Anda di halaman 1dari 27

PETROFED

(6th Programme on Oil & Gas transportation through Pipeline)

IIPM GURGAON
8th- -10th July , 2009

Intricacies
of
Design of a Gas Pipeline
&
Main Equipment , System in Gas Pipeline
by
Rahul Gautam
Chief Manager (Pipeline)
Project Development
GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contents
Typical Pipeline System
Typical Input Parameter for designing
Design Basis

Modeling & Simulation


Optimization

2
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Typical Pipeline System


Pipeline Types
Gas
Source

Gas
Gathering
System

Gas
Treatment

Gas
Transmission

Gas
Distribution

Typical Gas Transmission & Distribution


DT

SV

DT: Dispatch Terminal


SV: Sectionalizing Valve
IP : Intermediate Pigging Station
RT : Receiving Terminal

IP

RT

RT

3
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

Typical Pipeline System

x- ings
RAIL/ROAD/RIVER
GAS FIELD

CS

GGS &
GT CTP

RECEIVING
TERMINAL /
DELIVERY
TERMINAL

IP
SV
SV: Sectionalizing Valve
IP : Intermediate Pigging Station
CS: Compressor Station
RT : Receiving Terminal
GGS : Gas Gathering System
GT: Gas Treatment

GAS
RECEIVING
STATION

Typical Schematic for Pipeline System

Typical Pipeline System


A typical gas pipeline system comprise of the following

Gas Receiving Station


- Place where pipeline receives the gas.

Sectionalizing Valve Station


- To carry out routine maintenance or emergency
maintenance of pipeline venting of gas is to be restricted.

Intermediate Pigging Station


- To ensure continuous gas flow through pipeline, regular
and periodical cleaning of pipeline is required.
- The pigging is carried out various kind of Pig e.g. Scrapper Pig,
Gauzing Pig, Foam Pig etc.

5
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Typical Pipeline System


TYPICAL SV STATION
P
G

Utility Connection 2
T
G

AV

P
G

By pass Line

T
G

MANIFOLD FOR
PG /TG

Utility Connection 2

MAINLINE

Typical Pipeline System


TYPICAL INTERMEDIATE PIGGING STATION From OriginatingStn

To Terminal
Stn

To Utilities
PRS

AV

AV

IJ

IJ
MOV

LA U N C H E R

R E C E IV E R

BALL
VALVE
TS
V

MOV

FLOW
TEE

FLOW
TEE

GLOBE
VALVE
GATE
VALVE

Blow
Down
R-LNG FLOW
DIRECTION
TEG-THERMO
ELECTRIC
GENERATOR(Utilities)

Typical Pipeline System

Compression System
- To economize the flow through pipeline
- Located enroute of the pipeline to boost the gas pressure
- Reciprocating compressor verse Centrifugal compressor
- Reciprocating compressor : up to gas volume of 200000 SCM/Hr
higher compression ration ( up to 10)
- Centrifugal compressor : higher volume flow
Compression ratio 1.5 to 2.0
Compressor installation like a process
plant requiring all kind of utilities
(Power, Water, Air, Fuel , Fire Fighting
and Control Room System)
Receiving Terminal
- For supplying gas to various customers : designed to handle the
required flow for single
and multiple users.
- The terminal contain filters, pressure regulator, heater, metering
device, online gas chromatograph, flow computer and odorizing unit
(if required)
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

8
Contd.

Typical Pipeline System


CS
Off take
of Gas

Gas
Supply
Pressure

CS

CS
CS

CS

Delivery of gas

TRANSPORTATION OF GAS WITH COMPRESSOR STATIONS


(TYPICAL)

Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

9
Contd.

Typical Pipeline System


Scrubber

Filters

P R Unit

PCVSDV-1
1

Metering Unit

Custody T/P

Meter-1
Flow computer-1

15 Mts

Gas Chromatograph

SDV-2PCV-2
By-Pass

Meter-2
Flow computer-2

40 Meter

Schematic (Typical ) for Receiving Terminal at Customer site

Not to Scale

Typical Input Parameters


Type of Natural Gas
- Associated Gas
- Non Associated Gas / Free Gas
- Dry Natural Gas
- Wet Natural Gas
- Sour Natural Gas

