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WELDING CODE, STANDARD

& WELDING PROCEDURE

Drs. Ir. Toto Marnoto , M.Sc

DEFINISI
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Standard adalah kumpulan dokumen dokumen


berisikan kode (codes), spesifikasi (specification),
saran aplikasi (recommended practice), klasifikasi,
dan petunjuk (guide) yang telah dipersiapkan oleh
suatu
institusi
organisasi
dan
disahkan
(Appraved) sesuai dengan prosedur yang ada
(berlaku) :
"Codes" adalah suatu standard yang berisikan
kondisi dan persyaratan yang berhubungan
dengan bidang khusus (a particularly' subject) dan
mengindikasikan bahwa prosedur yg digunakan
telah sesuai dengan persyaratannya. Codes ini
diikuti
(mandatory)
karena
menyangkut
kepentingan umum yang merefer kepada kebij

DEFINISI
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Specification
(spesifikasi)
adalah
suatau
standard
yang
berisikan
penjelasan yang rinci dan akurat
tentang
persyaratan
teknis
dari
material, produk, sistim atau jasa.
Contoh Kode :
Structural Welding Code-Steel (AWS
D1.1)
Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (ASME)
Welded Pipeline & Vessel (API)
Contoh Specification :
Filler Metal Specification (AWS A5.X)

AWS Structural Welding


Code

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AWS D1.1, Structural Welding Code-Steel


AWS D1.2, Structural Welding Code-Aluminum
AWS D1.3, Structural Welding Code-Sheet
Steel
AWS D1.4, Structural Welding CodeReinforcing Steel
AWS D1.5, Bridge Welding Code
AWS D1.6, Structural Welding Code-Stainless

Welding Code Steel


(AWS D.1.1)

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(statically or Cyclically Loaded)
D Connection
Part C-Specific Requirements for Cyclically
I Loaded No tubular Connections
Part D-Specific Requirements for Tubular
N connections
(3)
Prequalification of WPSs
G (4) Qualifications

(1) General Requirements


(2) Design of Welded Connections
Part A-Common Requirements of No tubular and
tubular
Connections
Part B-Specific Requirements for No tubular

Welding Code Steel


(AWS D.1.1)

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(5) Fabrication
(6) Inspection
Part A-General Requirements
Part B-Contractor Responsibilities
Part C-Acceptance Criteria
Part D-Nondestructive Testing Procedures
Part E-Radiographic Testing
Part F-Ultrasonic Testing of Groove Welds
Far! G-Other Examination Methods
(7) Stud Welding
(8) Strengthening
and
Repairing
Existing
Structures
Annexes-Mandatory Information
Annexes-No mandatory Information

Nondestructive Testing
Methods-D1.1 Code Reference

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Test Method

Applicable Code References

Radiographic
Section 6, Part E
Ultrasonic
Section 6, Part F
Magnetic Particle
Section 6, ASTM E 709
Liquid
Section 6
NDT Personnel Qualification
6.14.6.1 (SNT-TC-1A)
The acceptance criteria for both the visual inspection and
nondestructive examination are found in the following code
location, depending upon the type of structure being
constructed.
Type of Structure

Weld Acceptance
Criteria Reference

Statically Loaded,
Dynamically Loaded, and
Tubular Structures

Section 6

ASME Boiler and Pressure


Vessel-Code Reference

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ASME Section
I
II

Topic

Power Boiler
Material Specification
Part A : Ferrous Materials
Part B : Nonferrous Materials
Part C : Welding Filler Materials
Part D : Properties
III
No clear Components
IV
Heating Boilers
V
Nondesmetive Examination
VI
Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
VII Care of Power Boilers
VIII
Unifiers Pressure Vessels
IX
Welding and Brazing Qualification
X
Fiberglass-Reinfereed Plastic Pressure Vessels
XI In-service Inspection of No clear Components

ASME STANDARD

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Section

Information Provided

II, Part A Description, including chemical and


mechanical properties, of the steel base
to be used.
II, Part C Description, including chemical and
mechanical properties, of the welding filler
materials.
II, Part D Material properties
V
Methods for performing various required
nondestructive examinations.
VIII
Design, fabrication and inspection
requirements for unfired pressure vessels.
including weld acceptance criteria.
IX
Requirements for the qualification of weldin
procedures and welders.

