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Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

History of Architecture 47
Week 03

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Chapter 19
The Spread of Modern Architecture to
Britain and Scandinavia

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Second Generation
These architects all had an influence in the 1930s. They were following
in the footsteps of the first generation of modern architects. (Mies,
Wright, Le Corbusier, Gropius )
The second generation wanted to follow the masters, but the masters
were also active, and were also changing their own positions on
architecture.
Aalto
Lubetkin
Maekawa
Niemeyer
Sert
Terragni

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Britain in the 1930s


Modern architecture was centered in France, Germany, Holland, and
Russia in the 1920s.
Because of global politics, in the 1930s, the hotbed of architectural
experimentation shifted to Britain and Scandinavia.
However, in Britain it took a long time for modern architecture to catch
on with the government. Much later , modern architecture would be
used to create mass housing schemes sponsored by the Labor
government.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Lubetkin
The most important modern architect in Britain in the 1930s. (textbook).
Russian. Born 1901.
Learned reinforced concrete in Paris in Atelier Perret. (Auguste Perret).
An adherent of Le Corbusiers Five Points for architecture.
Free Faade
Free Plan
Roof Garden
Pilotis
Ribbon Window

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Lubetkin

Lubetkin and Tecton. Zoo Bedfordshire. 1934

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Lubetkin

Lubetkin and Tecton. Penguin Pool. London Zoo. 1934

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Reinforced concrete
ramps were a structural
innovation at the time.
Abstraction of spatial
concept was very new to
Brtain at the time.

Lubetkin

Recalls Russian
Constructivist Stage Sets.
Engineer Ove Arup.

Lubetkin and Tecton. Penguin Pool. London Zoo. 1934

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Building was on PILOTIS


Project was praised by Le
Corbusier.
Based on Le Corbusiers 5
points of new architecture.

High Point Flats

Lubetkin and Tecton. High Point Flats. London 1933

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Lubetkin

Lubetkin and Tecton. High Point Flats. London 1933

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Occupants included
Mondrian, Gropius, and
Breuer, after they left
the continent.

Wells Coates

Wells Coates. Lawn Road Flats. 1932.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Wells Coates

Wells Coates. Canadian. Born in Japan.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Mendelsohn

Erich Mendelsohn. De la Marr Seaside Pavilion. Bexhill, Sussex. 1933-35

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Aplund

Eric Gunnar Asplund. Stockholm Exhibition Building. 1930

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Aplund

Eric Gunnar Asplund. Crematorium. Woodland Cemetery. Stockholm. 1935

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Bryggman

Erik Bryggman. Resurrection Funerary Chapel. Turku. 1938

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Alvar Aalto
Another Scandinavian who combined modernism with the culture of northern
Europe.
Finnish. Born 1898.
Influenced by 2 things: Nordic classicism, as exemplified by Asplund, and a
national romantic tendency, which drew on the Gothic revival, and on H.H.
Richardson, well represented by Eliel Saarinens work.
Aalto would succeed in forging a synthesis between these 2 tendencies.
A direct and elegant use of local materials, particularly timber.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Aalto. Sanomat

Alvar Aalto. Sanomat. Turku. 1927-9

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Aalto. Viipuri

Alvar Aalto. Viipuri Public Library. 1927-35. Acoustic Ceiling

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Aalto.

Alvar Aalto.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Aalto. Paimuri Sanatarium

Alvar Aalto. Paimuri Sanatarium. 1929-33

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Aalto. Paimuri Sanatarium

Alvar Aalto. Paimuri Sanatarium. 1929-33

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Aalto. Paimuri Sanatarium

Alvar Aalto. Paimuri Sanatarium. 1929-33

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Aalto. Paimuri Sanatarium

Alvar Aalto. Paimuri Sanatarium. 1929-33

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Alvar Aalto

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Alvar Aalto Viipuri Library Competition

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Alvar Aalto Villa Mairea 1938-39

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Alvar Aalto Villa Mairea 1938-39

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Alvar Aalto Villa Mairea 1938-39

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Alvar Aalto Villa Mairea 1938-39

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Alvar Aalto Villa Mairea 1938-39

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Alvar Aalto Villa Mairea 1938-39

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Chapter 20
Totalitarian Critiques of the Modern Movement

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Architecture and Dictatorship


Monumental architecture has been used throughout history to embody the values
of dominant ideologies and groups.
In the 1930s, the totalitarian regimes that came to power in Germany, Italy, and
Russia devoted great attention to the ways that buildings and city plans could be
used to support their position. Symbolism was used to convey beliefs.

