdysone

Ecdysone

JuvenileHormone

p.523

Points

History
Anatomy
Terms
Hormones
Feedbackcontrol
SpecificPointsdiscussed

I.EndocrineHistory
ClaudeBernard(mid
1800s)
pancreas,liver
brain,smoothms.
internalenviron.

A.A.Berthold(1849)
reprohormonesand
behavior

EndocrineHistory
CharlesBrownSequard(1889)
Harvard18641868
M.D.inNY18731878
bulltestisextracts

ImportantPhysiologists
WalterCannon
homeostasis
sympatheticnervous
system
BodilyChangesin
Hunger,Fear,andRage

1.Peptide/ProteinHormones

Mostcommonhormone
translated,packaged,&sent
Hydrophilic/Lipophobic
Bindsurfacereceptorsattarget
Bindingmediatessignaltransduction/2nd
messengersystem

PeptideHormonescont.
Short1/2life
Pancreas
Insulin/glucagon

Hypothalamus
RH(releasing
hormones)
RIH(releaseinhibiting
hormones)

2.SteroidHormones

Derivedfromcholesterol
Hydrophobic/Lipophilic
Travelwithaproteincarrier
Long1/2life
Bindstocytoplasmicornuclearreceptor
1stMessenger

Steroidhormonescont.
Genomiceffect
Activatesgenes
Directssynthesisof
newproteins

Lagtimebetween
hormonebindingand
effect=longtime.
Gonads&placenta
Adrenalcortex

3.AmineHormones
Synthesizedfroma
singleaminoacid
Melatoninfrom
tryptophan
Thyroidhormonefrom
tyrosine
Catecholamines(EPI,
DA)fromtyrosine

4.Eicosanoidhormones
Producedfrom20
carbonfattyacid,
arachadonicacid
Producedinallcells
exceptRBCs
2ndmessenger
Prostaglandinsand
leukotrienes
inflammation

4ClassesofHormones
A.
B.
C.
D.

Peptide/Protein
Steroid
Amine
Eicosanoid

2M

4ClassesofHormones
A.
B.
C.
D.

Peptide/Protein
Steroid
Amine
Eicosanoid

2M
1M

4ClassesofHormones
A.
B.
C.
D.

Peptide/Protein
Steroid
Amine
Eicosanoid

2M
1M
2M

4ClassesofHormones
A.
B.
C.
D.

Peptide/Protein
Steroid
Amine
Eicosanoid

2M
1M
2M
2M

NegativeFeedback
LowlevelsofT3orT4inbloodorlow
BMR=stimulus
HypothalamusreleasesTRH
TRHstimulatestheANTERIOR
PITUITARYtoreleaseTSH
TSHstim.ThyroidtoreleaseT3&T4
LevelsofT3&T4shutoffHypothal.&
AnteriorPituitary

Adrenalcortexfeedback
Lowglucocorticoid
(cortisol)levelsorlow
bloodsugar
Stim.Hypothal.=CRH
CRHstim.AnteriorPit.=
ACTH
ACTHstim.Adrenal
Cortex.
Increaseglucocort.Level
thenbloodsugarlevel

Adrenalgland

AdrenalProblems

HypersecretionofAdrenal
Cortex

WhatWouldtheFeedbackLoop
LookLikeforCushings
Syndrome?