API STANDARD
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API 1104, Standard for Welding


Pipeline and Related Facilities
API 620, Recommended Rules
for Design and Construction of
Large Welded low Pressure
Storage Tanks
API 650, Standard for Welded
Steel Tank for Oil Storage

Persyaratan Dasar dalam


Menentukan
Kualitas dalam Pengelasan

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I Approved
N Welder
(operator)
G

Equipment

Quality
of
Welds

Welding
Coordinato
r

Amerika
dalam mendukung
kualitas Lasan

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ASME

(American

Society

of

Mechanical Engineers)
EN

(European

Norm)

/European

Standard
AWS (American Welding Society)

ASME Standard untuk


Welding

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ASME

(Sec

IX

(Qualification

Standard for Welding and Brazing


Procedure, Welder, and Welding &
Braze Operator.
ASME

Sec

Material

II

and

Standard

for

Consumable

of

STANDARD KUALITAS
LAS dari ASME

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Examination and
D Testing
ASME V
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BASIC CONTRUCTION CODE /


STANDARD :
ASME Sec I, ASME B31.1, ASME B31.3
ASME Sec VIII Div 1 & 2

Quality of
Welds

Welding Material
ASME II C

Welding
Personnel And
Welding
Procedure
ASME IX

European Standard For


Welding

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EN

288

(Standard

Qualification

&

Welding

Procedure)
EN

287

(Standard

&

Qualification of Welder
EN

1418

Qualification

(Standard
of

&

Welding

STANDARD KUALITAS
LAS dari EN
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Quality manual and


certificate
EN ISO 9000

Examination/Testi
ng
e.g. ISO 5817,
ISO 30042,
EN 970
Safety
in
welding,
e.g. EN 60974,
EN 50078

Quality
requirements
For welding
EN 729 (ISO 3834)

Welding personnel
EN
287
(ISO
9606)
EN 1418 (ISO
14732)
EN
719
(ISO
14731)

Quality
of welds

Welding
procedures
EN
288
(ISO
9956)
[In Future
EN ISO 156075614]

Materials0
Parents metal, e.g. EN
10025
Consumables, e.g. EN
440, EN 4990

PROSEDUR LAS EN
288
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EN 288-1. General rules fusion welding.


EN 288-2. WPS for Are Welding.
EN 288-3. Welding Procedure Test for Are
welding of steel.
EN 288-4. Welding Procedure Test for Are
welding of Aluminum and Its alloys.
EN 288 - 5. Approval by using approved
welding consumables for are welding
EN 288 - 6. Approval related to previous
experience
EN 288 - 7. Approval by a standard welding
procedure for are welding.
EN 288 - 8. Approval by a pre-production
welding test.

KUALIFIKASI
WELDER - 287
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EN 287-1. Approval testing of welders-Fusion


welding part 1 : Steels.
EN 287-2. Approval testing of welders-Fusion
welding part 2 : Aluminum and aluminum Alloys.
EN 287-3. Approval testing of welders- Fusion
welding part 3 : Copper and Copper Alloys.
EN 287-4. Approval testing of welders- Fusion
welding part 4 : Nickel and Nickels alloys
EN 287 - 5. Approval testing of welders- Fusion
welding part 5 : Titanium and Titanium, Zirconium
and Zirconium
alloys.
EN 287 - 6. Approval related to previous experience
EN 287 - 7. Approval by a standard welding
procedure for are welding
EN 287 - 8. Approval by a pre-production welding

codes and standards and


related welding procedure and
welder approval standards

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Application
Application

Welding Standard

Code/standard

Procedure
Approval

Welder
Approval

Pressure
Vessels

BS 5500
ASME VIII

BS EN 288
ASME IX

BS EN 287 ASME
IX

Process
Pipe-work

BS 2633
BS 4677 ANSI/ASME
B311
ANSI/ASME
B31.3
BS 2971

BS EN 288 (Part 3)
BS EN 288 (Part 4)
ASME IX
ASME IX
BS EN 288 (Part 3)
(if required)

BS EN 287 (Part
1) BS EN 287
(Part 2)
ASME IX
ASME IX
BS 4872/BS EN
287

Structural
Fabrication

AWS D1.1
AWS D1.2
BS 5135
BS 8118

AWS D1.1
AWS D1.2
BS EN 288 (Part 3)
BS EN 288 (Part 4)

AWS D1.1
AWS D1.2
BS EN 287
BS EN 287
BS 287

Storage
Tanks

BS 2654
BS 2594
API 620/650

BS EN 288 (Parts 3 & 4)


