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By:

Mr. B. Ramesh, B.E. (Mech), M.E. (CAD), (Ph.D.),


Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering,
St. Josephs College of Engineering, Jeppiaar Trust, Chennai-119
Ph.D. Research Scholar, College of Engineering Guindy Campus,
Anna University, Chennai-25
October 22, 2015

1.

What are ISO-9000 standards?

ISO-9000 standards are made up of five parts namely ISO-9000, ISO-9001,


ISO-9002, ISO-9003 and ISO-9004.
ISO-9000 and ISO-9004 are advisory documents. For instance, ISO-9000
contains guidelines for using the standards.
The standards are contained in ISO-9001, 9002 and 9003.
2. Which ISO standard would be applicable if the product or the service
involved design and development?
It would involve ISO-9001 which is the model for quality assurance in design,
development, production, installation and servicing.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

3. Can you tell us about ISO-9002 and 9003 also?


ISO-9002 is for quality assurance in production, installation and servicing and
ISO-9003 is for quality assurance in final inspection and test.
4. What are the common profiles used for splines in machine elements?
The profiles used for splines in machine elements are straight sided splines,
triangular splines and involute splines.
5. What type of threads are used for pressure tight joints and for power
transmission?
Pipe threads are used for pressure tight joints and square threads for power
transmission.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

6. How computer helps in designing?


Computer is able to store lot of information and same can be retrieved fast. It
performs calculations very fast. The design can be visualized on screen and any
alterations made and its effects clearly seen. Thus optimum designs can be
achieved much faster and these are thoroughly tested from all angles.

7. Can you tell something about Hazop study?


In Hazop (Hazards and operatibility) study each and every conceivable process
deviation from normal operating condition of a system having identical design
intention, is thoroughly analysed for causes and consequence and required
action plan to mitigate hazard/operability problems are suggested on the basis of
available protective system.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

8. Why slenderness ratio is considered in design of members?


When length of the member is increased, the member may fail due to buckling
even though the member is symmetrical in all respects and the load is concentric.
9. What do you mean by allowance in limits and fits?
Allowance in limits and fits refers to maximum clearance between shaft and hole.
10. A wire rope is designated as 6 x 19 standard hoisting. What do the numbers
6 x 19 represent?
Number of strands x number of wires in each strand.

October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

11. Why a sleeve is fitted on a ball bearing?


To prevent relative axial movement between the shaft and the bearing.
12. What is the constant factor in case of R-10 series of preferred numbers?
1.25
13. On what basis a transmission shaft subjected to bending loads must be
designed?
Maximum shear stress theory.
14. In designing a clutch plate, what assumption is made?
Uniform wear condition is assumed because it leads to safer design.

October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

15. The critical speed of rotating shaft depends upon what?


Mass and stiffness.
16. What is the empirical formula used to give the number of bolts in flange
coupling?
n = 0.2d + 3
17. How the size of the gear is usually specified?
By pitch circle diameter.
18. While taking a turn, what action differential makes?
An increase in the speed of the outer wheel.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

19. Rankines and Guests theory of failure are applicable for what
materials?
Rankines theory of failure is applicable for brittle materials.
Guests theory of failure is applicable for ductile materials.
20. What is the most suitable bearing for carrying very heavy loads with
slow speed?
Roller bearing
21. What is the main purpose of a gear box in a vehicle?
To vary the torque at the road vehicles.

October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

22. What is endurance limit?


Endurance limit or fatigue limit is the maximum stress that a member can
withstand for an infinite number of load applications without failure when
subjected to completely reversed loading.
23. What is the included angle in unified of American National
threads?
600
24. What is the included angle in ACME threads?
290
25. The designation M 33 x 2 of a bolt means
Metric threads of 33 mm outside diameter and 2 mm pitch.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

26. If threads on a bolt are left hand, threads on nut will be


Left hand with same pitch.
27. For tight leakage joints, which type of thread is best suited?
NPT ( National Pipe Threads)
28. A bench vice has which type of thread?
ACME
29. What do you mean by spring index?
Ratio of coil diameter to wire diameter (D/d).

October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

10

30. What do you mean by spring stiffness?


Load required to produce unit deflection.
31. For riveted joints, which type of joint is preferred?
Butt joint.
32. What do you mean by factor of safety?
Ratio of yield stress and working stress.

October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

11

33. Say the use of some couplings.


Oldhams coupling is used to connect two shafts which have lateral
misalignment.
Universal coupling is used to join two shafts whose axes intersect at a small
angle.
Bushed pin flexible coupling is used to join two shafts which are not in exact
alignment.
Sleeve or muff coupling is the simplest type of rigid coupling.
34. What is slenderness ratio?
Length of strut/ Least radius of gyration.
35. Spring driven watches and clocks utilize what gears?
Cycloid gears.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

12

36. What is the standard angle between the sides of V-belt?


400.
37. In design of gears, Lewis equation is used to find what stress?
Compressive stress in bending.
38. Zero axial thrust is experienced in what gears?
Herringbone gears.
39. What type of cam follower is generally used in automobiles?
Spherical type cam follower.
40. Say some types of cam.
S.H.M. cam is used in order to minimize jerks.
Harmonic cam is used for low and moderate speed engine.
Cycloidal cam is used for high speed engine.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

