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MEASUREMENT

OF
PHYSICS
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What is physics?

the natural science which


examines basic concepts such
as energy, force, and spacetime and all that derives from
these, such as mass, charge,
matter and its motion.

What is unit of physical


quantity?
The

unit of a physical
quantity is the standard
size used to compare
different magnitudes of
the same physical
quantity.

Quantities and Units


Form

sentences with these


quantities:
65km/h
1.76
m2
3m

Quantities and Units


There

are many units for each quantities

Example

- Length:
metres, centimetres, kilometres, feet,
inches, miles, nautical miles, light year

Only

one is an SI unit

Base Quantities and its


Unit
Base quantity

Base unit

Symbol

length

metre

mass

kilogram

kg

time

second

temperature

kelvin

current

ampere

Luminous intensity

candela

cd

Amount of substance

mole

mol

Derived Unit
Quantity

unit

Symbol

Volume

cubic meter

m3

Density

kilograms per cubic


meter

kg/m3

Speed

meter per second

m/s

Newton

kg m/ s2

Energy

Joule (kg m2/s2)

Pressure

Pascal (kg/ms2)

Pa

Prefixes
giga (G)
mega (M)
kilo (k)

X 109
X 106
X 103

X 1 000 000 000


X 1 000 000
X 1 000

deci (d)
centi (c)
milli (m)
micro ()
nano (n)

X 10-1
X 10-2
X 10-3
X 10-6
X 10-9

X 0.1
X 0.01
X 0.001
X 0.000 001
X 0.000 000 001

Scientific Notation

A number written as a product of two


numbers: a coefficient and a power of 10

Designed for the expression of very big and very


small numbers

1 gram of hydrogen contains


301,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 molecules
=3.01 x 1023 molecules

0.00081 = 8.1 x 10-4


Decimal moves 4 place to the right

34,000 = 3.4 x 104


Decimal move 4 places to the left

Powers of Ten

Used

for very large and very small


number
Precision expression

1018 10
15 10
12 -9
10
10-6
10-3

attofemt
opiconanomicomilli-

a
f
p
n

10 centi- c
10-1 deci- d
-2

101
102
103
106
109
101
2

dekahectakilomegagigatera-

101 peta5
101 exa8

da
h
k
M
G
T
P
E

Unit Conversion
Example:

Convert 5km to m:

Multiply

the original measurement by a


conversion factor.
1 km
5 km

1000 m

1000m
5km
1km

Answer: 5000 m

Unit Conversion: Example


Example:
Convert 789m to km:
789m x 1km =0.789km
1000m
= 7.89x10-1km

Convert 75.00 km/h to m/s


75.00 km x 1000 m x 1 h___ = 20.83m/s
h
1 km
3600 s

Limits of Measurement

Accuracy
and
Precision

Accuracy - a measure of how


close a measurement is to the
true value of the quantity being
measured.

Example: Accuracy
Who is more accurate when
measuring a book that has a true
length of 17.0cm?
Susan:
17.0cm, 16.0cm, 18.0cm, 15.0cm
Amy:
15.5cm, 15.0cm, 15.2cm, 15.3cm

Precision a measure of how


close a series of measurements
are to one another. A measure of
how exact a measurement is.

Example: Precision
Who is more precise when measuring
the same 17.0cm book?
Susan:
17.0cm, 16.0cm, 18.0cm, 15.0cm
Amy:
15.5cm, 15.0cm, 15.2cm, 15.3cm

Example: Evaluate whether the


following are precise, accurate or
both.

Accurate

Not Accurate Accurate

Not Precise Precise

Precise

Significant Figures
the number of meaningful
digits in a measured or
calculated quantity

Guidelines for Using


Significant Figures

Any digit that is not zero


is significant
Example: 845 cm has 3 SFs

Zeros between nonzero digits


are significant
Example: 40,501 kg contains 5 SFs

Zeros to the left of the first


nonzero digit are
not significant
Example: 0.008 L contains 1 SF

If the number is >1, then all


the zeros written to the right
of the decimal point is
significant
Example: 2.00 mg has 3 SFs

If a number is <1, the zeros


that are at the end of the
number and the zeros that are
between nonzero digits are
significant
Examples: 0.090 kg has 2 SFs
0.0405 g has 3 SFs

For numbers that do not contain


decimal points, the trailing zeros
(that is, zeros after the last
nonzero digit) may or may not
be significant
Example: 400 can be expressed as
4 x 102 for 1 SF
4.0 x 102 for 2 SFs