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Engineering Drawing Project

Engineering Drawing (FCE 142)

Group Members

Standard Engineering Lettering


and Lines

Elements of Engineering Drawing


Engineering drawing are made up of graphics
language and word language.

Graphics language
Describe a shape (mainly).

Word language
Describe an exact size,
location and specification
of the object.

Elements of Engineering Drawing


Engineering Drawing
Word
language

Graphics
language
Geometric
construction
Line Types

Projection
method

Lettering

Introduction to Types of Lines


Each line has a definite form and line weight.
The standard thick line weight is 0.6mm HB Lead.
The standard thin line weight is 0.3mm HB Lead.
The standard construction line weight is 0.5mm 2H
Lead.

Basic Line Types &


Name according to application
Thickness
Style

Thick

Thin
Visible line

Continuous
Dash
Chain

1. Dimension line
2. Extension line
3. Leader line
Hidden line
Center line

1. Visible line

represent features that can be seen in the current view.

2. Dimension line
Extension line
Leader line

indicate the sizes and location of features.

3. Hidden line

represent features that cannot be seen in the current view.

4. Center line

represents symmetry, path of motion, centers of circles,


axis of axisymmetrical parts.

Main Line Types


Viewing Planes

Visible Lines

Hidden Lines

Break Lines

Center Lines

Phantom Lines

Dimension Lines

Section Lines

Cutting Planes

Lines

Extension Lines

Leader Lines

Visible/Object Lines
Dark, heavy lines.
Used to represent the outline or contour of the object
being drawn.
Define features you can see in a particular view.

Hidden Lines
Light, narrow, short, dashed lines.
Shows the outline of a feature that can not be seen in
a particular view.
Used to help clarify a feature, but can be omitted if
they clutter a drawing.

Hidden Lines (Technique)

Section Lines
Thin line usually drawn at a 45 degree angle.
Indicates the material that has been cut through in a
sectional view.

Sectio
n Line

Center Lines
Thin line consisting of alternating long and short
dashes.
Used to represent the center of round or cylindrical
features, or the symmetry of a feature.

Dimension Lines
Thin lines capped on the ends with arrowheads and
broken along their length to provide a space for the
dimension numeral.
They indicate length.

Extension Lines
Thin lines used to establish the extent of a dimension.
Can also be used to show extension of a surface to a
theoretical intersection as shown in (b).
Begin 1.5mm from the object and extend to 3mm
beyond the last dimension.
They should not cross dimension lines.

Leader Lines
Thin lines used to connect a specific note to a feature.
Also used to direct dimensions, symbols, item number and
part numbers on a drawing.
Commonly drawn at 45, 30 and 60 degrees.
Has a short shoulder (3-6mm) at one end beginning at the
center of the vertical height of text, and a standard
dimension arrowhead at the other end touching the feature.

Leader lines should not cross


each other.
Leader lines should not be
excessively long.
Leader lines should not be
vertical or horizontal.
Leader lines should not be
parallel to dimension lines,
extension lines or section lines.

Arrowheads
Used to terminate dimension lines and leader lines and on
cutting-plane lines and viewing plane lines.
They should be three times as long as they are wide.
They should be the same size throughout the drawing.
The filled arrowhead is generally preferred because of its
clarity.

Cutting Plane Lines


Thick broken line that is terminated with short 90
degree arrowheads.
Shows where a part is mentally cut in half to better
see the interior detail.

Cutting Plane Lines (Example)

Break Lines
Used to break out sections for clarity or for shortening
a part.
Three types of break lines with different line weights:
a) Short Breaks.
b) Long Breaks.
c) Cylindrical Breaks.

a) Short Break Lines


Thick wavy line.
Used to break the edge or surface of a part for clarity
of a hidden surface.

(a) Short break line on metal shape;


(b) Short Break Line on wood shape.

b) Long Break Lines


Long, thin lines.
Used to show that the middle section of an object has
been removed so it can be drawn on a smaller piece
of paper.

c) Cylindrical Break Lines


Thin lines.
Used to show round parts that are broken in half to
better clarify the print or to reduce the length of the
object.

Cylindrical conventional breaks for a solid and tube;


where R = Radius

Phantom Lines
Thin lines made up of long dashes alternating with
pairs of short dashes.
Three purposes in drawings
a) To show the alternate position of moving parts.
b) To show the relationship of parts that fit together.
c) To show repeated detail.

Phantom Lines (Examples)

Grades of Pencils used in Lines

Example 1

Example 2

Lettering in Engineering Drawing


Lettering is used to provide easy to read and understand
information to supplement a drawing in the form of notes
and annotations.
Lettering is an essential element in both
traditional drawing and Computer Aided Design
(CAD) drawing
Thus, it must be written with:
Legibility shape & space between letters and words.
Uniformity size & line thickness.

