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# Fisika Dasar I

## Pengukuran dan Satuan

Satuan dasar
Sistem Satuan
Konversi Sistem Satuan
Analisis Dimensional

Kinematika Partikel
Kecepatan dan percepatan rata-rata & sesaat
Gerak dengan percepatan konstan

## Mekanika Klasik (Newton):

Mekanika: Bagaimana dan mengapa benda-benda
dapat bergerak
Klasik:
Kecepatan tidak terlalu cepat (v << c)
Ukuran tidak terlalu kecil
(d >> atom)

## Pengalaman sehari-hari banyak yang terjadi berdasarkan

aturan-aturan mekanika klasik.
Lintasan bola kasti
Orbit planet-planet
dll...
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 4

Units

## Bagaimana mengukur dimensi?

Semua ukuran di dalam mekanika klasik dapat dinyatakan
dengan satuan dasar:
Length L Panjang
Mass M Massa
Time T Waktu

Contoh:
Kecepatan mempunyai satuan L / T (kilometer per jam).
Gaya mempunyai satuan ML / T2 .

## Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 5

Panjang:
Jarak
Jari-jari alam semesta
Ke galaksi Andromeda
Ke bintang terdekat
Bumi - matahari
Jari-jari bumi
Sears Tower

Panjang (m)
1 x 1026
2 x 1022
4 x 1016
1.5 x 1011
6.4 x 106
4.5 x 102

## Lapangan sepak bola

1.0 x 102
Tinggi manusia
2 x 100
Ketebalan kertas
1 x 10-4
Panjang gelombang sinar biru
4 x 10-7
Diameter atom Hidrogen
1 x 10-10
Diameter proton

1 x 10-15
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 6

Waktu:
Interval
Time (s)
Umur alam semesta
5 x 1017
Umur Grand Canyon
3 x 1014
32 tahun
1 x 109
1 tahun
3.2 x 107
1 jam
3.6 x 103
Perjalanan cahaya dari mh ke bumi 1.3 x 100
Satu kali putaran senar gitar
2 x 10-3
Satu putaran gel. Radio FM
6 x 10-8
Umur meson pi netral
1 x 10-16
Umur quark top
4 x 10-25

## Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 7

Massa:
Object
Mass (kg)
Galaksi Bima Sakti
4 x 1041
Matahari
2 x 1030
Bumi
6 x 1024
Pesawat Boeing 747
4 x 105
Mobil
1 x 103
Mahasiswa
7 x 101
Partikel debu
1 x 10-9
Quark top
3 x 10-25
Proton
2 x 10-27
Electron
9 x 10-31
Neutrino
1 x 10-38

Satuan ...

## Satuan Internasional, SI (Systme International) :

mks: L = meters (m), M = kilograms (kg), T = seconds (s)
cgs: L = centimeters (cm), M = grams (gm), T = seconds (s)

Satuan Inggris:
Inci (Inches, In), kaki (feet, ft), mil (miles, mi), pon (pounds)

## Pada umumnya kita menggunakan SI, tetapi dalam masalah

tertentu dapat dijumpai satuan Inggris. Mahasiswa harus dapat
melakukan konversi dari SI ke Satuan Inggris, atau sebaliknya.

1 inch = 2.54 cm
1m
= 3.28 ft
1 mile = 5280 ft
1 mile = 1.61 km

## Example: convert miles per hour to meters per second:

1

mi
mi
ft
1 m
1 hr
m
1
5280

0.447
hr
hr
mi 3.28 ft 3600 s
s

## Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 10

Analisis Dimensional

## Analisis dimensional merupakan perangkat yang sangat

berguna untuk memeriksa hasil perhitungan dalam sebuah
soal.
Sangat mudah dilakukan!

Contoh:
Dalam menghitung suatu jarak yang ditanayakan di dalam
sebuah soal, diperoleh jawaban
d = vt 2 (kecepatan x waktu2)
Satuan untuk besaran pada ruas kiri= L
Ruas kanan = L / T x T2 = L x T
Dimensi ruas kiri tidak sama dengan dimensi ruas kanan,
dengan demikian, jawaban di atas pasti salah!!

## Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 11

Lecture 1, Act 1
Dimensional Analysis

(a)

## The period P of a swinging pendulum depends only on

the length of the pendulum d and the acceleration of
gravity g.
Which of the following formulas for P could be
correct ?

P = 2 (dg)

(b)

d
P 2
(c)
g

P 2

d
g

## Given: d has units of length (L) and g has units of (L / T 2).

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 12

Lecture 1, Act 1
Solution

(a)

(a)

L 2

L4
4 T
T

P 2 dg (b)
2

Not Right !!

d
P 2
g

(c)

P 2

d
g

Lecture 1, Act 1
Solution

(b)

(a)

L
T2 T
L
T2

P 2 dg (b)
2

Not Right !!

d
P 2
g

(c)

P 2

d
g

Lecture 1, Act 1
Solution

(c)

(a)

L
T2 T
L
T2

P 2 dg (b)
2

## This has the correct units!!

This must be the answer!!

d
P 2
g

(c)

P 2

d
g

## Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 15

Motion in 1 dimension

## Since its in 1-D, all we need to indicate direction is + or .

Displacement in a time t = t2 - t1 is
x = x(t2) - x(t1) = x2 - x1
x
x

## some particles trajectory

in 1-D

x2
x1
t1

t2

t
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 16

1-D kinematics

## Velocity v is the rate of change of position

Average velocity vav in the time t = t2 - t1 is:
v av

x( t 2 ) x( t1 ) x

t 2 t1
t

x
x

trajectory

x2

## Vav = slope of line connecting x1 and x2.

x1
t1

t2

t
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 17

1-D kinematics...

