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Skeletal System:

Histology and
Functions
Bryan Mae Degorio

Objectives:
Discuss the different functions of the skeletal

system.
Identify the bones found in the axial and
appendicular skeleton.
Discuss the bone histology.
Discuss bone formation and repair.

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SKELETAL
system
.
Consist of

bones and
associated
connective
tissues
Cartilage
Tendon
Ligament
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Functions of Skeletal
System:
Support
Protection
Movement
Storage
Hematopoiesis

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The Extracellular
Matrix of the Bone:
Collagen
Proteoglycan
Bone minerals
Structure

Collagen

Proteoglyca
n

Ligament/tendo
n

Large

Cartilage

Large

Present

Bone

Present

Present

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Bone
minerals

Calcium +
phosphorus
(hydroxyapatit
e)

Categories of
Bone
Long bones
Short bones
Flat bones
Irregular bone
Sesamoid

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The LONG BONE..


Usually seen

extremities.
It illustrate typical parts
of the bone.
Diaphysis
Epiphyses
Medullary cavity
Articular cartilage
Periosteum
Endosteum

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The FLAT, IRREGULAR and


SHORT bones.

Consist the following

parts:
Compact bone
Cancellous bone
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Trabeculae

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The Bone and Cartilage


Tissue
HISTOLOGY

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2 major types of Bones:


Compact bone

- these are dense


bone
usually seen on
the long bones
(diaphysis)
Cancellous bone
- Spongy bones
- contains many
spaces usually located
at the epiphysis.
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Compact Bone:
Periosteum
Circumferential

lamellae
Haversian system
(OSTEON)
Lamella
Lacuna

Osteocytes/osteobla
st
Central canal
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Cancellous bone
Located mainly on

the epiphyses.
Contains
trabeculaeinterconnecting rods
that is filled with
marrow.

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The Cartilage
Are connective

tissue that has


tough, flexible matrix
made of collagen,
protein and sugar.
Chondrocytecartilage cells
located in a cartilage
matrix

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The BONE formation


and Repair and
regulations

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Osteogenesis/Ossification
Is the formation of

bone by osteoblast
Intramembranous
- The develops from
a fibrous connective
tissue
Endocondral
- The bone
develops from
hyaline cartilage
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Intramembranous ossification

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Endochondral ossification

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Hormonal regulation of bone..

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Bone repair- occurs when the


bone develops fracture or breaks
Major stages of

bone repair:
1. hematoma
formation
2. Fibrocartilaginous
callus formation
3. Bony callus
formation
4. Bone remodelling
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Stages of bone healing

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Joint and its functions.


Aka: articulation
Weakest part of

skeletal system
Can be classified
based on the
following:
a. Structural form
b. Functions

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Structural classifications of joints:

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Fibrous joint..

Cartilagenous
joints...
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Synovial joints.
The articulating bone

is separated by a fluid
containing joint cavity.
5 distinguishing
features:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Articular cartilage
Joint cavity
Articular capsule
Synovial fluid
Reinforcing ligament

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