BS EN 288 (Parts 3 & 4
ASME IX

BS EN 287
BS EN 287
ASME IX

Why
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a WPS

A weld cannot be checked to the full


extent!
Strength,
ductility
and
corrosion
resistance can only be checked by
destructive techniques.
Properties can only be guaranteed for
the actual product when manufactured
to exactly the same written procedure,

Why a WPS
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E The main objective of a
L
WPS is to make a
D
welding operation
I
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Reproducible
G

What is a WPS ?
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The welding procedure is somewhat


Analogous to a cooks recipe.
It outlines the steps required to make a
quality
Weld under specific conditions.
The WPS is a communication tool, and it is
the primary means of communication to all
the parties involved regarding how the
welding is
to be performed.
It must therefore be readily available to

What is a WPS ?
to QW-100.1 ASME Sec IX.
W According
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS).
WPS is a written document that provides
E direction to the welder or welding operator for
making production welds in accordance with
L Code requirements.
D According to QW-200.2 ASME Sec IX.
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR).
I A PQR is a record of the welding data used to
weld a test coupon. The PQR is a record of
N variables recorded during the welding of the test
coupons. It also contains the test results of the
G tested specimens. Recorded variables normally

What is WPS Variables ?

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Process
(SMAW, FCAW, etc)
Electrode specification
(AWS A5.1, A5.20, etc)
Electrode classification
(E7018, E71T-1, etc)
Electrode diameter
(1/8 in., 5/32 in., etc)
Electrical characteristics
(AC, DC+, DC-)
Base metal specification
(A36, A572 Gr50, etc)
Minimum preheat and interpass
Temperature
Welding current (amperage)/wire feed speed
Are voltage
Travel speed
Position of welding
Post weld heat treatment
Shielding gas type and flow rate
Joint design details

What is Variables in
WPS ?
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1. Essential Variable :
QW-401.1 Essential Variable (Procedure).
A change in a welding condition which will
affect the mechanical properties (other than
notch toughness) of the well-meant (for
example, change, in P-Number, welding
process, filler metal, electrode, preheat or
post weld heat treatment, etc.).
QW-401.2 Essential Variable (Performance).
A change in a welding condition which will
affect the ability of a welder to deposit
sound weld metal (such as a change in

What is Variables in WPS


?

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Supplemental Essential Variable :


QW-401.3 Supplemental Essential Variable
(Procedure). A. Change in a welding condition
which
will
affect
the
notch-toughness
properties of a well-meant (for example,
change in welding, heat input, preheat or
PWHT, etc).
When a procedure has been previously qualified
to satisfy all requirements other than notch
toughness, it is then necessary only to prepare
an additional test coupon using the same
procedure with the same essential variables,
but additionally
with all of the required
supplementary essential variables, with the

What is Variables in
WPS ?

W
3. Nonessential Variable :
E
QW-401.4 Nonessential Variable
L
(Procedure).
D
A Change in a welding condition which
I will not affect the mechanical properties
of a well-meant (such as joint design,
N method of back gouging or cleaning etc.
G

PROCEDURE SPESIFICATION
(WPS)Shielded Metal-ArC
(SMAW)

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Legend :

Paragraph

Brief of Variables
.1

.4

Essential

Supplementary
Essential

Nonessential

Groove Design

Backing

+ Addition
-

Delection

QW-402
Joints

>
Increase/greate

.10

Root Spacing

.11

Retainers

.5

Group Number

r than

.6

T Limits Impact

<

.7

T/t Limits > 8 in. (203 mm)

T Qualified

t Pass > in. (13 mm)

Descrease/less
than

QW-403
Base
Metals

.8

.9

Uphill

.11

P-No. qualified

Downhill

.13

P.No. 5/9/10

Forehand

.4

F.Number

Backhand

.5

A. Number

.6

Diameter

.7

Diam. > in. (6 mm)

Chane
QW-404
Filler

Stages in Welding Procedures and


Welder Approval

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Application standard
Contract
Project specification
Drawings

