Anda di halaman 1dari 63

LESSON 5: MITOSIS & MEIOSIS

COPYING A
CELL

MAKING
SEX
CELLS

WHY MAKE NEW CELLS?

1.The production of more cells is


essential to creating offspring
(babies)
2.More cells allows replacing old,
damaged cells.
3.Used for growth of an organism by
making more cells.

BUT WAIT!
Before we move on
Its important to remember that this
is an introduction to chromosomes
and DNA. We will be looking at the
way most Plant and Animal cells
reproduce but there are more types
of life out there, and copying their
cells doesnt always work the same!

HOW ARE NEW CELLS MADE?


DNA IS A CELL PLANNER

6 th
Re g
fr ra
es d
he e
DNA
r!

Found in the Nucleus of a cell,


provides instructions for how a cell
should grow.

HOW ARE NEW CELLS MADE?


CHROMOSOMES ARE DNA PACKAGES

When its time for DNA to be copied


and split into two cells, it takes the
shape of a Chromosome to make the
movement less tangled.

HOW ARE NEW CELLS MADE?


EACH CHROMOSOME/DNA STRAND
CONTAINS MANY GENES

Each gene in a chromosome is


responsible for building or
maintaining a specific part of an
organisms body.
This blue band might be
a gene to build your skin
color.
This orange band might
control whether you are
left or right-handed

(Usually things arent quite this simple, though.)

HUMAN CHROMOSOMES (23 PAIRS)

Which of the following contains


the ALL of the instructions for
how a cell should be created?
A. Chromosomes
B. Genes
C. Cytoplasm
D. Cell Wall

Plant cells contain


chromosomes.
A. True
B. False

HOW ARE NEW CELLS MADE?


TWO TYPES OF CELLS

In most animals and plants there are


two types of cells

BODY
CELLS
!

SEX
CELLS
!

and both types of cells are made in


different way, and perform different
functions.

BODY CELLS VS. SEX CELLS

Body cells are used


to create all the
parts that make up
an organism.
NERVE
CELL

Sex cells are used


to create new
offspring through
sexual
reproduction.
SPERM
CELL

BONE
CELL

MUSCLE
CELL

EGG
CELL

BUT WAIT!
Before we move on
Youll notice that all of the cells
mentioned previously were human
body cells
However, ALL organisms are made of
cells. All organisms have BODY
CELLS. Only organisms that sexually
reproduce have SEX CELLS.

LESSON 5: MITOSIS & MEIOSIS

COPYING A
CELL

MAKING
SEX
CELLS

MITOSIS VS. MEIOSES

MITOSIS making
a perfect* copy of
a body cell.

MEIOSIS making
a sex cell.

Begins like this

Begins like this

MITOSIS VS. MEIOSES

MITOSIS making
a perfect* copy of
a body cell.

MEIOSIS making
a sex cell.

Ends like this

Ends like this

Whats the product of meiosis?


A. 2 cells with full sets of chromosomes.
B. 2 cells with half sets of
chromosomes.
C. 4 cells with full sets of chromosomes.
D. 4 cells with half sets of
chromosomes.

Whats the product of mitosis?


A. 2 cells with full sets of chromosomes.
B. 2 cells with half sets of
chromosomes.
C. 4 cells with full sets of chromosomes.
D. 4 cells with half sets of
chromosomes.

MITOSIS VS. MEIOSES

MITOSIS making
a perfect* copy of
a body cell.

MEIOSIS making
a sex cell.

Chromosomes
Copy

Chromosomes
Swap

MITOSIS VS. MEIOSES

MITOSIS making
a perfect* copy of
a body cell.
Why Mitosis?
To quickly replace
old and dying cells.

MEIOSIS making
a sex cell.

Why Meiosis?
To mix the genes
of two parents,
giving the best of
both to the
offspring.

Chromosomes are different in


sex cells and body cells.
Which of the following is the
only way that they are similar?
A. They both have crossover.
B. They both have a single
chromosome OR
C. They both are made of DNA.

You need two sex cells in order


to create a full set of DNA.
A. True
B. False

Fr
om

M
om

ad
D
From

DNA - a
complete code
of instructions
to build ALL
parts of an
species body.
Remember that
theres twin
halves of DNA
you get one
strand from

Fr
om

M
om

Here

to H
ere

GENE - a part
of the DNA code
that gives
instructions for
ONE part of a
species body.
This section of DNA gives
the code to build your
Earwax!

