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Philosophy of

Education

Major philosophies of Education


Perennialis
m

Progressivis
m

Philosophie
s

Essentialism

Fishbone organizer

Existentialis
m

Social
Reconstructioni
sm

Jigsaw and fishbone


Groups of tables will be assigned one of the

philosophies on the fishbone organizer.


Using the handout, the group will become the
experts on the assigned philosophy(jigsaw)
The group will be responsible to summarize
the philosophy on the flip chart paper and
post their section of the fishbone onto the
bigger fishbone as well as explain it to the
rest of the group

A continuum
Student
Centered
Focus on
Self and
Society

Teacher
Centered
Focus on
the subject

Social
Reconstructionis
m

Perennialism
Essentialism

Existentialism

Progressivism

Presentations to group
When presenting the philosophy please

explain it in terms of the continuum and


why it fits in that section of the continuum.
You will also identify key philosophers

identified with this philosophy.

Perennealism
views truth as a constant
education is to ensure that students acquire

knowledge of unchanging principles or great ideas


great ideas have the best potential of solving the
problems of any era
curriculum should stress students growth in arts
and sciences
students should become culturally literate by
studying the best , most significant works that
humans have created
aim to teach students to become critical thinkers

Perennealism
Major Researchers
* Robert Maynard Hutchins (1899-1977)
* Mortimer Adler organized the great
Books of the Western World curriculum

Essentialism
believe that human culture has a core of

common knowledge that schools are


obliged to transmit to students in a
systematic, disciplined way
believe that there is a body of essential
knowledge and skills that all humans
need to know
schools should provide sound
instruction that is aimed at preparing
students to live life and comply with
societys accepted standards and need
for order.

Essentialism
* William C. Bagley ( 1874-1946)

Progressivism
education should be child centered
curriculum should be derived from students

interests
effective teaching takes into account the
whole child
learning is active, not passive
knowledge that is true in the present may
not be true in the future so students need to
be taught problem solving strategies
the teacher is a guide or resource to help
students learn about what

Progressivism
John Dewey

( 1859-1952

Existentialism
focuses on the experiences of the individual
helps learners focus on the meaning of their

learning, their life, their truth


emphasizes creative choice, the subjectivity of
human experience, and concrete acts of human
existence
schools must allow students freedom of choice
freedom has rules and respect for the freedom
of others is essential
schools should allow students to ask their own
questions, conduct their own inquiries, and draw
their own conclusions

Existentialism
* Jean Paul Sarte

* Maxine Greene

( 1905-1980)
( 1917 -

Social
Reconstructionism
school

should take the lead in changing or reconstructing society

reaction to the cold war climate and threat after WWII


schools should both transmit knowledge about the existing

social order but also seek to reconstruct it as well


belief in bringing the community into the classroom
actively seek to create a world wide democracy

Social
Reconstructionism
* Theodore Brameld ( 1904-1987)

* George Counts
( 1889-1974)

Psychological
orientations
In addition to the five major philosophical

orientations, several psychological theories


have formed the basis for teaching
philosophies.
Psychological theories are concerned with
understanding the conditions that are
associated with effective learning
There are many psychological orientations
that have influenced teaching philosophies
such as humanistic psychology, behaviourism,
and constructivism.

Humanistic Psychology
emphasizes freedom, choice, awareness,

personal responsibility
*goal of education is individual self-actualization
individuals control their own destinies through
the application of their intelligence and
reasoning
teachers should not force students to learn but
should create a climate of trust and respect that
allows students to decide what and how they will
learn
teachers become learning facilitators

Behaviorasim
based on the belief that desirable human behaviour

can be the product of design, not accident


our behaviour is determined by forces in our environment that shape our behaviour
learning conforms to a basic stimulus-response model
( operant conditioning)
teachers can create learners who respond by 1.
identifying the desired behaviours in concrete terms 2.
establishing a procedure for recording specific
behaviours and counting their frequencies 3. for each
behaviour, identify an appropriate reinforcer 4. ensure
that students receive the appropriate reinforcer as
soon as possible after displaying the desired behaviour

Constructivism

focus on processes of learning rather than on learning behaviour

believe that students construct understanding of the material to be

learned

support student centered curriculum

focus on mental processes and strategies that students use to lear

see learning as an active, meaning-making process

students are continuously involved in making sense of the things that

happen around them

teachers must realize that students learning is influenced by prior

knowledge, experience, attitudes, and social; interactions

Seasonal partners
Take out a sheet of extra paper
On this sheet make a symbol for every season

of the year and leave room to write


someones name under the season (see next
slide for model)
Your task is to fill this sheet with four different
partners who are not sitting at your table
These will be your seasonal partners.
You will be asked to meet with your seasonal
partners during further discussions

Seasonal partners
Winter partner
______________________

Spring partner
____________________

Fall partner
_________________

Summer partner
________________________

Personal beliefs
Teaching and
Learning
Students

Knowledge
What is worth
knowing
Philosophical areas

Philosophy
of
Education

Teaching
Behaviour

Personal beliefs
Please find your winter partner
With your winter partner discuss your

beliefs about teaching and learning.


Please find your summer partner
With this partner please discuss your beliefs

about what is worth knowing