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BMED 3107

Integrated Body Systems


IV
Endocrine & Reproductive
Systems
Department of Health &
Biomedical Sciences

Surface Anatomy-Endocrine
System

Endocrine System
Components
Endocrine system - glands, tissues, and cells that
secrete hormones
Endocrinology the study of this system and the
diagnosis and treatment of its disorders
Endocrine glands organs that produce hormones
Hormones - chemical messengers transported by the
bloodstream that stimulate responses in another tissue
or organ, often far away

Endocrine System
Functions:
Interacts closely with nervous system
Maintain body homeostasis through its
network of glands, which produce, store,
and secrete hormones that regulate:

Metabolism
Growth and development
Sleep/mood
Reproduction
Sexual function

Endocrine Organs
Scattered throughout the body
Pure endocrine organs
Pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, and
adrenal glands

Organs containing endocrine cells


Pancreas, thymus, gonads, and the
hypothalamus

Richly vascularized

Hypothalamus
Very small but important
structure
Location:
Forms floor and walls of 3rd
ventricle of brain
Superior and anterior to brainstem
Inferior to thalamus and above
pituitary gland

Function:
Controls the endocrine system by
controlling the pituitary gland
Controls the endocrine system to
maintain homeostasis
Temperature regulation, control of
food and water intake

Pituitary Gland
Referred to as the
Master gland

Pea-sized gland
Location:
Base of the brain
Beneath the hypothalamus
Suspended from hypothalamus by
a stalk (infundibulum)

Divided into 2 structures:


Anterior lobe
(Adenohypophysis)
Posterior lobe
(Neurohypophysis)

Pituitary Gland

Pituitary Gland
Components
Anterior
AnteriorPituitary
of pituitary
linked to
hypothalamus by
hypophyseal portal
system
Primary capillaries in
hypothalamus
connected to anterior
pituitary
Hypothalamic
hormones regulate
anterior pituitary cells

Posterior
PosteriorPituitary
of pituitary
Nerve cell bodies in
hypothalamus pass
down the stalk as
(hypothalamohypophyseal tract)
and end in posterior
lobe
Hypothalamic neurons
secrete hormones that
are stored in posterior
pituitary until released
into blood

Hypophyseal Portal System


*The
neurohypophysis
is a continuation
of the brain

Pituitary Gland
Anterior Lobe

Posterior Lobe

Function:
Secretes the following:
Melanocyte stimulating
hormone (MSH)
Growth hormone (GH)
Adrenocorticotropic
hormone (ACTH)
Prolactin hormone (PRL)
Thyroid stimulating
hormone (TSH)
Lutenizing hormone (LH)
Follicle stimulating
hormone (FSH)

Function:
Secrete the following:
Anti-diuretic hormone
(ADH)
Oxytocin

Pineal Gland
Also referred to as:
Pineal body

Small, oval structure


Location:
Roof of diencephalon

Endocrine function:
Pinealocytes
Secretes melatonin
Regulates circadian rhythm
(sleep and wake cycle)

Thyroid Gland
Location:
Anteriorly in the neck
Anterolateral to
pharynx/trachea

Divided into:
Right and left lobes

Blood supply:
Superior and inferior
thyroid arteries
Thyroid plexus of veins

Thyroid
Gland
Role in Endocrine
System:
Follicular cells
Secrete thyroid
hormone (T3 and T4)
Carries iodine
Regulates basal
metabolic rate

Parafollicular cells
Secrete calcitonin
Regulates calcium
levels important for
bone tissue and heart
muscle contraction

Parathyroid Gland
4 parathyroid glands
Small, flattened, oval shaped

Location:
Embedded on the posterior
surface of thyroid gland

Divided into:
Superior and inferior
parathyroid glands

Blood supply:
Inferior thyroid arteries
Parathyroid veins

Parathyroid Gland
Role in endocrine
system:
Secrete parathyroid
hormone
Helps increase calcium
concentration in the
blood by:
Breaks down bone causing
calcium increase
Absorbs calcium from food
Increases the kidneys
ability to hold onto calcium
(that may be lost in urine)

Thymus
Lymphoid organ
More prominent in
infants and children
Location:
lower part of neck and
anterior to superior
portion of mediastinum
Posterior to sternum

Blood supply:
Internal thoracic
arteries

Thymus
Role in Endocrine System:
Secretes the hormone thymosin
Stimulates development and maturation of Tlymphocytes
T-lymphocytes: group of white blood cells that
help fight off infection (aid the immune system
response)
More prominent in infants and children
Only active until puberty
Once T cells have fully matured they migrate to
lymph nodes throughout the body

Adrenal
Gland

Half-moon shape
Location: superior surface of each kidney
Has two primary layers: cortex (outer) and medulla (inner)
Covered by a dense CT capsule that send thin septa to the
interior of the gland as a trabeculae.
The stroma consists mainly of a rich network of reticular fibers
that support the secretory cells.

Adrenal Gland
Role in Endocrine System:
Cortex (outer layer)
Forms the bulk of the gland
Secretes the hormones:
Cortisol
Aldosterone
Androgens

Medulla (inner layer)


Part of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS)
Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine

Pancreas
Long flattened gland
Location:
Posterior to the
stomach

Divided into 4 parts:


Head, neck, body,
and tail

Blood supply:
Pancreatic arteries
Pancreatic veins

Pancreas
Exocrine Function
Produce enzymes
important
to digestion
When food enters the
stomach, pancreatic
juices are released into
pancreatic duct, which
later empty into the
small intestine
Helps the body digest
fats

Endocrine Function
Islets of Langerhans
Clusters of pancreatic cells
Secrete 2 main pancreatic
hormones:
Insulin
Lowers blood sugar

Glucagon
Raises blood sugar

Proper blood sugar levels


is vital to homeostasis of
key organs in the body
such as the brain, liver,
and kidneys.

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