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ME 091304

Teknik Bangunan dan Konstruksi Kapal II

Fore End Structure

Jurusan Teknik Sistem Perkapalan


Fakultas Teknologi Kelautan ITS Surabaya

Stem
On

many conventional ships a stem


bar, which is a solid round bar, is fitted.

Stem

bar is fitted from the keel to the


waterline region, and a radiused plate
is fitted above the waterline to form the
upper part of the stem.

This

forms what is referred to as a soft


nose stem, which in the event of a
collision will buckle under load, keeping
the impact damage to a minimum.

The

solid round bar is welded inside the


keel plate at its lower end, and inside
the radiused stem plate at its upper
end, the shell being welded each side.
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Stem
It

is necessary to support that


part of the stem which is
formed by radiused plates with
breast hooks, i.e. horizontal
plate webs, between the decks
and below the lowest deck, in
order to reduce the
unsupported span of the stem.

Where

the plate radius is large,


further stiffening is provided by
a vertical stiffener on the
centre line.

*Breast hook : Pelat segitiga mendatar di haluan kapal

Fore end structure

Fore end structure

Fore end structure

Stem
Older

ships had solid bar stems which


were riveted and of square section.

It

could cause considerable damage


on impact because of its rigidity.

Small

ships such as tugs and trawlers


may still have a solid stem bar
extending to the top of the bow.
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Stem
Some

existing large
passenger ships may
have steel castings or
forgings forming the
lower part of the stem.

specially designed bow


is required for ships
assigned Ice Class and
additional scantlings are
required for the stems of
ships assigned other ice
classes.
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Bulbous bow
Vessels

operating at higher speeds, and those with


high block coefficients, are often found to have a
bulbous or protruding bow below the waterline.

From

the construction point of view the bulbous bow


does not present any great difficulty if this aspect
has been considered when the bulb form is designed.

In

general however a greater degree of plate


curvature is involved, unless a rather convenient
cylindrical form is adopted and fitted into the bow as
a single unit.
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Bulbous bow
Floors

are fitted at every


frame space in the bulb, and
a centre line wash bulkhead
is introduced when the bulb
is large.
Transverses are fitted at
about every fifth frame in
long bulbs.
Smaller bulbs have a centre
line web but not a wash
bulkhead.
Shell plating covering the
bulb has an increased
thickness similar to that of a
radiused plate stem below
the waterline.

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Chain locker
A

chain locker is often arranged in the position forward of


the collision bulkhead, below either the main deck or the
second deck.

It

can also be fitted in the forecastle or aft of the collision


bulkhead in which case it must be watertight and have
proper means of drainage.

Chain

locker dimensions are determined in relation to the


length and size of cable, the depth being such that the
cable is easily stowed, and a direct lead at all times is
provided to the mouth of the chain pipe.

Port

and starboard cables are stowed separately in the


locker.

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Construction
of chain locker
The

locker does not as a


rule have the same
breadth as the ship, but
has conventionally
stiffened forward and
side bulkheads.

The

stiffeners being
conveniently arranged
outside the locker if
possible to prevent their
being damaged.

*chain locker: bak/ceruk/gudang rantai

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Hawse pipe
To

provide an easy lead for the cable


from the windlass to the anchors, the
hawse pipes must be carefully fitted.

Tubular

hawse pipes are generally


fabricated. Castings are welded at the
shell and deck to prevent chafing.

Additional

stiffening in way of the hawse


pipes is required at the side shell.
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Hawse pipe

*Hawse pipe: tabung/pipa rantai jangkar


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Bow thruster
With

the great increase in the size of the very


large tankers, bulk carriers, containerships,
passenger vessels, etc., directional control at
low speed is of primary importance.

Bow

thruster can help the maneuvering


capability of ship at low speed especially
when approaching the port for berthing.

The

bow thruster unit may consist of:

A shrouded propeller, where the shroud is movable


and acts as a rudder.
A transverse tunnel or duct through the ship near
the bow in the narrow forward section. A reversible
propeller is fitted on the center line of the tunnel
to act as a pump discharging the water

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Fore end structure

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Fore end structure

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Fore end structure

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References
Ship

Construction Sketches and


Notes
Kemp and Young, Stanford Maritime
London, 1984.

Ship

Construction, Sixth Edition, D.J.


Eyres, Butterworth-Heinemann,
2007
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