EN 288-3/4
ASME IX
AWS D1.1/2

Development
of procedure
P
WPS

Preliminary welding
procedure specification

Approval
of prosedure
Welding procedure
approval record

WPAR/PQR

Welder approval
certificate

6 months
prolongation

Finalisation of
procedure
Welding procedure specification

2 years (EN 287)


prolongation

Please for
production
Manufacturer

Party involved

Work instructions

Examining Body

ASME SECTION IX MATERIAL GROUPING


P-NUMBERS

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The material group are based on comparable base


material characteristics, such as composition, weld
ability, braze-ability, and mechanical properties.
Base Material

Welding

Brazing

Steel and steel alloys

P No.1 through P No.11,


including
P No.5A, 5B,and 5C

P No.101 through P
No.103

Aluminum and aluminumbased alloys

P No.21 through P No.25

P No.104 through P
No.105

Copper and copper-based


alloys

P No.31 through P No.35

P No.107 through P
No.108

Nickel and nickel-based alloys

P No.41 through P No.47

P No.110 through P
No.112

Titanium and titanium-based


alloys

P No.51 through P No.53

P No.115

Zirconium and zirconium-based


alloys

P No.61 through P No.62

P No.117

ASME & EN MATERIAL P NUMBER


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P No.

EN-288

Base Metal

Carbon Manganese Steels, 4 Sub Groups


Group 1 up to approx 65ksi
Group 2 Approx 70ksi
Group 3 Approx 80ksi
Group 4 Special (e.g. SA-724 gr. A, B, C)

Not Used

2 Sub Groups:- Typically one and a quarter chrome half moly

5A

Typically two and a quarter chrome one moly

5B

2 Sub Groups:- Typically five chrome half moly and nine chrome one moly

5C

5 Sub Groups:- Chrome moly vanadium

6 Sub Groups:- Martensitic Stainless Steel Typically Grade 410

Ferritic Stainless Steels Typically Grade 409

Austenitic Stainless Steels, 4 Sub groups


Group1 Typically Grades 304, 316, 347
Group2 Typically Grades 309, 310
Group3 High manganese grades
Group4 Typically 254 SMO type steels

9A, B, C

Typically two to four percent Nickel Steels

10A,B,C,F,G

Mixed bag of low alloy steels, 10G 36 Nickel Steel

10 H

10

10 J

Typically 26 Chrome one moly

11A Group 1

9 Nickel Steels

11A Groups 2 to 5

Mixed bag of high strength low alloy steels

11 B

10 Sub Groups:- Mixed bag of high strength low alloy steels

3 Sub Groups:- Typically half moly and half chrome half moly

Duplex and Super Duplex Grades 31803, 32750

ASME F Numbers
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F No.

General F Numbers

Heavy rutile coated iron powder electrodes : - A51 : E7024

Most Rutile consumables such as : - A5.1 : E6013

Cellulosic electrodes such as : A5.1 : E6011

Basic coated electrodes such as : A5.1 : E7016 and E7018

High alloy austenitic stainless steel and duplex : - A5.4 : E316L-16

Any steel solid or cored wire (with flux or metal)

2X

Aluminium and its alloys

3X

Copper and its alloys

4X

Nickel alloys

5X

Titanium

6X

Zirconium

Note : - X represents any number 0


7X
Hard Facing Overlay
to 9

ASME Welding Positions

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ASME Welding Positions

Note the welding progression, (vertically upwards or downwards), must always be stated and it is a
essential
variable for both procedures and performance qualifications.
Welding Positions Welding
For Groove
welds:Position
Test Position
ISO and EN
Flat

1G

PA

Horizontal

2G

PC

Vertical Upwards Progression

3G

PF

Vertical Downwards Progression

3G

PG

Overhead

4G

PE

Pipe Fixed Horizontal

5G

PF

Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Upwards

6G

HL045

Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Downwards

6G

JL045

Test Position

ISO and EN

Flat (Weld flat joint at 45 degrees)

1F

PA

Horizontal

2F

PB

2FR

PB

Vertical Upwards Progression

3F

PF

Vertical Downwards Progression

3F

PG

Overhead

4F

PD

Pipe Fixed Horizontal

5F

PF

Welding Positions For Fillet Welds:Welding Position

Horizontal Rotated

CONTOH TAHAPAN PROSES


PENGELASAN PIPA

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PIPE
PIPE HOTIZONTAL
HOTIZONTAL AND
AND ROTATED.
ROTATED.
WELD
WELD FLAT
FLAT (15).
(15). DEPOSIT
DEPOSIT
FILLER
FILLER METAL
METAL OR
OR NEAR
NEAR THE
THE TOP.
TOP.