HUMAN CHROMOSOMES (23 PAIRS)

BUT WAIT!

Since Dad gives a set of


DNA, too, you would have
a gene from him that also
builds earwax!

Fr
om

M
om

ALLELE - an
ad
D
option a gene
From
can be coded as.
YOUR options
depend on what
your parents
Momgive
givesyou!
you an allele
for dry, crumbly earwax!

Dad gives you an allele for


wet, gooey earwax!

BUT WAIT!
Weve got two types of earwax!?
How does the body know what
to choose?
Well explore that later in the
lesson!

Lets examine some DNA, Genes, and


Alleles!

Mr. Michaels Facial Hair


Why so Black?

Like all humans, Mr. Michael


has a set of DNA that codes
instructions to grow all parts
of his body, including facial
hair.
And again, like
all humans, Mr.
To grow black, Mr.
Michael has a
Michaels facial hair
GENE that is
gene must have
specifically in
ALLELES from his
control of
parents that code
facial hair
for black hair!
color!

Mr. Rawlins Facial Hair


Why so Red?

Like all humans, Mr. Rawlins


has a set of DNA that codes
instructions to grow all parts
of his body, including facial
hair.
And again, like
all humans, Mr.
To grow red, Mr.
Rawlins has a
Rawlins facial hair
GENE that is
gene must have
specifically in
ALLELES from his
control of
parents that code
facial hair
for red hair!
color!

Which of the following contains


the ALL of the instructions for
how a cell should be created?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Chromosomes
Genes
Cytoplasm
Cell Wall

What two things do Mr.


Rawlins and Mr. Michael
share?

What do they have


different?

We both have a set of


human DNA and the
Gene for facial hair.

We both have
different codes for
our Alleles that
makes our hair

When describing alleles,


scientists usually pick a letter
and use it to represent the DNA
code. Because each organism
has two alleles, one from each
parent, the alleles are written as
2 letter combos.
PP HH Qq EE tt

For example, scientists might use


the letter H to represent facial
hair. A capital H codes for dark
hair. Mr. Michael probably has the
alleles H H or H h. A lower
case h codes for lighter hair. Mr.
Rawlins probably has the alleles h
h. Wed have to learn more about
their genes to be sure.

Capital letters are called Dominant.


Lower case letters are called
recessive.
Dominant letters are bullies. If
they are around, you will not see the
trait (what it looks like) on the
organism.

Alleles
f f (gene for
number of
fingers)
Polydactyl is a
recessive trait.
F=
f=

Traits

Alleles
F F (gene for
number of
fingers)
Can also be
written as Ff
There is a
bully
present

Traits

Alleles
Q Q (gene for
freckles) Can
also be written
as Qq.
Freckles are a
recessive trait.
q=
Q=

Traits

Alleles
q q (gene for
freckles) Look
no bullies..
*Remember*
1 q comes from
mom
1 q comes from
dad

Traits

We all have the gene for fingers.


The number of fingers we have
is determined by the allele.
We all have the gene for skin.
Whether or not we have freckles
is determined by the allele.

Alleles
Genotype =
List of Alleles

Traits
Phenotype =
List of Traits

Alleles

Traits

Dominant E

Pointy ears

Recessive e

Floppy ears

EE or Ee =

ee=

Punnett Squares

Punnett Squares

Punnett Squares

e
E
e

Punnett Squares

E
e

Ee

Ee

Punnett Squares

Ee

Ee

ee

ee

YOUR
TURN!!!

USING THE INFORMATION GIVEN


ON THE NEXT SLIDE, CREATE A
PUNNETT SQUARE ON YOUR
NOTES.

P= Allele: Ee Trait: Pointy


ears
P= Allele: Ee Trait: Pointy
ears

P= Allele: Ee Trait: Pointy


ears
P= Allele: Ee Trait: Pointy
ears
E
e

EE

Ee

Ee

ee

Essential Questions

Pick two of the following


questions and write the
number and the answer
at the bottom of the
back of your notes.

1. How does genetic information


pass from parent to offspring?
2. How can Punnett Squares be used
to predict offsprings genotypes?
3. How can traits be carried in
someone's genetic material, but
never seen?
4. How can a dominant or a
recessive trait be predicted using a
Punnett square?