Types of Lettering
The two types of lettering are:
1.Double Stroke Lettering.
2.Single Stroke Lettering.

1. Double Stroke Lettering


In Double Stroke Lettering the line width is greater than that of
Single Stroke Lettering.
Double Stroke Lettering is further divided into:
a)Double Stroke Vertical Gothic Lettering.
b)Double Stroke Inclined Gothic Lettering.
A stencil is mostly used when hand drawing double stroked letters.

2. Single Stroke Lettering


Thickness in single stroke lettering is obtained by a single stroke of
pencil or ink pen.
It is further divided into:
(a) Single Stroke Vertical Gothic Lettering.
(b) Single Stroke Inclined Gothic Lettering.

Single stroke vertical letters

Single stroke inclined letters

Conventions for Lettering

Use all CAPITAL LETTERS.

Use even pressure to draw precise, clean lines.

Use one stroke per line.

Horizontal Stroke are drawn left to right.

Vertical Strokes are drawn downward.

Curved strokes are drawn top to bottom in one continuous stroke on


each side.

Use kerning to eliminate excessive space between letters.


[kerning refers to adjusting the space between characters, especially by
placing two characters closer together than normal. Kerning makes certain
combinations of letters, such as WA, MW, TA, and VA, look better.]

Conventions for Lettering (cont.)

Use The Single-stroke, Gothic Style of Lettering.

Always Skip A Space Between Rows Of Letters.

Always Use Very Light Guide Lines.

Fractions Are Lettered Twice The Height Of Normal Letters.

Fraction Bars Are Always Drawn Horizontal.

Use a Medium (B, HB, F or H) Lead For Normal Lettering.

Use a Hard (2H To 4H) Lead For Drawing Guide Lines.

Notes should be double spaced.

Application of Lettering
Lettering in Engineering Drawings is used in writing
Title Blocks which play a crucial role in drawings, they
are used to record all of the important information
necessary for the working drawings. A HB Pencil is used.
What does the Title Block contain?

Other uses of lettering include Dimensions and Notes


on the engineering drawing.

Placement of text on Engineering Drawings

Try and locate the text on the drawings going around.

Guidelines
Extremely light horizontal lines that are necessary to regulate
the height of letters.
In addition, light vertical or inclined guidelines are needed to
keep the letters uniformly vertical or inclined.
Guidelines are absolutely essential for good lettering.
Guidelines are drawn using Hard (2H to 4H) Lead Pencils with
light pressure. HB grade conical end pencils are used for
lettering.

Procedure for Lettering

Thin horizontal guide lines are drawn first at a distance h apart.


Lettering Technique: Horizontal lines of the letters are drawn from
left to right. Vertical, inclined and curved lines are drawn from top to
bottom.
After lettering has been completed, the guidelines are not erased.

Guidelines in Lettering (including Height)

Main Title

5mm, 7mm,
10mm

Sub-Title

3.5mm, 5mm

Dimensions,
Notes etc.

2.5mm, 3.5mm,
5mm

c2

-(height of capital letters)


-(height of lower-case letters)
-(tail of lower-case letters)
-(stem of lower-case letters)
-(spacing between baselines)
b1 -(spacing between baselines)
b2

c2

h
c1
c2
c3

Recommended Size (height, h) of


Letters/Numerals

Guidelines for Lettering


Standard height for CAPITAL Letters and Numerals according to the Bureau of
Indian Standards (BIS) is:
1.8, 2.5, 3.5, 5, 6, 10, 14, 20 mm. (Sizes selected based upon size of drawing)

Drawing numbers, title blocks and letters denoting cutting planes,


sections are written in 10mm size.
Drawing title is written in 7mm size.
Hatching, subtitles, materials, dimensions, notes etc. are written in 3.5
mm size.
Space between lines is 3/10 h (height of capital letters)
Space between words may be equal to the width of the alphabet M or
3/5 h (height of capital letters).

Guidelines for Lettering

Basics of Single Stroking


Straight

Slanted

Horizontal

Curved

Examples
I letter
1

A letter
2

B letter
1

3
3
2

Order of Strokes
Stroking is done based on the slope of each letter and
the strokes vary with order and direction.