Gas Composition

Gas Supply Pressure and Temperature


Gas Volume ( To be Transported) and off-Take of gas enroute

pipeline ( if any)
Route / Terrain
Delivery Point
Gas volume at delivery point
Required Pressure and Temperature at Delivery Point
11
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

Design Basis
Pipeline System
Starting Point
- Supply Gas Pressure (Kg/Cm2g)
- Supply Gas Temperature (deg. C)
- Gas Volume
- Gas Quality and Gas Composition
Route /Terrain
- Class location
- x-ings ( NH/SH/RAIL/ROAD/RIVER/MAJOR RIVER)
Delivery Point
- Delivery Gas Pressure (Kg/Cm2g)
- Delivery Gas Temperature (deg. C)
- Gas Volume
- Gas Quality and Gas Composition

12
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

Design Basis
Linepipe
- Design Pressure
- Wall Thickness
- Roughness with internal coating and without internal coating
- Gas Composition
- Soil temperature
- Elevation
- Efficiency
- Flow
- Configuration
-Velocity in pipe
Metering
- Supply Pressure and temperature
- Flow
- Gas Quality and Gas Composition
- Type of meter (Orifice / Turbine Meter / USM)
- Configuration
- Pressure Loss
- Accuracy
- Rangeability
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

13
Contd.

Design Basis
Compressor Station
- Gas arrival pressure and Temperature
- Compressor Ratio
- Discharge Pressure and Temperature of Gas
- Flow
- Gas Quality and Gas Composition
- Compression efficiency
- Compression spacing
- Compressibility
- Configuration
- Compression Power

14
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

Modeling and Simulation


Pipeline modeling constitutes a Graphical Representation of the pipeline system
involving receiving stations Sectionalizing Valve Station, Intermediate Pigging
Station, Compressor / Pump Station and Receiving Terminal.
- Pipeline design (optimal Line pipe size, compressor requirement, loop line and
other equipments location including SCADA & Telemetry System)
- Pipeline performance (Throughput optimization)
- Tracking gas composition
- Minimize fuel consumption
- Pipeline systems operation
- Create Emergency Plan
- Leak Detection Module
- Alarms Generation

15
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

End Point

Dedicated Pipeline

Spurline

770 KM

Trunk Line

TRUNK LINE
40 KM

CUSTOMER LOCATION
TAP-OFF POINTS
CGD
SPURLINES

Compressor

Starting Point

TYPICAL SCHEMATIC FOR MODELLING PIPELINE SYSTEM

Modeling and Simulation

- Compressibility
- Improving delivery by making use of line pack which being function
of Pipeline pressure.
Simulator model basically works with various equation of state to
compute the desire result by employing advance numerical solutions
technique. Most of the simulator models have been developed by
various companies who have been involved in pipeline design or
information technology solution including monitoring & Control of
Physical parameters.

17
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

Modeling and Simulation


Hydraulics /Simulation
Flow Equation
- General flow equation
- Cole-Brook white equation
- Modified Cole-Brook White equation
- AGA equation
- Weymouth equation
- Panhandle A Equation
- Panhandle B equation
The General Flow equation , also called the fundamental flow equation, for the steady state
isothermal gas flow in a gas pipeline is the basic equation for relating the pressure drop with
flow rate
Qb = 1.15 x 10^-3 * (Tb/ Pb) ( P1^2-P2^2 / G Tf L Z f ) ^0.5 * D^2.5
Where
Qb- gas flow rate in m3/day, Tb- base temperature , K (273+deg.C), P1- U/S pressure in kpa
f- friction factor, P2 down stream pressure , kpa, G- gas gravity (air=1.00)
Pb- base pressure in kpa , Tf average gas flow temperature, K (273+deg.C)
Z-gas compressibility factor at the flowing temperature , D-pipe inside diameter

18
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

Velocity in Pipes

Modeling and Simulation

- Represents the speed at which gas molecules move from one point to another
- Due to compressibility , the gas velocity depends upon the pressure
- Vary in pipeline, even the pipe diameter is constant
- Highest velocity at the down stream of pipeline where the pressure is the least
- Least velocity at the up stream where pressure is higher
The gas velocity at any point in a gas pipeline is given by

u=14.74 (Qb/D^2) (Pb/Tb) (ZT/P)


Where
u gas velocity( m/s) , Qb - gas flow rate, measured at standard condition
( m^3/day), D- pipe inside diameter ( mm ), Pb- Base pressure (Kpa), Tb- average
gas flowing temperature (deg. K), Z- compressibility factor at the flowing
temperature, dimensionless