PIPE
PIPE OA
OA TUBE
TUBE VERTICAL
VERTICAL AND
AND
NOT
NOT ROTATED
ROTATED DURING
DURING WELDING
WELDING
WELD
WELD HORIZONTAL
HORIZONTAL (15_
(15_

(A)
(A) TEST
TEST POSITION
POSITION 1G
1G ROTATED
ROTATED

(B)
(B) TEST
TEST POSITION
POSITION 2G
2G

PIPE
PIPE INCLINATION
INCLINATION FIXED
FIXED (45
(45
a5)
a5)
AND
AND NOT
NOT ROTATED
ROTATED DURING
DURING
PIPE
PIPE OR
OR TUBE
TUBE HOTIZONTAL
HOTIZONTAL FIXED
FIXED (15)AND
(15)AND NOT
NOT ROTATED
ROTATED

WELDING.
WELDING.

DURING
DURING WELDING
WELDING WELD
WELD FLAT,
FLAT, VERTICAL
VERTICAL OVERHEAD.
OVERHEAD.

(C)
(C) TEST
TEST POSITION
POSITION 3G
3G

(D)
(D) TEST
TEST POSITION
POSITION 5G
5G

ASME WELDING POSITION


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POSISI LAS-EN 288


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Additionally: only for butt welds on pipe


- pipe sioped 45

H-L045

Pipe : fixed
Axis : inclined
Weld : vertical upward

H-L045

Pipe : fixed
Axis : inclined
Weld : vertical upward

POSISI LAS
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POSISI LAS
AWS
POSISI
LAS
AWS

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CONTOH TAHAPAN PROSES


PENGELASAN PIPA

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Science

Operation
Requireme
nt
Material
Selection
WPQR

Technolo
gy

Weld
ing
Eng
Man
ufac

WPS

Fabrication of
Pipes

Standard

Pro
jec
t
En
g

Welding
Application
Inspection

ture
r
Wel
der
Weldi
ng
Inspe
ct

WELDING PROCEDURES
WPQR AND WPS

Kualifikasi Prosedur (Procedure Qualification)


Sebelum mengelas komponen (pipa atau lainnya) umumnya
prosedur pengelasan (welding procedure) hares dibuat dan
dikualifikasi.

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Dokumentasi (Record)
Detail mengenai prosedur harus didokumentasi (record) yang
berisi hasil lengkap tentang "procedure qualification test.
Kualifikasi Operator Las (Qualification of Welders)
Setiap welder atau operator las harus dikualifikasi menurut
prosedur
buku
sebelum
melakukan
pengelasan
komponen (pya atau lainnya). Tujuannya adalah untuk
menentukan kemampuan operator las (welder) dalam
menghasilkan !assn yang baik tanpa cacat dengan
menggunakan prosedur sebelumnya yang telah lulus

ISI WELDING PROSEDUR


WPQR AND WPS

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Process
Manual, Semi-or
automatic welding process
Pipe and Fitting Material
API
5L or ASTM
Diameter and Wall Thickness
Joint Design
Filler Metal and Number of
Bed
The size and classification
number of the filler metal and
minimum number and sequence
of bead
Electrical Characteristics
The
range of voltage and amperage
Position
Roll or fix
Direction of Welding

Time Between Passes


Max
time between
completion of the root bed and
start of the second and other
bed.
Type and Remove of Lineup
Clamp
Cleaning and or Grinding
Pre
and
Post-Heat
Treatment
Methods,
Temp. temp-control methods.
Shielding Gas and Flow Rate
Composition and range of flow
rate.
Shielding Flux
Speed of Travel

4 in inch

CONTOH PENGELASAN PIPA


NUMBER OF WELD METAL - LAYER

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The number of weld metal-layer (pass) In Welding of pipe


depend on pipe wall thickness. Recommended number of
layer as shown below.
Range of pipe
Wall Thickness

Number
of Layers

Cross section of
Weld

Remark

3 / 8 to 5 / 8 in

1 = Rott pass
2 = Cover pass

5 / 8 to 7 / 8 in

1 = Root pass
2 = Hott pass
3 = Cover pass

7 / 8 to 11 / 8 in

1
2
3
4

=
=
=
=

Root pass
Hott pass
Filler pass
Cover pass

PIPE WELDING PROCEDURES


TYPE OF PASS

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A
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Filler pass
3/16 Electrode
180-190 A DC
+

