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A SPILL, A SLIP,

A HOSPITAL TRIP

Job Safety Analysis


Or

Job Hazard
Analysis

Job Safety Analysis


Focusing your Safety and Health Efforts
MATERI INI MEMBANTU KITA
UNTUK MEMAHAMI JOB SAFETY
ANALYSIS. MEMBANTU KITA
MENGIDENTIFY DAN
MEMBETULKAN TERKAIT
KESELAMATAN TERHADAP
SITUASI YANG LEBIH SERIUS.
This course focuses on employee
safety and health, but the
general method may be applied
to other loss prevention efforts
(environmental and fire
protection, liability, etc.)

Job Safety Analysis


Focusing your Safety and
Health Efforts

Job Safety Analysis


What is a Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
JSA adalah sebuah teknik untuk
menscreening tugas tugas pekerjaan
seperti mengidentifikasi bahaya
sebelum terjadi.
Fokus pada hubungan antara pekerja,
tugas yang ada, peralatan dan
lingkungan kerja.
Setelah diidentifikasi bahayanya, kita
dapat mengeliminasi atau mengurangi
resiko bahaya sesuai dengan level
yang dapat diterima. level.
Hazard a potential for harm
A hazard is associated with a condition or
activity that, if left uncontrolled, can
result in an injury or illness.

Mengapa Dilakukan
Job Safety Analysis
Untuk menjadikan kesadaran
oleh semua level posisi di
sebuah organisasi akan adanya
potensi bahaya.
Untuk mencegah pekerja dari
kematian, terluka, sakit dengan
mengeliminasi atau
mengkontrol indentifikasi
bahaya.
Untuk memastikan semua
pekerja melakukan pekerjaan
dengan prosedur yang benar
sesuai safety.
Untuk memastikan semua
pekerja mendapatkan training,
peralatan, dan fasilitas lain agar
mereka pekerja secara aman

Hazard Awareness
Ketika melakukan JSA kita membutuhkan cara
pandang yang baru terhadap suatu pekerjaan yang
dikerjakan di tempat kerja.
Just because "We've been doing it this way for 20
years,"doesn't mean that a hazard doesn't exist.
Menerima sebuah resiko atau resiko bahaya artinya
tidak sama dengan mengeliminasi atau mengontrol
bahaya tersebut.
Kita harus mau memandang segala kemungkinan
bahaya dengan pemikiran terbuka. (We'll suggest a
way to rank the hazards later.)

How do I Conduct a JSA?


Libatkan pekerja dalam JSA process.
Identifikasi pekerjaan atau tugas yang akan dianalisa.
Pecah pekerjaan atau tugas dalam komponen komponen
kunci.
Identifikasi resiko bahaya yang muncul dalam tiap komponen

Use accident history of injuries and near misses.

Identifikasi cara untuk mengeliminasi atau mengontrol resiko


bahaya ini.
Lakukan pengeliminasian dan implementasikan
pengontrolan terhadap resiko bahaya.
Rekanm identifikasi dan langkah langkah untuk
mengeliminasi atau mengontrol resiko bahaya.
Lakukan kontrol secara periodik untuk memastikan karyawan
bekerja dengan benar.

MENGIDENTIFIKASI JOB
Pekerjaan atau tugas yang
terkait dengan kondisi berikut
harus mempunyai JSA.
Tasks with a history of injuries, or near
misses.
Catastrophic potential: fire, explosion,
chemical release, toxic atmospheres, oxygen
deficient atmospheres.
Tasks done in new environments

Identifying the Job for


Analysis
Pekerjaan yang dilakukan oleh orang
yang baru.
Tugas yang mengalami perubahan.
Pekerjaan yang jarang dilakukan.
Pekerjaan yang dilakukan di bawah
kondisi work permit. (e.g. permit
required confined space, hot work
permits, Lock Out/Tag Out).

Identifying Jobs for a JSA


Melihat Pekerjaan yang
menyebabkan pekerja
terluka berdasar informasi
yang ditemukan:
Your accident or incident reports
Workers' compensation claims
Conduct walk through observations to
identify hazardous jobs or tasks.

Identifying the Job/Task for


Analysis
Existing Information Sources

Insiden atau kecelakan yang


dilaporkan kepada kita
dimana pernah terjadi
kecelakaan pada masaa lalu.
Dont forget near misses.

