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Fisika Dasar I

Pengukuran dan Satuan


Satuan dasar
Sistem Satuan
Konversi Sistem Satuan
Analisis Dimensional

Kinematika Partikel
Kecepatan dan percepatan rata-rata & sesaat
Gerak dengan percepatan konstan

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 1

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 2

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 3

Mekanika Klasik (Newton):


Mekanika: Bagaimana dan mengapa benda-benda
dapat bergerak
Klasik:
Kecepatan tidak terlalu cepat (v << c)
Ukuran tidak terlalu kecil
(d >> atom)

Pengalaman sehari-hari banyak yang terjadi berdasarkan


aturan-aturan mekanika klasik.
Lintasan bola kasti
Orbit planet-planet
dll...
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 4

Units

Bagaimana mengukur dimensi?


Semua ukuran di dalam mekanika klasik dapat dinyatakan
dengan satuan dasar:
Length L Panjang
Mass M Massa
Time T Waktu

Contoh:
Kecepatan mempunyai satuan L / T (kilometer per jam).
Gaya mempunyai satuan ML / T2 .

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 5

Panjang:
Jarak
Jari-jari alam semesta
Ke galaksi Andromeda
Ke bintang terdekat
Bumi - matahari
Jari-jari bumi
Sears Tower

Panjang (m)
1 x 1026
2 x 1022
4 x 1016
1.5 x 1011
6.4 x 106
4.5 x 102

Lapangan sepak bola


1.0 x 102
Tinggi manusia
2 x 100
Ketebalan kertas
1 x 10-4
Panjang gelombang sinar biru
4 x 10-7
Diameter atom Hidrogen
1 x 10-10
Diameter proton

1 x 10-15
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 6

Waktu:
Interval
Time (s)
Umur alam semesta
5 x 1017
Umur Grand Canyon
3 x 1014
32 tahun
1 x 109
1 tahun
3.2 x 107
1 jam
3.6 x 103
Perjalanan cahaya dari mh ke bumi 1.3 x 100
Satu kali putaran senar gitar
2 x 10-3
Satu putaran gel. Radio FM
6 x 10-8
Umur meson pi netral
1 x 10-16
Umur quark top
4 x 10-25

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 7

Massa:
Object
Mass (kg)
Galaksi Bima Sakti
4 x 1041
Matahari
2 x 1030
Bumi
6 x 1024
Pesawat Boeing 747
4 x 105
Mobil
1 x 103
Mahasiswa
7 x 101
Partikel debu
1 x 10-9
Quark top
3 x 10-25
Proton
2 x 10-27
Electron
9 x 10-31
Neutrino
1 x 10-38

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 8

Satuan ...

Satuan Internasional, SI (Systme International) :


mks: L = meters (m), M = kilograms (kg), T = seconds (s)
cgs: L = centimeters (cm), M = grams (gm), T = seconds (s)

Satuan Inggris:
Inci (Inches, In), kaki (feet, ft), mil (miles, mi), pon (pounds)

Pada umumnya kita menggunakan SI, tetapi dalam masalah


tertentu dapat dijumpai satuan Inggris. Mahasiswa harus dapat
melakukan konversi dari SI ke Satuan Inggris, atau sebaliknya.

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 9

Converting between different systems of units

Useful Conversion factors:


1 inch = 2.54 cm
1m
= 3.28 ft
1 mile = 5280 ft
1 mile = 1.61 km

Example: convert miles per hour to meters per second:


1

mi
mi
ft
1 m
1 hr
m
1
5280

0.447
hr
hr
mi 3.28 ft 3600 s
s

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 10

Analisis Dimensional

Analisis dimensional merupakan perangkat yang sangat


berguna untuk memeriksa hasil perhitungan dalam sebuah
soal.
Sangat mudah dilakukan!

Contoh:
Dalam menghitung suatu jarak yang ditanayakan di dalam
sebuah soal, diperoleh jawaban
d = vt 2 (kecepatan x waktu2)
Satuan untuk besaran pada ruas kiri= L
Ruas kanan = L / T x T2 = L x T
Dimensi ruas kiri tidak sama dengan dimensi ruas kanan,
dengan demikian, jawaban di atas pasti salah!!

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 11

Lecture 1, Act 1
Dimensional Analysis

(a)

The period P of a swinging pendulum depends only on


the length of the pendulum d and the acceleration of
gravity g.
Which of the following formulas for P could be
correct ?

P = 2 (dg)

(b)

d
P 2
(c)
g

P 2

d
g

Given: d has units of length (L) and g has units of (L / T 2).


Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 12

Lecture 1, Act 1
Solution

Realize that the left hand side P has units of time (T )

Try the first equation

(a)

(a)

L 2

L4
4 T
T

P 2 dg (b)
2

Not Right !!

d
P 2
g

(c)

P 2

d
g

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 13

Lecture 1, Act 1
Solution

(b)

(a)

Try the second equation

L
T2 T
L
T2

P 2 dg (b)
2

Not Right !!

d
P 2
g

(c)

P 2

d
g

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 14

Lecture 1, Act 1
Solution

(c)

(a)

Try the third equation

L
T2 T
L
T2

P 2 dg (b)
2

This has the correct units!!


This must be the answer!!

d
P 2
g

(c)

P 2

d
g

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 15

Motion in 1 dimension

In 1-D, we usually write position as x(t1 ).

Since its in 1-D, all we need to indicate direction is + or .

