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Construction Management

PROJECT CATEGORIES
AND
RESOURCES OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Ar.Sukhmanjit Singh

PROJECT CATEGORIES
Broadly, the major construction projects can
be grouped into the following four categories:

Building construction
Infrastructure construction
Industrial construction
Special-purpose projects

1) Building

construction: Building works include


residential and commercial complexes, educational
and recreational facilities, hospitals & hotels,
warehouses, etc.. `Buildings' constitute the largest
segment of construction business.
The Building Business serves mankind by providing
shelter and services for its habitation, education,
recreational, social and commercial needs. The building
works are mostly designed by Architect/ Engineering
firms, and are financed by public/ private sector and
individuals.

2) Infrastructure

construction: These are capital


intensive and heavy-equipment oriented works which
involve movement of bulk materials like earth, steel
and concrete. These works include dams and canals,
highways and airports, railways and bridges, oil/gas
pipelines and transmission lines, large water supply
and sewage disposal networks, docks and harbours,
nuclear and thermal power plants, and other specialist
construction activities which build-up the infrastructure
for the growth of the economy. These works are
designed by the specialist engineering firms and are
mostly financed by the Government/public sector.

3) Industrial

construction: These works


include construction of
manufacturing,
processing and industrial plants like steel
mills, petroleum refineries and consumergoods factories. Industrial works also include
environment works and human needs
facilities. These works involve heavy
investment and are highly specialized.
Industrial constructions are financed by
government, public and private enterprises.

4) Special-purpose projects: These include

environmental works, emergencies, remedial


works, installation and commissioning of
equipment and complex key operations.

Project Classification
Based on the completion time and value of
works, various types of construction projects
can be further classified as under:
Project completion time basis:

Long duration projects (over 10 years)


Medium duration projects (3 to 10 years)
Short duration projects (few months to 3 years)
Special short-term projects (less than 1 year)

Project Classification
On basis of construction cost:

Mega projects (say over $1000 million)


Large projects ($100 million to $1000 million)
Medium projects ($10 million to $100 million)
Small projects (less than $10 million)

On the basis of use of Plant and Equipment :

Light construction

Heavy construction
Industrial construction

1. Light construction : This type of construction doesnt require the


use of heavy plant and equipment and such constructions include
buildings and light structures of all kinds like residential houses,
shopping centers, school, small industrial sheds, water tanks, culverts,
small bridges etc.
2. Heavy construction: This type of construction requires the use of
heavy plant and equipment and the scope of work is large. Such
construction includes multi span bridges with well or pile foundations,
tunnels, dams ,highways, railways, airports, harbors etc.
3. Industrial constructions: This type of construction requires the
use of special technology, plant and equipment. such construction
pertains to chemical and fertilizer plants, steel plants, petroleum
refineries, atomic/ super thermal power plants, automobile and aircraft
industry etc.

Resources of Construction Industry


MONEY (Blood)
MEN (Limbs)
MACHINERY (Energy)
MATERIAL (Food)
MANAGEMENT (Brain)

Resources of construction industry


Resources of construction may be compared
with the body of a human being. Money in
construction compares to the blood in our
body. As without blood no human being can
survive
similarly
without
money
no
construction is possible. Labor forms limbs,
machine act as energy , materials as food and
management as the brain of any construction/
project.

Money
Adequate money should be available for
smooth implementation of the project.
Financial planning is essential for smooth
cash inflow and outflow to avoid delays in
project activities. Money form an important
resource.
All
other
resources
are
dependent on its availability. Financial
resources should therefore be planned and
managed with special care.

Men
Manpower in the form of technical and
managerial personnel and workforce in
various trades is essential to carry out
projects activities. They are essential for
efficient use of human resources and to
achieve project completion within estimated
time and budget. That includes Engineers,
Architects, Quality surveyors, Supervisions,
Technicians etc. The workforce includes
skilled and unskilled workers.

Machinery
For any construction work, various plant
/equipment and tools are required depending
upon the type and nature of the construction
job. Machinery required at site includes JCB,
Mixers, Trucks, Excavators, Dumpers, Cranes,
Pumps, Generators, Workshop equipment etc.
For efficient construction activity these plant/
equipment need to be properly maintained.

Material
Materials such as bricks, stones, cement,
aggregate, steel, shuttering, scaffolding, timber,
water supply, sanitary and electric fittings,
plaster of Paris, tiles, stones, wood, laminate,
veneer etc. are required for construction.

Management

It consists of a group of different persons. Their


aim is to organize and execute the work in such
a way that maximum productivity is ensured. It
is the brain of the organization.