Anda di halaman 1dari 55

Refrigeration and

cryogenics

Zakad Kriogeniki i Technologii Gazowych


Dr hab. in. Maciej Chorowski, prof. PWr

Methods of lowering the


temperature

Isentropic expansion
Joule-Thomson expansion
Free expansion gas exhaust

Gas isentropic expansion with


external work
T
p
h

2'

Gas isentropic expansion with


external work
Drop of the gas temperature:
Entropy is a function of pressure and temperature
S= S(p, T)
Total differential must be equal to zero:

S
S
dp 0
dS
dT
T p
p T
Differential effect of isentropic expansion s shows the
change in temperature with respect to the change of
pressure:
S

dT

s
dp

Gas isentropic expansion with


external work
We know from thermodynamics

We get

dT

s
dp

v
T

cp

where: is coefficient of cubical expansion

cp

cp

Gas isentropic expansion with


external work

For the ideal gas:

1 T
s
p
After integration
T2 p2


T 1 p1

Piston expander

2
1
p

6
1

G AZ
p 1, T 1, h

G AZ
p 2, T 2, h

Cryogenic turboexpander
G AZ
p 1, T 1, h

G AZ
p2
T2
h2

Isenthalpic Joule-Thomson expansion

When gas, vapour or


liquid expands
adiabatically in an
open system without
doing any external
work, and there is no
increment in velocity
on the system
reference surface, the
process is referred to
as throttle expansion.
In practice, this
process is implemented
by installing in the gas
stream some hydraulic
resistance such as
throttling valve, gate,
calibrated orifice,
capillary, and so on.

1
w

2
w

p
p

q1 2

1 2
w2 w12 g z 2 z1 h2 h1 l1 2
2

Isenthalpic Joule-Thomson expansion


T
p

h
T

T
T

h'
K

Isenthalpic Joule-Thomson expansion

Temperature drop in Isenthalpic Joule-Thomson expansion

Enthalpy is a function of pressure and temperature:


h= h(p, T)
Total differential must be equal to zero:
h
h
dp
dh
dT
t p
p T
Differential throttling effect h: h

dT
p

h
h
dp h

Isenthalpic Joule-Thomson expansion


p, M Pa
1 0 0 ,0

Ar

5 0 ,0
2 5 ,0
N e

1 0 ,0
5 ,0
H

2 ,5

p o w ie t r z e
N

1 ,0

H e

0 ,5
3

10

25

50

100

250

500

1000

T, K

Isenthalpic Joule-Thomson expansion


Gas

Maximal inversion temperature, K


eksperyment

z rwnania van der


Walsa

Argon

765

-----

Azot

604

837

Hel 3

39

-----

Hel 4

46

34,3

Neon

230

-----

Powietrze

650

895

Metan

953

-----

Tlen

771

1090

204,6

223

Wodr

Free expansion (exhaust)


V

T 0,p

pf V

Free expansion (exhaust)

1.
2.

3.
4.

Adiabatic process
Non equilibrium process gas
pressure and external pressure are
not the same
Constant external pressure (pf=
const.)
External work against pressure pf

Free expansion (exhaust)


Final gas temperature:
I Law of Thermodynamics

u f u0 p f (v f v0 )
where:
u0, uf initial and final gas internal energy
v0, vf initial and final gas volume

Free expansion (exhaust)


For ideal gas:
u f u 0 c v (T f T0 )
p 0 v 0 RT0
p f v f RT f

c v R / 1

We get:

1 p f

T f To
T0
1

p0

T0
k

T f 1 p f / p 0 k 1

Comparison of the
processes for air

Cryogenic gas
refrigerators

Heat exchangers

Recuperative

Regenerative

Comparison of coolers

Refrigerators with recuperative


heat exchangers
Joule Thomson refrigerators

Examples of miniature JouleThomson refrigerator

Claude refrigerators

Stirling coolers

Stirling cooler

Stirling cooler

p
p

m ax

In Stirling refrigerator a cycle consists


of two isotherms and two isobars
q

H2O

q H 2O
T0
1

3
p

T0

m in

T
R

Stirling cycle is realized


in four steps :
1.
Step 1-2: Isothermal
gas compression in
warm chamber
2.
Step 2-3: Isochoric
gas cooling in
regenerator
3.
Step 3-4:Isothermal
gas expansion with
external work
4.
Step 4-1: Isochoric
gas heating in
regenerator

T
q H2O
2

T0
V

V
T

Stirling split cooler

Stirling cooler with


linear motor

Efficiency of Stirling cooler


filled with ideal gas
Str

q
T

lc le T0 T

v2

v2
dv
l c RTo
RTo ln
v
v1
v1
v1

dv
v1
le RT
RT ln
v
v2
v2

v2
q RT ln
v1

Work of
isothermal
compression
Work of
isothermal
expansion
Heat of
isothermal
expansion

Stirling cooler configuration:

Stirlin
g
cooler
used
for air
liquefa
ct-ion

Stirling cooler used for air


liquefaction

Two stage Stirling


refrigerator

Gifforda McMahon cooler

Gifforda McMahon cooler


Four steps of McMahon cycle:
1.
Filling .
2.
Gas displacement
3.
Free exhaust of the gas
4.
Discharge of cold chamber
Efficiency of McMahon cooler:
T p1 / p 2 1
GM
To p1 / p 2 T ln p1 / p 2

McMahon refrigerator

Combination of McMahon
and J-T cooler, 250 mW at
2,5 K

Pulse tube free exhaust


V

T 0,p

pf V

Scheme of pulse tube


cooler

Development of pulse tube


coolers
Gifford, 1963,
rather curiosity that
efficient cooler
Kittel, Radebaugh,
1983 orifice pulse
tube

Dr. Zhu et. al., 1994,


multiply by-pass pulse
tube

Comparison of Stirling and


orifice pulse tube cooler

Pulse tube cooler for 77 K


applications
Weight:2.4 kg
Dimensions (l x w x h):11.4 x 11.4 x
22 cm
Capacity:2.5W @ 65K
Ultimate low temperature:35K
Input power2kW

Pulse tube

Two stage pulse tube

Pulse tube configuration

Adiabatic demagnetization
of paramagnetic

Paramagnetic salts

Magnetic coolers

Magnetic cooler

Magnetic cooler with


moving paramagnetic

Three stage magnetic


cooler with magnetic
regenerator

Ceramic magnetic
regenerator material
Gd2O2S with an
average diameter of
0.35 mm for G-M and
pulse tube
cryocoolers.

Cooler efficiency at 80 K

Family of cryocoolers