Klaim dari kompensasi


pekerja akan menunjukan
pekerjaan yang telah
menyebabkan sebuah
kecelakaan.

Identifying the Job/Task for


Analysis
Walk-through Observations
Amati pekerja dalam melakukan
pekerjaan mereka untuk
mengidentifikasi potensi bahaya
yang dapat menyebabkan cedera,
berikan perhatian terhadap
jumlah waktu melakukan
pekerjaan.
Bicara dengan pekerja untuk
mencari tahu apa yang mereka
pikirkan dan apa bagian paling
berbahaya dari pekerjaan mereka.

Identifying the Job/Task for


Analysis
Hazard Sources - Walk-through Observations
Hazards Source List
Fall Hazards:

Are workers working at heights?

Confined Space
Entry:

Do workers have to enter a confined space?

Excavations, Holes
or Floor Openings:

Can workers fall into or through?

Moving
Equipment:

Is there machinery, forklifts, etc. in the


area?

Pinch points:

Do moving parts in machinery create pinch


points? Can workers get caught in
machinery or belts & pulleys, chains &
sprockets, etc?

Chemicals:

Do workers use solvents, acids, bases,


pesticides, consumer products, etc.?

Crushing hazards:

Can workers get crushed (under or


between) objects?

Dusts:

Does the process create or are workers


exposed to dusts (wood dust, grinding
dusts, etc.)?

Identifying the Job/Task for


Analysis
Hazard Sources - Walk-through Observations
Hazards Source List cont
Electrical Hazards:

What is the condition of your extension


cords, wiring, service panels, etc.?

Lighting Levels:

Is there enough light to do the work?

Stored Energy
Hazards (Electrical,
mechanical,
pressure):

Can stored energy be released by the


work? (Lock-out/Tag-out)

Falling or dropping
objects:

Are people working overhead?

Motor vehicles or
traffic:

Do workers have to drive or work in


traffic as part of the job?

Sharp objects:

Do workers use knives, razors, etc.?

Slip, trip or fall


hazards:

What is the condition of the walking/


working surfaces, housekeeping, etc.?

Physical layout of
work place:

Does the layout or process flow create


a hazard?

Ladder or Scaffold

Are ladders or scaffolds used in the

Identifying the Job/Task for


Analysis
Hazard SourcesHazards
- Walk-through
Source ListObservations
cont
Weather:

Can the weather create hazards?

Fire/Explosion:

Is there a potential for a fire or


explosion?

Access and Egress:

Can workers safely get to their work


areas? Can they safely evacuate in the
case of an emergency?

Process Flow:

Does the flow of product through the


process create a hazard?

Location of coworkers or other


workers in the area:

Does the work pose a hazard to them,


or does their work pose a hazard to the
job being analyzed?

Human factor
issues:

Is the training adequate? Are the


workers fatigued? How fit are the
workers, etc.?

Material Moving or
Handling:

Do workers have to lift or carry heavy


objects?

Repetitive Motion :

Does the job require repetitive motion

Melakukan JSA yang


melibatkan pekerja dan
pimpinan
Sekali kita mengidentifikasi
pekerjaan membutuhkan JSA
kemudian lakukanlah JSA
Involving employees and area
managers in the JSA process
allows them to bring their
insights on the job to the
process.
They can help to identify hazards and
they will have ownership of the JSA and
may more readily accept the findings and
hazard controls selected.

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
Once the job is identified, you must break
it into key components or sub-tasks and
then identify and list all the hazards
associated with each subtask.

What can go wrong?


What are the consequences?
How could a problem happen?
How likely is it that the hazard will occur?

The following screens will help you break


down a job, and identify and rank hazards.

Tanggung jawab
manajemen
Koordinator proyek HSE, HSE Engineer, Project
Superintendent bertanggung jawab untuk :
Memastikan bahwa sistem pengendalian bahaya ini
terlaksana untuk kegiatan atau aktivitas
perusahaan di tempat kerja.
Proses JSA dilakukan, dicatat dan direview sebelum
melaksanakan pekerjaan yang berpotensi
menimbulkan bahaya terhadap karyawan atau
lingkungan termasuk membahayakan aset atau
operasional perusahaan dan juga reputasi atau citra
perusahaan.
Proses JSA dipakai untuk memastikan bahwa untuk
pada akhirnya semua karyawan yang terlibat atas
suatu pekerjaan menjadi peduli akan bahaya yang
terkait atas pekerjaan itu.

