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# MEASUREMENT

OF
PHYSICS
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What is physics?

## the natural science which

examines basic concepts such
as energy, force, and spacetime and all that derives from
these, such as mass, charge,
matter and its motion.

## What is unit of physical

quantity?
The

unit of a physical
quantity is the standard
size used to compare
different magnitudes of
the same physical
quantity.

Form

quantities:
65km/h
1.76
m2
3m

There

## are many units for each quantities

Example

- Length:
metres, centimetres, kilometres, feet,
inches, miles, nautical miles, light year

Only

one is an SI unit

## Base Quantities and its

Unit
Base quantity

Base unit

Symbol

length

metre

mass

kilogram

kg

time

second

temperature

kelvin

current

ampere

Luminous intensity

candela

cd

Amount of substance

mole

mol

Derived Unit
Quantity

unit

Symbol

Volume

cubic meter

m3

Density

meter

kg/m3

Speed

m/s

Newton

kg m/ s2

Energy

Pressure

Pascal (kg/ms2)

Pa

Prefixes
giga (G)
mega (M)
kilo (k)

X 109
X 106
X 103

## X 1 000 000 000

X 1 000 000
X 1 000

deci (d)
centi (c)
milli (m)
micro ()
nano (n)

X 10-1
X 10-2
X 10-3
X 10-6
X 10-9

X 0.1
X 0.01
X 0.001
X 0.000 001
X 0.000 000 001

Scientific Notation

## A number written as a product of two

numbers: a coefficient and a power of 10

small numbers

## 1 gram of hydrogen contains

301,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 molecules
=3.01 x 1023 molecules

## 0.00081 = 8.1 x 10-4

Decimal moves 4 place to the right

## 34,000 = 3.4 x 104

Decimal move 4 places to the left

Powers of Ten

Used

## for very large and very small

number
Precision expression

1018 10
15 10
12 -9
10
10-6
10-3

attofemt
opiconanomicomilli-

a
f
p
n

10 centi- c
10-1 deci- d
-2

101
102
103
106
109
101
2

dekahectakilomegagigatera-

101 peta5
101 exa8

da
h
k
M
G
T
P
E

Unit Conversion
Example:

Convert 5km to m:

Multiply

## the original measurement by a

conversion factor.
1 km
5 km

1000 m

1000m
5km
1km

## Unit Conversion: Example

Example:
Convert 789m to km:
789m x 1km =0.789km
1000m
= 7.89x10-1km

## Convert 75.00 km/h to m/s

75.00 km x 1000 m x 1 h___ = 20.83m/s
h
1 km
3600 s

Limits of Measurement

Accuracy
and
Precision

## Accuracy - a measure of how

close a measurement is to the
true value of the quantity being
measured.

Example: Accuracy
Who is more accurate when
measuring a book that has a true
length of 17.0cm?
Susan:
17.0cm, 16.0cm, 18.0cm, 15.0cm
Amy:
15.5cm, 15.0cm, 15.2cm, 15.3cm

## Precision a measure of how

close a series of measurements
are to one another. A measure of
how exact a measurement is.

Example: Precision
Who is more precise when measuring
the same 17.0cm book?
Susan:
17.0cm, 16.0cm, 18.0cm, 15.0cm
Amy:
15.5cm, 15.0cm, 15.2cm, 15.3cm

## Example: Evaluate whether the

following are precise, accurate or
both.

Accurate

## Not Precise Precise

Precise

Significant Figures
the number of meaningful
digits in a measured or
calculated quantity

## Guidelines for Using

Significant Figures

## Any digit that is not zero

is significant
Example: 845 cm has 3 SFs

## Zeros between nonzero digits

are significant
Example: 40,501 kg contains 5 SFs

## Zeros to the left of the first

nonzero digit are
not significant
Example: 0.008 L contains 1 SF

## If the number is >1, then all

the zeros written to the right
of the decimal point is
significant
Example: 2.00 mg has 3 SFs

## If a number is <1, the zeros

that are at the end of the
number and the zeros that are
between nonzero digits are
significant
Examples: 0.090 kg has 2 SFs
0.0405 g has 3 SFs

## For numbers that do not contain

decimal points, the trailing zeros
(that is, zeros after the last
nonzero digit) may or may not
be significant
Example: 400 can be expressed as
4 x 102 for 1 SF
4.0 x 102 for 2 SFs