Erosional Velocity
-Gas velocity is directly related the flow rate. As the flow rate increases, so the gas
velocity increases.
-As the velocity increases, vibration and noise are evident
-Higher velocities will cause erosion of the pipe interior over a long period of time.

u (max) =100 / (d) ^1/2

u (max) ft/ s, d = gas density at flowing temperature , lb/ ft ^3


19

Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

Modeling and Simulation


Reynolds Number
-Reynolds number is used to characterize the type of flow in a pipe, such as laminar, turbulent
or critical flow
- It is also used to calculate the friction factor in pipe flow
- It depends upon property of gas, pipe diameter etc.

Re = u D d / n
Where
Re- dimensionless, u-average velocity (m/s), D- inside diameter (mm),
d- gas density(kg/m^3), n-gas viscosity (kg /m-s)
The Reynolds number is

Re =0.5134 (G Qb/n D) (Pb/Tb)


Where
G specific gravity of gas (air=1.0), Qb - gas flow rate, measured at standard
condition ( m^3/day), D- pipe inside diameter ( mm ), Pb- Base pressure (Kpa), Tbaverage gas flowing temperature (deg. K), n-viscosity of gas , poise
Laminar flow The Re. No. is less than and equal to 2000
Turbulent flow - The Re. No. is greater 4000
Critical flow - The Re. No. is undefined and in between 2000 and 4000
20
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

Modeling and Simulation


Friction factor
- Friction factor is dimensionless parameter and depends upon Reynolds Number of flow.
- Darcy and Fanning two friction factor are generally used, But Darcy friction factor is more
common.
Friction factor (ff )

= Darcy Friction factor (fd) /4

Moody diagram is graphic plot of the variation of the friction factor with the Reynolds number
for various values of relative pipe roughness. It is a dimensionless parameter obtained by
dividing the absolute (or internal pipe roughness )by the pipe diameter.
Where
Re- dimensionless, u-average velocity (m/s), D- inside diameter (mm),
d- gas density(kg/m^3), n-gas viscosity (kg /m-s)

Relative roughness : e / D
Where
e = absolute or internal roughness of the pipe (mm)
D= pipe inside diameter (mm)
21
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

Modeling and Simulation


Moody diagram

Critical

Turbulent
Pipe internal Roughness
Pipe Material
Roughness
(mm)
Riveted Steel
0.9 to 9.0
Commercial/
0.045
Welded Steel
Cast Iron
0.26
Galvanized Iron
0.15
Asphalted Cast Iron
0.12
Wrought Iron
0.045
PVC, drawn tubing, glass 0.0015
Concrete
0.3 -3.0

Roughness

Friction factor

Laminar

Reynolds Number
22
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Modeling and Simulation


Other Parameters
- The effect of intermediate delivery volumes and gas injection rates along a gas pipeline

- The effect of contract delivery pressure, and regulating the pressure through control valve

- Thermal effects due to heat transfer between the gas and the surrounding soil in the buried
pipe due to
Soil temperature
Thermal Conductivities
Joule Thompson Effect
23
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

Optimization
Pipeline Configuration
- Without Intermediate Compressor

- With Intermediate Compressor

- With Intermediate Compressor and Loop Lining

24
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

Optimization
Pipeline Configuration
- The total pressure required for transporting gas in a pipeline under various configuration,
such as series and parallel
100MMSCMD

80 MMSCMD

50MMSCMD

Series
20 MMSCMD

30 MMSCMD

50MMSCMD

Parallel
100MMSCMD
50 MMSCMD
25
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Optimization
Metering System
Orifice
Standard

AGA Rep 3

Accuracy

< 1%

Turbine
AGA Rep. 7

AGA Rep. 9

+/_0.5 %

< +/- 0.5%

Rangeability

3:1

10:1

Pressure Loss
(Kg/Cm2g)

0.5

0.1

Cycle Flow
Variation

Generally
over reg.

Liquid in gas

Corrosion &
erosion

Ultrasonic

Appreciable
Corrosion &
damage to moving
parts

50:1
Negligible
Not Affected
Corrosion possible

26
Rahul Gautam Chief Manger (Pipeline) Project Development GAIL(INDIA) LTD

Contd.

Thank You

27