Project Superintendent akan


melaksanakan atau mempertimbangkan
hal-hal berikut ini :
Supervisor yang bertanggung jawab atas
suatu pekerjaan sesuai cakupan yang
tercantum di dalam JSA.
Ruang lingkup secara pasti atas pekerjaan
yang akan dilaksanakan.
Dampak pekerjaan yang ditimbulkan
terhadap kegiatan di tempat kerja lain.
Pekerjaan dipengaruhi oleh kegiatan dari
tempat kerja lain.
Lokasi kerja.

Kapan pekerjaan itu akan dilaksanakan dan berapa


lama.
Urut-urutan pekerjaan sampai selesai.
Tenaga kerja / persyaratan kemahiran atau
keterampilan yang diperlukan.
Persyaratan peralatan / mesin-mesin (plant) yang
lain.
Bahan kimia atau material berbentuk
padatan/serbuk (bulk materials) yang diperlukan
dan/atau cara menanganinya.
Ketersediaan prosedur atau instruksi kerja.
Apakah diperlukan ijin kerja (Permit To Work/PTW)?

Project Superintendent:
Harus memahami fase pekerjaan dan
prosedur yang dipakai.
Mengetahui lokasi atau tempat kerja
dari pekerjaan yang diusulkan.
Tanggal dan waktu kapan pekerjaan
dimulai (baik yang kritis untuk
keperluan permohonan penerbitan ijin
kerja atau Permit to Work (PTW).

Persyaratan tenaga kerja dan nama-nama


pekerja yang ditunjuk untuk mengeksekusi
pekerjaan tersebut.
Persyaratan peralatan atau plant seperti
forklift, cherry picker dan alat-alat berat
lainnya.
Persyaratan material yang akan dipakai
Bahan-bahan kimia berbahaya atau hazmat
(hazardous material) yang akan dipakai
Prosedur atau instruksi kerja (work instruction)
Memahami bagian-bagian yang terkait dari
Risk Register

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
Break Identified Job into KEY Components

Too much detail makes the Job Safety Analysis


cumbersome.
Too Much Detail
Get ladder from storage.
Get new light bulb from storage.
Carry ladder and light bulb to light needing changing.
Place ladder under light to be changed.
Ensure light switch is in the off position.
Climb ladder.
Remove light cover.
Twist light bulb in a counter clock-wise direction until it is free of the socket.
Remove old light bulb.
Remove new light bulb from package.
Insert new light bulb into socket.
Turn in a clock-wise direction until tightened.
Replace Cover.
Descend ladder.
Place old light bulb in trash.
Carry ladder back to storage.

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
Break Identified Job into KEY Components
Too little detail may omit hazards.
Too Little Detail
Get a ladder and new light bulb.
Change bulb.
Put ladder away and
throw out old light bulb.

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
Break Identified Job into KEY Components

The correct amount of detail breaks the job into


components that make sense in terms of the overall job.
Right Amount of Detail

Get ladder and new light bulb.


Place ladder under light to be
changed.
Use ladder, change bulb.
Put tools and supplies away.
When evaluating a task, such as "changing a
light bulb" remember that you do not want too
much detail, or too little detail, keep your focus
on obtaining the right amount of detail.
Generally limit the number of components to
10 or less.

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
Questions to Ask about each Sub-task

This following list of questions is intended to help


focus your effort at identifying and controlling
hazards.
While the list is comprehensive, it is not complete,
and you'll need to think about the sub-tasks and
the particular hazards they present.
Questions to ask
Does the layout of the location or process create
hazards, (e.g. pedestrian/fork-lift traffic)?
Is there adequate access and egress to and from the
work area?
Are workers exposed to temperature extremes?
Is the lighting adequate?
Is the work done outdoors? Can the weather create
a hazard?

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
Questions to Ask about each Sub-task Cont
Does the task require entering a confined space?
Is the work done at heights (from a ladder, roof
top, etc.)?
Do the tools or equipment create a hazard?
Is there excessive noise or vibration?
Can any part of the worker's body or clothing be
caught in the equipment?
Is the tool or equipment appropriate for the task
(strength, size, power, etc.)?
Are chemicals used?
Does the worker come into direct contact with the
chemicals?