In these circumstances, modern architecture seemed at best marginal, at worst a


dangerous threat in need of extermination.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Mies Reichsbank

Mies van der Rohe. Reichsbank Competition. 1933

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Nazi archtiecture

Model of Nazi party Chancellory.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Nazi archtiecture

Adolf Speer

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Nazi archtiecture

Albert Speer. Plan for rebuilding Berlin. 1930s

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Nazi archtiecture

National Socialist Light Show. Berlin.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Nazi archtiecture

Speer. Proposed Reichs Chancellory. 290m. 1930s Model

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Speer dome

Speer. Proposed ReichsChancellory. 290m. 1930s Model

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Speer dome

Hitler Architectural Drawings. 1920s

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

The 3rd Reich. 1929-41


The National Socialist philosophy was enhanced with the
publication of a book The Peasantry as the Life Source of the
Nordic Race, which first advanced the idea of a Blood and Soil
culture, advocating a return to the land. The writer, Darre, an
agronomist, helped develop the anti-urban racial ideology of the
nazis.
In 1932, another book The Struggle over Art denigrated urban
dwellers as those who had lost any concept of the homeland.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Triumph of the Will. Film. 1934

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Speer. Zeppelinfield. 1936

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Speer. German Pavilion. Paris. 1937

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Zepplinfield

Zeppelinfield nuremburg rally 1930s

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Speer New Chancellory

Speer. New Chancellory Berlin. 1938

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Chapter 21
International, National, Regional; the diversity of a new
tradition.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

After periods of drastic innovation in the history of forms, it is not unusual for there
to be a phase of reflection in which foundation myths are set in place, lines of
descent are sanctified and claims of universality are made.
While some writers reitereated functionalist explanations of the new architecture,
others preferred to concentrate on matters of form.
Hitchcock and Johnson (1932) focused on the general features of what they took
to be an international style.
In Giedions writings of the 1930s, the 19th century emerged as a divided age;
modernism as a resolution and synthesis of earlier contradictions and antitheses.
Individual creators such as Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe took their place in
an almost evolutionary historical process. The scheme was exclusive, and had
little place for the expressionism of mendelsohn, or for the romanticism of
Wrights California houses of the 1920s.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Generic modern devices such as the steel frame, the concrete skeleton, the free
faade, the hovering horizontal and the planar wall were moved around the world,
encountering diverse climates, societies, technologies, traditions, architectural
languages, even varying definitions of modernity. Sometimes the new simply
collided with the old, sometimes there was a mutual transformation.
Modernism clearly had its uses in both Democratic and Fascist states.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Robert Maillart

Robert Maillart. Salgintobl Bridge. Switzerland. 1930

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Pier Luigi Nervi

Pier Luigi Nervi. Orvieto Aircraft Hangar. 1936

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Eduardo Torroja

Eduardo Torroja.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Eduardo Torroja

Eduardo Torroja. Zarzuela Racecourse Grandstand. Madrid. 1935

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Eduardo Torroja

Eduardo Torroja. Zarzuela Racecourse Grandstand. Madrid. 1935

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Chareau

Pierre Chareau Maison la Verre. 1928

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Chareau

Lurcat Karl Marx School. Villejuif, 1931

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Jean Prouve

Jean Prouve. Maison du Peuple. Paris. 1937-39

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Libera

Libera. Casa Malaparte. Capri. 1938-42

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Libera

Libera. Casa Malaparte. Capri. 1938-42

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Libera

Libera. Casa Malaparte. Capri. 1938-42

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Jose Luis Sert

Jose Luis Sert. Spanish Pavilion. Paris Expo. 1937

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Jose Luis Sert

Picasso. Guernica. Exhibited at Spanish Pavilion.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Erich Mendelsohn

Erich Mendelsohn. Hadassah Hospital. Jerusalem. 1934-39

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Oscar Niemeyer

Oscar Niemeyer. Pampulha Casino. 1942-43

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Oscar Niemeyer

Oscar Niemeyer. Pampulha Casino. 1942-43

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Oscar Niemeyer

Oscar Niemeyer. St. Francis Church. Pampulha. 1943

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Oscar Niemeyer

Oscar Niemeyer. St. Francis Church. Pampulha. 1943

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Oscar Niemeyer

Oscar Niemeyer. St. Francis Church. Pampulha. 1943

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Other Famous Works of O'Gorman Include


The house-studio of Diego Rivera , which was the first of its
kind and was created in 1928
Murals in the Nation Museum of Anthropology which
illustrate the history of aviation
Murals in the Mexico City Airport. Two of the three mural
panels were removed in 1939 for anticlerical and antifascist
character
In 1932-1935 he constructed 29 schools which were mostly
elementary schools with funtionalist structure
His own house, outside Mexico City, which was created in
1953-1956 and was later destroyed in 1969, is considered
his most extraodrinary work.
Many murals and mosaics in public places
Many of his works reflect the history of Mexico, the Mexican
Revolution, the history of the Mayans and Aztecs and other
political issues, such as separation of church and state.
Juan OGorman

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Juan OGorman

Juan OGorman. House for Frida Kahlo.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Juan OGorman

Juan OGorman. Painting

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Juan OGorman

Juan OGorman. Painting

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Juan OGorman

Juan OGorman. Self-portrait.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Juan OGorman

Juan OGorman. Casa di Diego.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Luis Barragan

Luis Barragan

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Luis Barragan

Luis Barragan. Los Clubes. Mexico City.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Luis Barragan

Luis Barragan House. Tacubaya. Mexico City.

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Luis Barragan

Luis Barragan. Convent

Arch 47 History of Architecture 1945 to Present

Luis Barragan

Luis Barragan. Espacial XI.