Anda di halaman 1dari 54

SIFAT MEKANIS

Chapter 6- 1

Materi kuliah :

Konseptegangandanregangan.
Sifatelastisdansifatplastismaterial.
Ujitarik.
Kurvateganganregangandanintepretasinya.

Chapter 6-

DEFORMASI ELASTIS
1. Kondisi awal

2. Beban kecil

3. Beban dilepas

bonds
stretch
return to
initial

F
Elastic means reversible!

Linearelastic

Non-Linearelastic
Chapter 6- 2

DEFORMASI ELASTIS

Deformasielastisbersifatreversibel
Chapter 6-

DEFORMASI PLASTIS (LOGAM)

F
linear
elastic

linear
elastic

plastic

Deformasi plastis bersifat


tetap (permanen)
Chapter 6-

KONSEP TEGANGAN
Tegangan tarik, :

Tegangan geser, :

Ft

Ft

Ft

Ao

Fs

Area, A

Area, A

Ft

original area
before loading

Fs

Ao

Fs
F

Ft

Satuan tegangan :
N/m2 atau lb/in2
Chapter 6- 4

KONDISI PEMBEBANAN
Tegangan tarik (kabel)

Ao = cross sectional
Area (when unloaded)

Ao

Tegangan geser (poros)

Ac
M

2R

Fs

Ao

Ski lift

Fs

Ao

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Note: = M/AcR here.

Chapter 6- 5

KONDISI PEMBEBANAN
Beban tekan :

Ao

Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Balanced Rock, Arches


National Park

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Ao

Note: compressive
structure member
( < 0 here).

Chapter 6- 6

KONDISI PEMBEBANAN
Tegangan tarik 2 sumbu:

Pressurized tank
(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)

Tekan Hidrostatik:

Fish under water

> 0
z > 0

(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)

<
h 0
Chapter 6- 7

KONSEP REGANGAN
Regangan tarik :


Lo

Regangan lateral:
/2

wo

L /2
Regangan geser :

Lo

L L
wo

/2
L /2

/2

/2 -
/2

= tan

Regangan merupakan
besaran tanpa satuan.

/2
Chapter 6- 8

CONTOH SOAL 1
Sebatangtembagadenganpanjang305mmditarikdengan
tegangansebesar276MPa,jikadeformasiyangterjadi
adalahdeformasielastis,hitungresultanelongasinya.
JAWAB:
Padadeformasielastis,hubunganantarategangandan
reganganadalah:
Elongasi(l)dapatdihitungdenganpersamaan:
E

l i l 0 l

l0
l0
Chapter 6-

CONTOH SOAL 1
Gabungandarikeduapersamaantersebut,didapat:

l0
l
E

Denganmemasukkanhargaharga:
=276MPa
l0=305mm
Epropertitembaga=110x103MPa

Hargaldapatdicari.......

Chapter 6-

CONTOH SOAL 2
Sebuahtegangantarikdiberikanpadasebuahbatang
kuninganyangberdiameter10mm.Hitungbebanyang
diperlukanuntukmenghasilkanperubahandiameter2,5x
103mm,jikadeformasiyangterjadiadalahdeformasi
elastis:
JAWAB:

Chapter 6-

KetikagayaFdiberikan,spesimenakan
mengalamiperpanjanganarahzdan
mengakibatkanpengecilandiameter,d=2,5x10
3
mmdalamarahx.
d 2,5 x10 3
x

2,5 x10 4
d0
10

Reganganarahzdapatdihitungdengan
persamaan:
4
z

x
(2,5 x10 )

7,35 x10 4

0,34

Chapter 6-

Teganganyangdiberikandapatdihitungdengan
HukumHooke:

z E (7,35 x10 4 )(97 x103 ) 71,3MPa


Gayayangharusdiberikan:
2

d0
F A0

2

Chapter 6-

UJI TEGANGAN DAN REGANGAN


Contoh spesimen uji
tarik

Skema uji tarik


load cell

Adapted from Fig. 6.2,


Callister 6e.

extensometer

specimen

moving cross head


gauge (portion of sample with
=
length reduced cross section)

Tipe uji lain :


-- tekan : bahan getas
(misal : beton)
-- torsi : poros, tabung
silinder

Adapted from Fig. 6.3, Callister 6e.


(Fig. 6.3 is taken from H.W.
Hayden, W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff,
The Structure and Properties of
Materials, Vol. III, Mechanical
Behavior, p. 2, John Wiley and
Sons, New York, 1965.)
Chapter 6- 9

Tensile Test Machine (Instron)


Chapter 6-

Extensometer

Grip

Specimen

Grip

Chapter 6-

TENSILE STRENGTH, TS
Maximum possible engineering stress in tension.

engineering
stress

TS

Adapted from Fig. 6.11,


Callister 6e.

Typical response of a metal

strain

Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.


Ceramics: occurs when crack propagation starts.
Polymers: occurs when polymer backbones are
aligned and about to break.

Chapter 6- 17

Terms
Necking: The localized decrease in diameter in a
specimen near the rupture point.

Elastic Deformation Region: The area of a stress strain curve where the specimen will deform under load, yet
return to its original shape when the load is removed.

Plastic Deformation: Deformation that occurs once


the object has been stressed past its elastic limit. The
deformation is no longer reversible.

Chapter 6-

Chapter 6-

Chapter 6-

Grip

Tensile Test
Specimen

Grip
Chapter 6-

Chapter 6-

Necking
Necking Starts
Starts

Chapter 6-

Necking

Necking occurs as
the sample leaves
the elastic
deformation region
and begins to
deform plastically.

