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SEISMIC

PERFORMANCE OF
INSULATORS IN
ELECTRIC
Stu Nishenko, Khalid Mosalam,
SUBSTATIONS
Shakhzod Takhirov, and Eric
Fujisaki

Porcelain Insulators

Insulators in Electric Substations

Used in almost every substation equipment


Apparatus, e.g., bushings, circuit breaker
interrupter housings, surge arresters,
instrument transformers
Posts, e.g., bus supports, capacitor racks,
air core reactors, disconnect switches
PorcelainTraditional material of choice;
long history of use
Brittle and massiveoften a weak link
during earthquakes

Insulators in Substation Equipment


Bushings

Circuit breaker bushings,


interrupter housings, and
support columns

Interrupter
4

Insulators in Substation Equipment


Surge
arrester
Bushing

Transformer bushings,
Surge arresters

Insulators in Substation Equipment

Instrument transformers

Insulators in Substation Equipment

Bus supports

Insulators in Substation Equipment


Post
insulator

Air disconnect switches


8

Insulators in Substation Equipment

Post
insulator

Circuit switchers

Insulators in Substation Equipment


Post
insulator

10

Capacitor racks/ platforms

Insulators in Substation Equipment

Post
insulator

Air core reactors


11

Insulators in Substation Equipment

12

Cable terminations

Characteristics of Porcelain Post


Insulators

Typical mechanical properties


Elastic

Modulus: 10,000 14,000 ksi


Modulus of Rupture: 7 16 ksi, COV = 0.06 0.15
Unit weight: 140 170 lb/ft 3

Physical configuration
Load

carrying cores: 3 8 dia


Lengths depend on insulation level required:
14 at 12kV service 152 at 500kV service
Sheds used to increase surface length and
prevent flashover event
13

Porcelain Post Insulators


Shed
s
Loadcarrying
porcelain
core

14

Ductile iron end


fitting with Portland
cement grout in joint

Load Rating of Post Insulators

15

Rated for cantilever load capacity (fixedbase, load at tip)


Also rated for tension, compression,
torsion
Quasi-static, monotonic load tests
Assign load rating as dependable
breaking strength
Typically rating = Mean 2, or -3
Sometimes rated according to ANSI
Technical Reference Standard

Seismic Design of Substation


Insulators

16

Governed by IEEE 693 Std.


Qualified by test or analysis as part of
the equipment
Designed for elastic behavior
Allowable Strength = 50% of
dependable capacity at 0.5g Required
Response Spectrum
Often the controlling element in an
equipment qualification

Insulator Damage During


Earthquakes
Circuit breaker support
columns

17

Insulator Damage During


Earthquakes

18

Transformer bushings

Insulator Damage During


Earthquakes

19

Surge arresters

Insulator Damage During


Earthquakes

Instrument transformers
20

Insulator Damage During


Earthquakes

Bus supports (posts)


21

Insulator Damage During


Earthquakes

22

Air disconnect switches (posts)

Insulator Damage During


Earthquakes

23

Circuit switchers (posts)

Insulator Damage During


Earthquakes

24

Capacitor racks (posts)

Industry Needs

25

Better understanding of effects of


cyclic loading
Simple, reliable damage detection
techniques for post-shake test
inspection/ assessment
Improved insulator analysis models
Better understanding of failure
mechanisms
Methods for seismic qualification
testing with varied support
characteristics

Porcelain Post Insulator Studies at


PEER

26

Post insulator cyclic load testing


Development of finite element analysis
models
Hybrid simulation of disconnect switch on
support

Post Insulator Cyclic Load Testing

27

Obtained static break test data from


insulator manufacturer
Tested 6 posts of 2 different cross sections
Tested with cyclic load reversals, increasing
magnitude
Used hammer blows at intermediate
points, to attempt to detect damage

Cyclic Load Test Sequence

0.59*Mean Static

Number of
Cycles
6

0.66*Mean Static

0.72*Mean Static

0.78*Mean Static

0.86*Mean Static

0.93*Mean Static

1.00*Mean Static

Monotonic to failure

Load Step

28

Post Insulator Cyclic Load Testing

Two types of failures observed

Cross-section #1: Cyclic Test Mean


Breaking Strength = 0.84*Static Test Mean
Cross-section #2: Cyclic Test Mean
Breaking Strength = 1.21*Static Test Mean
Hammer blows unable to detect damage

29

Post Insulator F.E. Model


Development
Cap
s

Shed
s

Grou
t

Separati
on,
Fracture

Beam: lower
porcelain section
extends to top

No

No

No

No

M2

SAP20
00

Beam: lower
porcelain section
extends to top

No

No

No

No

M3

SAP20
00

Beam elements with


variable cross
section

Iron

No

No

No

DIANA

Solid elements with


variable cross
section

Iron

No

No

No

DIANA

Solid elements with


variable cross
section

Iron

Yes

No

No

DIANA

Solid elements with


variable cross
section

Actu
a
l

Yes

Yes

No

Solid elements with


variable cross

Actu
a

Yes

Yes

Yes

Name

Meth
od

Modeling details

M1

Hand
Calcs.

M4

M5

M6

30
M7

DIANA

Post Insulator F.E. Model


Development

31

Further development in progress


Parametric studies and comparisons
with test data
Frequency
Force/ displacement

Qualification of Equipment With


Varied Supports

32

Varied supports may be used by different


utilities for same equipment
Repeated tests are costly
Test of equipment on full-scale support is
generally required
Lead time is long

Hybrid Simulation of Disconnect


Switch
on Support
Jaw
Post

Braced
frame
support
structure

33

Concept for Hybrid Simulation of


Disconnect Switch on Support
Physical
Substructure
Insulator(switch jaw end
with blade
open)

550 kV Switch Test

10

1.2
0.6
0
-0.6
-1.2
0
1.2

341
c
c
.(g
)

X
a
c
c
.(g
)

0.8

10

Support
response or from
structure
shake table test
20

20

30

30

40

50

60

70

40

50

60

70

40

50

60

70

Earthquake
10
20
30
40
50 motion
60
70
10

20

30

Time (sec)

Computati
onal
Substructu
re

Hybrid Simulation of Disconnect


Switch
on Support
Physical
InsulatorSubstruct
(assumed 1D)
ure
Displacement (in)

Dynamic
Actuator &
Load Cell

Velocity (in/sec)

Movable platform

Force feedback

-5
-10

X
a
c
c
.(g
)

10

20

30

40

30

40

Displacement
command

0
-50

Acceleration (in/sec2)

70

Fixed tracksCalculated support structure respo


applied to movable platform

50

-100

35

100

Dynamic DOF
i

1.2 Earthquake motion


0.6
0
-0.6
-1.2
0
10 20 30 40 50 60
1.2

550 kV Switch Test

10

10

20

4
2

Computational
Substructure

0
-2
-4

10

20

30

Time (sec)

40

Acknowledgements

Co-Authors
Stu

Nishenko, Sr. Seismologist, PG&E


Khalid Mosalam, Professor of Civil and
Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley
Shakhzod Takhirov, Sr. Development
Engineer, UC Berkeley

36

Bonneville Power Administration


California Energy Commission
Pacific Gas and Electric Company