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Chapter 3

MODELING OF
DYNAMIC SYSTEM

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Transfer Function

Ratio of Laplace transform of the output to the

Laplace transform of input under the assumption
that all I.C. = 0
Used to describe forced response of system
initially in equilibrium (I.C.=0)
Property of the system; same for any input!
Summarizes all information about ODE (model)

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Transfer Function

Transfer function completely characterizes

systems performance.
The transfer function can be represented as a block
diagram with input, output, and the system transfer
function inside the block.

The Laplace transform of the output (response) is

equal to the product of the transfer function and
the Laplace transform of the input,

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Impulse

. The notion of an impulse function ( or -function) rather theoretical,

however, its role in the system analysis is invaluable.
. Definition: The impulse function (-function) is a real valued function of
real argument with the following properties:

. Consider a rectangular pulse with base c > 0 and height 1/c shown in figure.

. If c 0 then the pulse becomes to be very tall and very thin, while its area
remains equal to 1.
. From practical point of view, for very small c > 0 such a pulse gives good
approximation of the (impulse) function.

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BLOCK DIAGRAMS

Block diagram: pictorial representation of the functions performed by

components and flow of signals.

- Block
- Summing point
- Branch point

E(s)

B(s)

Open-loop transfer function: B/E = GH

Feed forward transfer function: C/E = G
Closed-loop transfer function: C/R = G/(1+GH)

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Combining blocks in cascade

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Parallel Subsystem

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1. The product of the TF in the feedforward direction remains the same.

2. The product of the TF around the loop remains the same.

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AUTOMATIC CONTROLLERS

An automatic controller compares the actual value the plant

output with the reference input (desired value), determines
the deviation, and produces a control signal that will reduce
the deviation to zero or to a small value. The manner in
which the automatic controller produces the control signal is
called the control action.

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AUTOMATIC CONTROLLERS
Two-position (on-off) control action
Proportional control action
Integral control action
Derivative control action
PI control action
PD control action
PID control action

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Closed-Loop System Subjected to a Disturbance

Two inputs (the reference input and disturbance) in a linear system: each input can be treated
independently of the other; and the outputs corresponding to each input alone can be
added to give the complete output.

Advantage of the closed-loop system :

1. Consider G1H1 > 1 and G1G2H1 > 1. In this case, CD/ D becomes almost zero,
and the effect of the disturbance is suppressed.
2. If G1G2H1 > 1 then CR/ R becomes independent of G1 and G2 and becomes
inversely proportional to H so that the variations of G1 and G2 do not affect the
CR/ R. It can easily be seen that any closed-loop system with unity

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Complex system involves multiple inputs and multiple outputs

and may be time varying. It can be analyzed based on the
concept of state (modern control theory).
State the smallest set of variables such that the knowledge of
these variables and the input functions will, with the equations
describing the dynamics, provide the future state and output of
the system.
State Variables: describe the future response of a system, given
the present state (initial conditions), the excitation inputs, and
the equations describing the dynamics.

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A SPRING-MASS-DAMPER SYSTEM
In this case the position and the velocity of the
mass are sufficient to describe the state of the
system.
Define a set of state variables as (x1, x2), where
x1(t) = y(t); x2(t) = dy(t)/dt
E.O.M.
M dx2(t)/dt + bx2(t) + kx1(t) = u(t)
Two first-order differential equations
dx1/dt = x2
dx2/dt = (b/M) x2 (k/M) x1 + (1/M) u

1
x 1 0
x k / m b / m

x1 0
x1
x 1 / m u y 1 0 x
2

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The state of a system is described by a set of first-order differential

equations written in terms of the state variables [x1, x2,, xn ].

In matrix form-- state differential equation and output equation:

where,
x = state vector; y = output vector; u = input vector
A = system matrix; B = input matrix; C = output matrix; D = feedforward matrix

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Given the state variable model, obtain the transfer function of a

single-input, single-output system.

Where, y is the single output and u is the single input.

The Laplace transform of these equations are given by, assume x(0)=0

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y ( n ) a1 y ( n 1) ... an y b0u ( n ) b1u ( n 1) bnu

Define state variables as
x1 y 0u
x2 x 1 1u

State equation

x 1
x
2

0
0

x n

an

0 b0
1 b1 a1 0

n bn a1 n 1 an 0

an 1

an 2

a1 xn

x1
x
2

y 1 0 0

0u

xn

Or,

x1
x
2

xn x n 1 n 1u
where

0
0

1

2

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TRANSFORMATION OF
MATHEMATICAL MODELS WITH MATLAB

From Transfer Function to State Space

[A, B, C, D] = tf2ss(num,den)
Ex. p83

From State Space to Transfer Function

[num, den] = ss2tf(A, B, C, D, iu)

iu must be either 1, 2, or 3, if three

inputs (u1, u2, u3 ), where 1 implies u1.