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
Questions to Ask about each Sub-task Cont
Are the chemicals released into the air (gas,
mists, vapors, etc.)?
Are workers exposed to electrical hazards?
Are there excavations, holes, or floor openings
in the work area?
Are the workers exposed to stored energy
hazards such as; line pressure, electricity,
steam, or falling objects?
Does the process start and stop automatically?
Are robotics used in the process?
Can human factor issues (training, fitness,
fatigue, etc.) create a hazard?
Is there risk of injury from material handling
such as lifting, carrying, pushing or pulling)?
Is there risk of repetitive motion injury?

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
Ranking Hazardous Tasks

Once you've identified the jobs


that have the potential to or are
in fact injuring workers, you'll
need to rank these tasks and
start addressing the most serious
first.
One method for ranking tasks
considers the probability of the
hazard causing injury, along with
an estimate of the severity of the
resulting injury.
These are not necessarily precise predictions of when
and how severe an injury may be, they are an estimate
of the outcome and the likelihood of the injury
occurring.
The next three slides presents this methodfor ranking
hazardous tasks.

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
A Method to Prioritize Hazardous Tasks
Consider the severity of an
injury if something were to go
wrong while doing a task.
Look at the four categories
under "Severity.
Severity
4 Catastrophic, may cause death
3 Critical, may cause serious injury or illness
2 Marginal, may cause minor injury or illness
1 Negligible, will not cause injury or illness

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
A Method to Prioritize Hazardous Tasks

Next think about how often the


worker is exposed to the hazard
using the categories found in
the "Probability" table.
Probability
5 Frequently, likely to occur frequently
4 Probable, will occur several times
3 Occasional, likely to occur
2 Remote, unlikely but possible
1 Improbable, so unlikely it can be assumed that it will not
occur

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
A Method to Prioritize Hazardous Tasks

Multiply the "Severity" rank by the


"Probability" rank.
Organize the hazardous tasks by their
score from highest to lowest, address
the highest scored tasks first.
This method can help you decide which
is more important, an infrequent job
that has the potential to kill a worker,
or a frequent job that is injuring
workers.

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
JSA Sample Form

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
Eliminating or Controlling Hazards

Sekarang bahwa Anda telah


mengidentifikasi pekerjaan dan
mengevaluasi sub-tugas dan bahaya
mereka, Anda perlu mengidentifikasi cara
untuk menghilangkan atau mengendalikan
bahaya
Metode terbaik untuk melindungi pekerja
adalah untuk menghilangkan bahaya pada
sumbernya. "Mentransfer Risiko
Jika eliminasi tidak mungkin, mengendalikan
bahaya pada sumbernya dengan kontrol
rekayasa atau eksposur batas menggunakan
kontrol administratif.
Jika teknik atau administrasi kontrol tidak
cukup untuk mengurangi eksposur ke tingkat
yang dapat diterima, alat pelindung diri harus
digunakan.
Alat pelindung diri juga digunakan sementara
kontrol rekayasa sedang diinstal.

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
Eliminating Hazards

Benar-benar menghilangkan bahaya atau proses


- sebagian besar tidak realistis

Kontrol engineering - mengubah proses atau reengineering untuk menghilangkan atau


meminimalkan bahaya

Yang paling efektif adalah mengukur


kontrol bahaya
Mengurangi bahaya lebih reliable
Isolate the hazard enclose a
hazardous machine
Substitution - substituting a toxic
chemical with one having a lower
toxicity

Conducting a Job Safety


Analysis
Eliminating Hazards

Administrative Controls

Memperketat prosedur dan praktek


kerja yang aman, termasuk
penggunaan bahan berbahaya
Alarm, tanda-tanda dan peringatan
Training
Membatasi Exposure k batasan pada
waktu tugas-tugas berbahaya
Sistem yang bersahabat

Personal Protective Equipment is acceptable as


temporary control method

Respirators
Hearing protection
Eye protection
Hardhats
Protective clothing including shoes

Controlling Hazards
Summary

If the hazard can not be eliminated,


steps must be taken to control the
worker's exposure to it through:
Engineering Controls
Administrative Controls
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Combinations of Controls
Combinations of Controls may need to be used if
the hazard can't be completely controlled by
engineering controls alone.

TERIMAKASIH

CONTOH KASUS
BUATLAH JSA UNTUK PEMBERSIHAN
DAHAN DAHAN POHON DI JALUR
KABEL TERBUKA PLN
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