Various Single Stroking


Groups

Stroking for Upper Case Letters & Numerals


Straight line
letters

Curved line
letters
&
Numerals

Stroking for Lower Case Letters

Stroking Groups
The I-H-T Group
The letter I is The Foundation Stroke.
The top of T is drawn first to the full width of the
square and the stem is started accurately at its
mid point.
I

Stroking Groups
The L-E-F Group
The L is made in two strokes.
The first two strokes of the E are the same for
the L, the third or the upper stoke is lightly
shorter than the lower and the last stroke is the
third as long as the lower.
F has the same proportion as E.
L

Stroking Groups
The V-A-K Group
V is the same width as A, the A bridge is one
third up from the bottom.
The second stroke of K strikes stem one third up
from the bottom and the third stroke branches
from it.
V

Stroking Groups
The M-W Group
Are the widest letters.
M may be made in consecutive strokes of the
two verticals as of N.
W is made with two Vs.
M

Stroking Groups
The O-Q-C-G Group
The O families are made as full circles and made
in two strokes with the left side a longer arc than
the right.
A large size C and G can be made more
accurately with an extra stroke at the top.

The O-Q-C-G Group stroking will be demonstrated on the


whiteboard

Stroking Groups
The O-Q-C-G Group (cont.)

Stroking Groups
The D-U-J Group
The top and bottom stokes of D must be
horizontal, fail line to observe this is a common
fault with beginners
U is formed by two parallel strokes to which the
bottom stroke be added.
J has the same construction as U, with the first
stroke omitted.
D

Note:- The
bottom stroke
in J is drawn
once, and not
twice as
shown in the
animation.

Stroking Groups
The P-R-B Group
The number of stokes depends up on the size of
the letter.
The middle line of P and R are on centerline of
the vertical line.
P

Stroking Groups
The N-Z-X-Y Group
The parallel sides of N are generally drawn first.
Z is drawn without lifting the pen. Z and X are both
started inside the width of the square on top and run to
full width on the bottom.
N

Other Stroking Groups


The S-8-3 Group
A perfect 3 should be
able to be completed
into an 8; An 8 can be
made from an S
construction. The S is
made up of three
strokes.

The 0-6-9 Group


The cipher (zero) is
narrower than the
letter O and made of
two strokes. The 6
and 9 have the cipher
as their backbone.
With their lobes 2/3
the figures height.

Other Stroking Groups


The 2-5-7-& Group

The bottom of 2 and top of 5 and 7 should be straight lines. For 2 the reverse curve should cross
the center of the space. The ampersand (&) is made of three strokes.

The Fraction Group

Always made with a horizontal vinculum (a horizontal line used in


mathematical notation).

The figures are two-thirds the height of the whole numbers, with a clear
space above and below the line, making the total height of the fraction nearly
twice the cap height (h).

The Fraction Group (Example)

Sample Video
(showing single stoking in lettering)

Spacing
Uniformity in spacing of letters is a matter of
equalizing
spaces by eye.
The background area between letters, not the distance
between them, should be approximately equal.
Words are spaced well apart, but letters within words
should be spaced closely.

L IN E S

LET T ERS
For either upper case or lower-case lettering, make the
spaces between words approximately equal to a capital O.

LINES AND LETTERINGS

Avoid spacing letters too far apart and words too close

Types of Spacing

Space between letters

DRAWING
Contour

Contour can be denoted as straight, slant and curve.


Adjacent contour can be
1. straight-straight

: II, IN, IM, IP etc.

2. straight-curve (or curve-straight) : IO, QR etc.


3. straight-slant (or slant-straight) : IV, IW etc.
4. curve-curve

: OO, OG etc.

5. slant-curve (or curve-slant)

: VO, WG, VC etc.

6. slant-slant

: VW, VX etc.

7. The L and T

: LT

Space between letters

Space between letters

Space between letters


Spacing between characters, is normally
(2/10)h.
Spacing between words, is normally (6/10)h.
where h is the cap height.

Lettering Uniformity

Important to produce good drawings.


Uniform in style, size, inclination, weight and
space.
Carelessness might result in mistakes.

ENGINEERING DRAWINGS

Examples of Common Mistakes


in Lettering
Lettering style not uniform
Lettering height not uniform

LEtTErING
LE

TTERING

Lettering inclination not uniform

LETTERING

Lettering thickness not uniform

LETTERING

Lettering space not uniform

LET T E R ING

References
French, T. E., (1918). A MANUAL OF
ENGINEERING DRAWING FOR STUDENTS
AND DRAFTSMEN. London: Hill Publishing
Co., Ltd.
Engineering Drawing Fundamentals:
Introduction to Engineering Drawing.
Retrieved from
http://pioneer.netserv.chula.ac.th/~kjirapon
/lecture-note.html.
Madsen D. A., Madsen D. P., (2011).
ENGINEERING DRAWING & DESIGN, Fifth
Edition. New York: Cengage Learning.
Reddy K. V., (2008). TEXTBOOK OF
ENGINEERING DRAWING. Hyderabad: BS
Publications.

THE END