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Performance Analysis of Draught Systems

P M V Subbarao
Associate Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
IIT Delhi

Proper combustion requires sufficient Breathing..

Draft Required to Establish Air Flow


Flue as out

Air in

Natural Draft

Zref

pg dz
dp
R T (z )
pA = pref +p

p A pref

Hchimney

ZA

Z ref

pg dz
Rair Tair ( z )

pB pref

ZB

Z ref

pg dz
Rgas Tgas ( z )
Tgas

Tatm
A

Natural Draft
Natural Draft across the furnace,
pnat = pA pB

The difference in pressure will drive the exhaust.

Natural draft establishes the furnace breathing by

Continuous exhalation of flue gas

Continuous inhalation of fresh air.

The amount of flow is limited by the strength of the draft.

Mechanical (Artificial)Draft : Induced Draft


Essential when Natural Draft cannot generate required amount of breathing

Hchimney

pB = pfan,s
pA = patm + atm *g *Hchimney

Tatm

B
B

Tgas

Mechanical (Artificial)Draft : Forced Draft

Hchimney

pB = patm + gas *g *Hchimney


pA = pfan

Tatm

Tgas
B

Mechanical (Artifical)Draft : Balanced Draft

Hchimney

pB = pfan,s
pA = pfan.b

Tatm

B
B

Tgas

Resistance to Air & Gas Flow Through Steam


Generator System

+ve

-ve

210 MW POWER PLANT SG

Boiler drum
Reheater
Final Super heater
Platen Super heater
LTSH

Economizer
Coal bunker
Wind Box
Secondary air duct
PA duct
Furnace
Flue gas duct
APH

F D Fan

Coal feeder

P A Fan
Coal Pulverizer

Pressure drop in Air and Gas Duct Systems


Bernoulli equation pressure drop across a flow passage
2

P1 u1
W P2 u 2
P

gZ 1

gZ 2
1
2
m 2
2
2
L u2
p f
Pa
d dl 2

Frictional resistance along flow path:

where f = coefficient of friction


L = length of the duct, m
ddl = equivalent diameter of the duct, m
= density of air or gas calculated at the mean gas temperature, kg/m
u = cross section average velocity of air or gas in the duct, m/sec

Equivalent diameter for rectangular duct is given as

dl

1. 3

ab
0.625

a b

0.25

where a and b are sides of the duct, mm.

The coefficient of friction for flow through tubes can be approximated as shown below,

0.0625

log

3.7 d dl
for

8
5000 < Re<10 ,
-6
10 < (k/ddl)<0.01

5.74

0.9
Re

Minor Losses

Calculation of Local pressure drops:

u2
pl K
2

where

Pa

p = local pressure drop


K = local resistance factor,

= density of air or gas at the position of the pressure drop calculated, kg/m
u = velocity of air through the fittings m/s.

Pressure drop across a burner

u2
P K
2

K = 1.5 for tangential burner


3.0 for swirl burner

pa

Pressure drop across heating surfaces

u2
pt b K
2

Pressure drop across tube bundles:

Pa

Inline arrangement: K = n K0
Where n = number of tube rows along the flow direction
K0 = loss coefficient for one row of tubes

K0 depends on 1 = s1/d,

2 = s2/d , = (s1 - d )

Where s1 is lateral pitch & s2 is longitudinal pitch

If 1 <= 2 :
K0 = 1.52 (1 1)
If 1 > 2

0.5

0.2

Re

0.2

S1

K0 = 0.32 (1 1)

0.5

( 0.9)

0.2

Re

0.2/

S2

Staggered Arrangement
The loss coefficient is obtained as
K = K0 (n+1)
Where K0 is the coefficient of frictional resistance of one row of tubes
l
K0 depends on 1 = s1/d, = (s1 - d ) / (s2 - d )

l
Where s2 is the diagonal tube pitch given by

l
2
2
s2 = ( 0.25 s1 + s2 )

and K0 can be written as,


-0.27
K0 = Cs Re

S1
S2

Cs is design parameter of the staggered banks

For 0.17 <= <= 1.7 and 1 >= 2.0, Cs = 3.2

If 1 < 2.0,then Cs given as

Cs = 3.2 + (4.6 2.7 )(2 - 1)

For = 1.7 5.2,

Cs = 0.44(+1)

Cross-Flow over Finned Tubes

Inline arrangement

K 2.87 0.464 ( l1.24 f ll f 0.606

n 1 Re
1

for round fins


l
where 1 = (pitch of fin, Pf / diamter of tube, d)
ll
2 = (height of fin, hf / diamter of tube, d)

K 1.80 2.75

Re = ( u pf / )

ll f

For square fine with

= 0.33

ll

n 1 0.12
Re
1

0.12

1)