Cover pass
3/16 Electrode
180-190 A DC
+

Root/Stringer Bead
5/32 Electrode
135-175 A DC +

Hot pass
5/32 Electrode
170-200 A DC
+

PIPE WELDING PROCEDURES


SPEED OF TRAVEL

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Layer

Travel Speed, Cm/Minute

Root Pass

7.5 20

Hot Pass

7.5 20

Filler Pass

12.5 25

Cover Pass

12.5 - 25

PIPE WELDING PROCEDURES


FILLER METAL

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Filler Metal Group

AWS E6010 AND E6011

Group

AWS
Specification

Electrode

A5.1

E6010.E6011

A5.5

E7010.E7011

3/32

40-80

23-25

A5.5

E8010, E8011

A5.1 or 5.5

E7015, E7016,
E7018

1/8

75-125

24

5/32

110-170

26

A5.5

E7015, E7016,
E7018

3/16

140-215

24-26

7/32

170-250

26-30

EL8, EL8K, EL12,


EM5K

1/4

210-320

26-30

5/16

275-425

28-34

A5.17

EM12K, EM13K,
EM15K

Electrode Current A
Dia, In

Votage,
Arc Volt

PIPE WELDING INSPECTION


PRE HEATING AND STRESS RELIEFING

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Preheating shall be performing when:


Carbon steel having a carbon
content in excess of 0.32 % (ladle
analysis) or a carbon equivalent (C
+ 1/4 ( Mn + Si )) in excess of 0.65
%(ladle analysis).
Steel having lower carbon content
or CE when the welding procedure
indicates that chemical composition,
ambient/or
metal
temperature,
material thickness or weld geometry
require such treatment to produce
satisfactory welds (Source ASME
B31.8)
Preheating Method
Furnace Heat Treatment
Induction Heating
Torch Heating
Resistance Heating
Exothermal Heating

Preheating Requirement Based on CE


CE %

Preheating Reacquired

Up to 0.45

Preheat optional

0.45 to 0.60

Preheat to 93-205 deg C

Over 0.60

Preheat to 205 to 370 deg


C

Preheating Requirement
Based on C Content
C Content, %

Preheating Reacquired, C

Below 0.2

Up to 93

0.20 - 0.30

93 150

0.30 - 0.45

150 260

0.45 - 0.80

260 425

PIPE WELDING INSPECTION


PRE HEATING AND STRESS RELIEFING

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Stress Relieving
To eliminate or greatly reduce built up
stress caused by welding.
Required when
Following a welding operation on a
bid work piece (wall thickness >)
On that is likely to have large built
up stress in it.
Having trouble with work-piece
warping out of shape.
Methods of Stress Relieving
Heat the complete structure as a
unit
Heat a complete section containing
the weld to be stress relief
Heat a part of work by slowly
heating a circumferential band
containing the weld at the center.
Branch
or
other
welded
attachment

Equipment
Electric induction
Electric resistance
Fuel-fired ring burner
Fuel-fired torch
Temperature Controller
Thermocouple pyrometer
Stress-Relief Time &
Temperature for Carbon Steel
Metal
Temp-C

Time per Inch of


Section Thickness,
h

593

565

538

510

482

10

PIPE WELDING INSPECTION


METHODS OF INSPECTION

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G
A
N

NDT
Visual
Radiographic Testing
Magnetic Particle Testing
Liquid Penetrate Testing
Ultrasonic Testing
The method used shall produce
indications of defects that can be
accurately
interpreted
and
evaluated.
Qualification of Inspection Personnel
Welding
inspection
personnel
shall be qualified by experience
and training for the specified
inspection task they performed.
Radiographic testing performed at
least by Level I.
Only Level II or III personnel shall
interprete test results.

Percentages of each day's field


butt weld, at randomly by
operators
Class 1 location, except
offshore, at least 10 %
Class 2 location, at least 15
%
Class 3, and class 4 location,
at crossing or navigable river,
offshore and rail road or
public highway right of way,
including tunnels, bridges
and over head road crossing,
100 %, unless impracticable,
at least 90 %.
Pipelines tie-in, 100 %

PIPE WELDING INSPECTION


BASIC CONCEPT

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Preparation
Radiographic
Test
Interpretation
and Evaluation
Acceptanc
e

Welding is Perfect

Repair

TERIMA KASIH

welding212@yahoo.co.id