Chapter 6-

Chapter 6-

Fracture Initiates
at Necking Area

Chapter 6-

Chapter 6-

Fracture is
Complete at
Necking Area

Chapter 6-

Chapter 6-

The classic cup &


cone shape of a
fairly ductile tensile
fracture is visible
here.

Chapter 6-

DUCTILE VS BRITTLE FAILURE


Classification:

Fracture
behavior:

Very
Ductile

Moderately
Ductile

Brittle

Moderate

Small

Adapted from Fig. 8.1,


Callister 6e.

%AR or %EL: Large


Ductile
fracture is
desirable!

Ductile:
warning before
fracture

Brittle:
No
warning
Chapter 6- 2

Compare the material properties of


these three metal samples.
All three failed under tension

Chapter 6-

Tensile Test Stress Strain Diagram


The applied stress versus the strain or elongation of the
specimen shows the initial elastic response of the material,
followed by yielding, plastic deformation and finally
necking and failure. Several measurements are taken from
the plot, called the Engineering Stress-Strain Diagram.
These include:
Modulus of elasticity
Yield strength
Tensile strength
Modulus of resilience
Failure stress
Ductility
Toughness
Chapter 6-

Modulus of elasticity - the initial slope of the curve, related


directly to the strength of the atomic bonds.

Chapter 6-

Menghitung modulus elastisitas

Moduluselastisitas(E)

1 0
E
1 0

1
1
0

Daerahelastis

Chapter 6-

Yield strength, usually defined as the point at which a


consistent and measureable amount of permanent strain
remains in the specimen.

Chapter 6-

0.2 % Offset Yield StrengthOffset Yield Strength


Defining the yield stress as the point separating elastic
from plastic deformation is easier than determining that
point. The elastic portion of the curve is not perfectly
linear, and microscopic amounts of deformation can occur.
As a matter of practical convenience, the yield strength is
determined by constructing a line parallel to the initial
portion of the stress-strain curve but offset by 0.2% from
the origin. The intersection of this line and the measured
stress-strain line is used as an approximation of the
material's yield strength, called the 0.2% offset yield.

Chapter 6-

0.2 % Offset Yield Strength

Chapter 6-

Tensile strength - the maximum stress applied to the specimen.

Chapter 6-

Failure stress - the stress applied to the specimen at failure


(usually less than the maximum tensile strength because
necking reduces the cross-sectional area)

Chapter 6-

DUCTILITY, %EL

L f Lo
%EL
x100
Plastic tensile strain at failure:
Lo
Engineering
tensile
stress,
Adapted from Fig. 6.13,
Callister 6e.

smaller %EL
(brittle if %EL<5%)
larger %EL
(ductile if
%EL>5%)

Lo

Ao

Af

Lf

Engineering tensile strain,

Ao A f
Another ductility measure:%AR
x100
Ao
Note: %AR and %EL are often comparable.
--Reason: crystal slip does not change material
volume.
Chapter 6- 19
--%AR > %EL possible if internal voids form in neck.

Ductility - the total elongation of the specimen due to plastic


deformation, neglecting the elastic stretching (the broken
ends snap back and separate after failure).

Chapter 6-

Ductility
% Elongation:
% elongation is a measure of ductility, which is given by:
% elongation =100 * (Lf - Lo)/ Lo
where,
Lo = Initial length
Lf = Final Length

Chapter 6-

Ductility
% Reduction in Area:
% reduction in area is a measure of ductility, which is given
by:
% reduction in area =100 * (Ao - Af)/ Ao
where,
Ao = Initial arae
Af = Final area

Chapter 6-

Modulus of resilience - the area under the linear part of the


curve, measuring the stored elastic energy.

Chapter 6-

Toughness - the total area under the curve, which measures the
energy absorbed by the specimen in the process of breaking.

Chapter 6-

TOUGHNESS
Energy to break a unit volume of material
Approximate by the area under the stress-strain
curve.
Engineering
tensile
stress,

smaller toughness (ceramics)


larg er toughness
(metals, PMCs)
smaller toughnessunreinforced
polymers

Engineering tensile strain,

Chapter 6- 20

PLASTIC (PERMANENT) DEFORMATION

(at lower temperatures, T < Tmelt/3)

Simple tension test:


Elastic+Plastic
at larger stress

tensile stress,

Elastic
initially

permanent (plastic)
after load is removed

engineering strain,
plastic strain
Chapter 6- 14

YIELD STRENGTH, y
Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has
occurred.
when p = 0.002
tensile stress,

engineering strain,

p = 0.002
Chapter 6- 15

STRESS

True Stress and Engineering Stress:


True stress is calculated by :
= (applied force)/(area) =P/A
where A=Actual area (actual area constantly decreases from
its initial value)
Substitution of the actual area into the equation gives a
larger stress (true stress) than the engineering stress. Note
that engineering stress uses the initial area, regardless of the
change in diameter during the tensile test.
TRUE
STRESS
ENGINEERING
STRESS

STRAIN

Chapter 6-

STRAIN HARDENING EXPONENT


An increase in y due to plastic deformation.

large hardening

y
1
y

small hardening

Curve fit to the stress-strain response:

T C T
true stress (F/A)

hardening exponent:
n=0.15 (some steels)
to n=0.5 (some copper)
true strain: ln(L/L
o)
Chapter 6- 22

SUMMARY
Stress and strain: These are size-independent
measures of load and displacement, respectively.
Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often
shows a linear relation between stress and strain.
To minimize deformation, select a material with a
large elastic modulus (E or G).
Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation
behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive)
uniaxial stress reaches y.
Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit
volume of material.
Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.

Chapter 6- 24