Staggered Arrangement

K 2.7 n
for round fins s1=s2=d+2hf

0.72

K 2.0 n

for round fins s1=s2=2d

Re

0.24

0.72

ll

0.45

Re 0.24

Gas side pressure drop in finned-tube economizers

u2
p mc K
Pa
2

Pressure drop in tubular air heaters

p mc p m c ( K in K out )

u2
2

Pa

where pmc is the pressure drop in the tube


Kin and Kout are local resistance factors at inlet and outlet
Pressure drop through rotary air heater
2

p mc

Corrugated plate-corrugated setting plate


3
-0.25
Re >= 2.8 x 10
f = 0.78 Re
3
-0.5
Re < 2.8 x 10
f = 5.7 Re

L u
f
d dl 2

Pa

Corrugated plate- plane setting plate

Re >= 1.4 x 10
3
Re < 1.4 x 10

-0.25
f = 0.6 Re
-0.8
f = 33 Re

Plane plate- plane setting plate

Re >= 1.4 x 10
3
Re < 1.4 x 10

f = 0. 33 Re
f = 90/ Re

-0.25

Pressure drop in ducts joining air heater and dust collector

Vg f

Tg 273

B Vg V
273

The volume flow rate of gases at the induced draft fan is determined by ,

3
where Vgf = volume flow rate of gases at the exit of the duct, m /s
0
Tg = temperature of flue gas leaving the duct, C
= leakage air ratio behind the air heater
B = fuel firing rate, kg/s

Tg f

e T g T 0
e

where e is the excess air ratio in the flue gas at the duct exit
0
T0 is the cold air temperature, C

Pressure drop through convective section

Mass conservation for unchanged density,


u A = u1 A1 = u2 A2

local pressure loss, p1 =

2
u1
A2 u 2
1 u
p1 K1
K1
K1
2
A1 2
2

1
2
n
total loss, p = p1 + p2 + .+pn = (k1 + k2 ..+ kn )

1
2
where k 1 = k1 (A/A1) ,

1
2
k 2 = k2 (A/A1)

u2
2

Ash Collectors
Following Table is used to estimate the pressure drop in Ash
collectors.
Cyclone:

15 20 m/s 70 90%

500 1000 Pa

ESP:

1 2 m/s

100 200 Pa

99%

Pressure Drop through Stack

f Lst

psy

where pst = stack pressure drop, Pa


f = friction factor
Lst = height of the chimney, m
D= diamter of the chimney , m
Kc = resistance factor at the stack outlet
3
= gas density in the stack, kg/m
uc= gas velocity at the chimney outlet, m/s

uc 2
K c
2

Total gas side pressure drop

p sy

g o 101325
p1 (1 )
Pa p 2

1
.
293
P
av

where p1 = total pressure drop from the furnace outlet to the


dust collector, Pa

p2 = pressure drop after the dust collector, Pa

= ash content in the glue gas, kg/kg

pa v = average pressure of the gas, Pa

pg o = flue gas density at standard conditions, kg/Nm

The ash fraction of the flue gas calculated as,

A f h
100 g oVg

where f h = ratio of fly ash in flue gas to total ash in the fuel
A = ash content of working mass, %
3
Vg = average volume of gas from furnace to dust collector calculated from the average excess air ratio, Nm /kg of
fuel

The pressure drop from the balance point of the furnace to the chimney base is

prest = pexit + pgas pnd

where pexit = pressure drop up to the boiler outlet

Air Pressure Losses

Total losses

p
Burner Losses
APH Losses

Ducts & dampers losses

Percent Boiler Rating

Draught Losses

Total losses

p
Furnace, SH & RH Losses
Economizer Losses

Ducts & dampers losses

Percent Boiler Rating

Modeling of 210 MW Draught System

Fan

Duct

APH

Duct

Furnace

Back
pass

Duct

APH

ESP

Duct

FD

Duct

Pressure drop calculation in air & gas path and its


comparison with design value.
Assessment of ID and FD fan power as a function of
furnace pressure.
Assessment of effective kinetic rate coefficient as a
function of furnace pressure.

ID
Fan

Chimney

Pressure Variation

FD Fan

Duct

SCAPH

Duct

APH

Duct

Wind
Box

Boiler

APH

ESP

ID Fan

Off Design Pressure Variation


Pressure Variation in Air & Gas Path at Part Load

2500

2000

1500

Pressure (Pa)

1000

500

FD Fan

Duct

SCAPH

Duct

APH

-500

Boiler

Wind

Duct

APH

ESP

ID Fan

Box
1

-1000

-1500

-2000

Path Element

Calculated (168 MW)

Design (168 MW)

10

11

12

Draught Control

Windbox Pressure Control

Combustion Prediction & Control

Combustion and Draught Control

The control of combustion in a steam generator is extremely critical.


Maximization of operational efficiency requires accurate combustion.
Fuel consumption rate should exactly match the demand for steam.
The variation of fuel flow rate should be executed safely.
The rate of energy release should occur without any risk to the plant,
personal or environment.

The Model for Combustion Control

Parallel Control of Fuel & Air Flow Rate

Flow Ratio Control : Fuel Lead

Flow Ratio Control : Fuel Lead

Cross-limited Control System

Oxygen Trimming of Fuel/air ratio Control

Combined CO & O2 Trimming of Fuel/Air Ratio Control