Displacement in a time t = t2 - t1 is
x = x(t2) - x(t1) = x2 - x1
x
x

some particles trajectory


in 1-D

x2
x1
t1

t2

t
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 16

1-D kinematics

Velocity v is the rate of change of position


Average velocity vav in the time t = t2 - t1 is:
v av

x( t 2 ) x( t1 ) x

t 2 t1
t

x
x

trajectory

x2

Vav = slope of line connecting x1 and x2.

x1
t1

t2

t
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 17

1-D kinematics...

Consider limit t1

t2

Instantaneous velocity v is defined as:


v( t )

x
x

dx( t )
dt

so v(t2) = slope of line tangent to path at t2.


x2
x1
t1

t2

t
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 18

1-D kinematics...

Acceleration a is the rate of change of velocity


Average acceleration aav in the time t = t2 - t1 is:
aav

v ( t 2 ) v ( t1 ) v

t 2 t1
t

And instantaneous acceleration a is defined as:

dv ( t ) d 2 x( t )
a( t )

dt
dt 2
using

v( t )

dx( t )
dt

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 19

Recap

If the position x is known as a function of time, then we can


find both velocity v and acceleration a as a function of time!
x
x x( t )

dx
v
dt
dv
d 2x
a

dt
dt 2

t
t

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 20

More 1-D kinematics

We saw that v = dx / dt
In calculus language we would write dx = v dt, which we
can integrate to obtain:
t2

x (t 2 ) x (t1 ) v (t )dt
t1

Graphically, this is adding up lots of small rectangles:


v(t)

+ +...+
= displacement
t
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 21

1-D Motion with constant acceleration

n
High-school calculus: t dt

dv
a

Also recall that


dt

1
t n 1 const
n 1

Since a is constant, we can integrate this using the above


rule to find:
v a dt a dt at v 0

Similarly, since v

dx
we can integrate again to get:
dt

1
x v dt ( at v 0 )dt at 2 v 0 t x0
2

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 22

Recap

So for constant acceleration we find:

Plane
w/ lights

x
1
x x0 v 0 t at 2
2
v v 0 at

a const

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 23

Lecture 1, Act 2
Motion in One Dimension

When throwing a ball straight up, which of the following is


true about its velocity v and its acceleration a at the
highest point in its path?

(a) Both v = 0 and a = 0.


(b) v 0, but a = 0.

(c) v = 0, but a 0.

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 24

Lecture 1, Act 2
Solution

Going up the ball has positive velocity, while coming down


it has negative velocity. At the top the velocity is
momentarily zero.
x

Since the velocity is


continually changing there must
be some acceleration.
v
In fact the acceleration is caused
by gravity (g = 9.81 m/s2).
(more on gravity in a few lectures)
a

The answer is (c) v = 0, but a 0.

t
t

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 25

Derivation:
v v 0 at

Solving for t:

v v0
a

x x0 v 0 t

1 2
at
2

Plugging in for t:

v v0 1 v v0
x x0 v 0
a

a
2
a

v 2 v 0 2 a( x x0 )

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 26

Average Velocity

Remember that v v 0 at
v
v
vav
v0

t
t

v av

1
v 0 v
2

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 27

Recap:

For constant acceleration:

Washers

1
x x0 v 0 t at 2
2
v v 0 at
a const

From which we know:


v 2 v 02 2a(x x0 )
1
v av (v 0 v)
2

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 28

Problem 1

A car is traveling with an initial velocity v0. At t = 0, the


driver puts on the brakes, which slows the car at a rate of
ab

vo
ab

x = 0, t = 0

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 29

Problem 1...

A car is traveling with an initial velocity v0. At t = 0, the


driver puts on the brakes, which slows the car at a rate of
ab. At what time tf does the car stop, and how much farther
xf does it travel?
v0

ab

x = 0, t = 0
v=0

x = x f , t = tf

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 30

Problem 1...

Above, we derived: v = v0 + at

Realize that a = -ab

Also realizing that v = 0 at t = tf :


find 0 = v0 - ab tf or
tf = v0 /ab

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 31

Problem 1...

To find stopping distance we use:


v 2 v 02 2a(x x0 )

In this case v = vf = 0, x0 = 0 and x = xf

v 0 2( ab )xf
2

v
xf 0
2 ab

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 32

Problem 1...

So we found that

2
1 v0
tf
, xf
ab
2 ab

v0

Suppose that vo = 65 mi/hr = 29 m/s

Suppose also that ab = g = 9.81 m/s2

Find that tf = 3 s and xf = 43 m

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 33

Tips:

Read !
Before you start work on a problem, read the problem
statement thoroughly. Make sure you understand what
information is given, what is asked for, and the meaning
of all the terms used in stating the problem.

Watch your units !


Always check the units of your answer, and carry the
units along with your numbers during the calculation.

Understand the limits !


Many equations we use are special cases of more
general laws. Understanding how they are derived will
help you recognize their limitations (for example,
constant acceleration).
Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 34

Recap of todays lecture

Scope of this course


Measurement and Units (Chapter 1)
Systems of units
(Text: 1-1)
Converting between systems of units
(Text: 1-2)
Dimensional Analysis
(Text: 1-3)
1-D Kinematics
(Chapter 2)
Average & instantaneous velocity
and acceleration
(Text: 2-1, 2-2)
Motion with constant acceleration
(Text: 2-3)

Example car problem

(Ex. 2-7)

Look at Text problems Chapter 2: # 6, 12, 56, 119

Physics 111: Lecture 1, Pg 35