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Federalism

By: Rohaizan Baharuddin

Introduction
Federal constitution of Malaysia significantly
divides the authority between each layer/level of
government as below
1) Federal / National / Central government
2) State government
3) Local government
This system is called Federalism

Federalism
Derived from Latin word foedus which means treaty,
agreement or union
It is a system with constitutionally guaranteed division
of power between central government and regional
governments (state/local) so that the government at
each level has some activities on which it makes final
decisions

Federalism (cont.)
1) Federal / National / Central Govt.
- concern with national issues in the country
- e.g. defense, internal security, economics,
foreign affairs, etc.
Structure of Federal Government
a) YDPA
b) Legislature
c) Executive
d) Judiciary

Federalism (cont.)
2) State Government
- State structure:
a) Sultan
b) State Legislative Council (DUN)
c) State Advisory Council (EXCO)

Federalism (cont.)
a) Sultan
- Sultan or Yang di-Pertua Negeri is the head of state
- has the prerogatives to dissolve the Assembly upon
the advice of the Chief Minister
- has to assent to all Bills passed by the Dewan before
they become law
- has power to grand pardons, reprieves and
respites in respect of all other offences committed in
his State.

Federalism (cont.)
b) State Legislative Council [Dewan Undangan Negeri
(DUN)]
The legislature of each of the 13 Malaysian states
Directly elected by people
The majority party in each assembly forms the state
government
The leader of the majority party becomes Menteri Besar or
Chief Minister of the state.
The state legislative assemblies are unicameral.
have powers to enact state laws
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Federalism (cont.)
c)

State Advisory Council (EXCO)

Its function is similar to the Cabinet at federal level.


Lead by Menteri Besar or Chief Minister who
appointed by sultan/ YDP
Give advise to the Sultan about state administration
State List comprises matters such as land,
agriculture, forestry, local government, river, Muslim
law, etc

Federalism (cont.)
c)

Local Government
- Three types of local government;
i) City Hall (DB)
ii) Town Council (MP)
iii) District Council (MD)

Federalism (cont.)
Roles of Local Government
Managing local inhabitants affairs and interest
Accept and execute orders from state
government
Synchronize local government policies with
federal government.
Maintaining environment, safety and cleanliness
of the town/city/district.

The differences of jurisdiction at


federal, state & concurrent levels
Federal list

State list

Concurrent list

External Affair

Muslim law

Social welfare

Defense

Land

Scholarship

Internal security

Agriculture & Forestry

Protection of wildlife

Civil & criminal law

Local government

Town & country planning

Citizenship

Reverie fishing

Drainage & venery

Finance

Library,Musuems

Housing

Commerce & industry


Shipping
Communication &
transportation
Education
Health
Labour
Fishery
Tourism

Culture & sport

THE END

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