Consider limit t1

t2

v( t )

x
x

dx( t )
dt

## so v(t2) = slope of line tangent to path at t2.

x2
x1
t1

t2

t
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 18

1-D kinematics...

## Acceleration a is the rate of change of velocity

Average acceleration aav in the time t = t2 - t1 is:
aav

v ( t 2 ) v ( t1 ) v

t 2 t1
t

## And instantaneous acceleration a is defined as:

dv ( t ) d 2 x( t )
a( t )

dt
dt 2
using

v( t )

dx( t )
dt

Recap

## If the position x is known as a function of time, then we can

find both velocity v and acceleration a as a function of time!
x
x x( t )

dx
v
dt
dv
d 2x
a

dt
dt 2

t
t

## More 1-D kinematics

We saw that v = dx / dt
In calculus language we would write dx = v dt, which we
can integrate to obtain:
t2

x (t 2 ) x (t1 ) v (t )dt
t1

## Graphically, this is adding up lots of small rectangles:

v(t)

+ +...+
= displacement
t
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 21

## 1-D Motion with constant acceleration

n
High-school calculus: t dt

dv
a

dt

1
t n 1 const
n 1

## Since a is constant, we can integrate this using the above

rule to find:
v a dt a dt at v 0

Similarly, since v

dx
we can integrate again to get:
dt

1
x v dt ( at v 0 )dt at 2 v 0 t x0
2

Recap

Plane
w/ lights

x
1
x x0 v 0 t at 2
2
v v 0 at

a const

## Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 23

Lecture 1, Act 2
Motion in One Dimension

## When throwing a ball straight up, which of the following is

true about its velocity v and its acceleration a at the
highest point in its path?

## (a) Both v = 0 and a = 0.

(b) v 0, but a = 0.

(c) v = 0, but a 0.

Lecture 1, Act 2
Solution

## Going up the ball has positive velocity, while coming down

it has negative velocity. At the top the velocity is
momentarily zero.
x

## Since the velocity is

continually changing there must
be some acceleration.
v
In fact the acceleration is caused
by gravity (g = 9.81 m/s2).
(more on gravity in a few lectures)
a

t
t

## Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 25

Derivation:
v v 0 at

Solving for t:

v v0
a

x x0 v 0 t

1 2
at
2

Plugging in for t:

v v0 1 v v0
x x0 v 0
a

a
2
a

v 2 v 0 2 a( x x0 )

## Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 26

Average Velocity

Remember that v v 0 at
v
v
vav
v0

t
t

v av

1
v 0 v
2

Recap:

Washers

1
x x0 v 0 t at 2
2
v v 0 at
a const

## From which we know:

v 2 v 02 2a(x x0 )
1
v av (v 0 v)
2

Problem 1

## A car is traveling with an initial velocity v0. At t = 0, the

driver puts on the brakes, which slows the car at a rate of
ab

vo
ab

x = 0, t = 0

Problem 1...

## A car is traveling with an initial velocity v0. At t = 0, the

driver puts on the brakes, which slows the car at a rate of
ab. At what time tf does the car stop, and how much farther
xf does it travel?
v0

ab

x = 0, t = 0
v=0

x = x f , t = tf

## Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 30

Problem 1...

Above, we derived: v = v0 + at

## Also realizing that v = 0 at t = tf :

find 0 = v0 - ab tf or
tf = v0 /ab

Problem 1...

## To find stopping distance we use:

v 2 v 02 2a(x x0 )

v 0 2( ab )xf
2

v
xf 0
2 ab

Problem 1...

So we found that

2
1 v0
tf
, xf
ab
2 ab

v0

## Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 33

Tips:

Read !
Before you start work on a problem, read the problem
statement thoroughly. Make sure you understand what
information is given, what is asked for, and the meaning
of all the terms used in stating the problem.

## Watch your units !

Always check the units of your answer, and carry the
units along with your numbers during the calculation.

## Understand the limits !

Many equations we use are special cases of more
general laws. Understanding how they are derived will
help you recognize their limitations (for example,
constant acceleration).
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 34

## Scope of this course

Measurement and Units (Chapter 1)
Systems of units
(Text: 1-1)
Converting between systems of units
(Text: 1-2)
Dimensional Analysis
(Text: 1-3)
1-D Kinematics
(Chapter 2)
Average & instantaneous velocity
and acceleration
(Text: 2-1, 2-2)
Motion with constant acceleration
(Text: 2-3)

(Ex. 2-7)