13

41. How do you define a spring?


A spring is an elastic member which stores energy and provides a force over a
distance by elastic deflection.
42. How do you define a shaft?
A shaft is a rotating member, usually of circular cross-section (either solid or
hollow), transmitting power.
43. What is a flywheel?
A flywheel is a heavy rotating body which acts as reservoir for absorbing and
redistributing kinetic energy. The function of a flywheel is to keep the speed of
machine between given limits while the machine is doing work or receiving
energy at a variable rate.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

14

44. What is a design?


Creating a plan or drawings for a product using intellectual ability and scientific
knowledge is called design. A product so designed should permit economical
manufacture, and it should meet the specification requirements.
45. What are the different types of design?
Adaptive design Adaptation of the existing design
Development design Improvement of the existing design
New design Design of an entirely new product
46. What is engineering design?
Iterative decision making process to conceive and implement optimum systems
to solve problems and needs of society.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

15

47. What is machine design?


A process of achieving a plan for the construction of a machine.
48. What is rational design?
A purely mathematical design based upon principles of mechanics of materials
and machines.
49. What is empirical design?
A design based upon standard practice and past experience.
50. What is industrial design?
A design evolved considering aesthetics, ergonomics and production aspects of
design.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

16

51. What is optimum design?


A design which is best and economical for the given objective function under
the specified constraints.
52. What is morphology of design?
The methodology of design by which ideas about needs are projected
creatively into ideas about things, and which in turn are translated into
engineering prescription for transforming suitable resources into useful,
physical objects.
53. What is preliminary design?
To establish an overall concept for the project which will serve as a guide for
the detailed design.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

17

54. What is anatomy of design?


Describing the design process involving a detailed examination of the
designers action as he goes about identifying and solving the problem.
55. What is modeling?
Representation of the real world on desk in symbolic form or in the laboratory.
56. What are preferred numbers?
A general basis for standardizing and grading a series of similar dimensions,
characteristics, etc.
57. What is resilience?
Strain energy stored per unit volume.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

18

58. What is proof resilience?


The maximum strain energy which can be stored in a material per unit volume.
59. What is creep?
The slow and progressive deformation of a material with time under a constant
stress.
60. What is knuckle joint?
A joint used to connect two rods subjected to tensile loads only.
61. What is cam?
A plate or cylinder which communicates motion to a follower by means of its
edge or a groove cut in its surface.
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

19

62. What is coupling?


Coupling makes a semi permanent connection between two shafts.
63. What are fluid couplings?
Couplings having two basic parts, an impeller and runner, there being no
mechanical connection between the two shafts.
64. What are clutches?
Couplings which permit the disengagement of the coupled shafts during
rotation.

October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

20

65. How CAD softwares are classified?


Drafting packages, Modeling packages and Analysis packages.
66. What are the advantages of CAD softwares?
High accuracy in drafting.
Creating drawing with ease using commands or icons.
Editing facilities are allowed easily and quickly.
Printouts improve the communication quality.
Improves the productivity of a designer.
67. What do you meant by GUI?
Graphical User Interface
October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

21

68. State the different types of Co-ordinate systems.

Polar Co-ordinate system

To Point:@( distance) < (direction)

: @40<45

Relative Co-ordinate system

To Point

: @ X, Y

: @40, 30

Absolute Co-ordinate system

To Point

: X, Y

: 40, 30

October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

22

69. What is the expansion of CATIA?


Computer Aided Three Dimensional Interactive Application.
70. What is parametric modeling?
Parametric modeling uses parameters to define the dimension of a model .
The parameter may be modified later, and the model will update
automatically to reflect the modification. Typically, there is a relationship
between parts, assemblies and drawings.

October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

23

71. Define element and node.


A small unit having definite shape of geometry is called element and these are
interconnected by nodes.
72. What are the different types of elements used in FEA?
1-D (Line) Element, 2-D (Plane) Element and 3-D (Solid) Element.
73. What are the different types of stresses and strains in an object?
Tensile stress, Compressive stress, Bending stress, Shear stress and Crushing stress.
Tensile strain, Compressive strain, Shear strain, Volumetric strain.

October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

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74. List some softwares that uses FEA as tool.

ANSYS (General purpose, PC and workstations)


I-DEAS (Complete CAD/CAM/CAE package)
NASTRAN (General purpose FEA on mainframes)
ABAQUS (Nonlinear and dynamic analysis)
COSMOS (General purpose FEA)
HyperMesh (Pre/Post Processor)

October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

25

75. Define aspect ratio.


It is defined as the ratio of the largest dimension of the element to the smallest
dimension.
76. Specify any two applications of FEA in fluid mechanics.
We can find velocity and rate of flow at different sections.
77. What do you understand by discretization of domain?
The art of subdividing a structure into a convenient number of smaller components
is known as discretization.
78. What role do the computer play in use of the finite element method?
Reduces solving time.

October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

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October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

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Four Cs of Design
Creativity
Complexity
Choice
Compromise

Design Variables

Geometric Dimensions
Material Type
Tolerances
Engineering Notes

28

The Design Process


Recognition of Need

Definition of Problem

Synthesis

Analysis and Optimization

Evaluation

Presentation
29

The Application of Computers for the Design


Process The Design Process
Recognition of Need

Definition of Problem

Synthesis

Computer Aided
Design
Geometric
Modeling

Analysis and Optimization

Engineering
Analysis

Evaluation

Design Review
And Evaluation

Presentation

Automated
Drafting

30

Phase 1: Conceptual design

Product
Architecture

Config.
Design

Phase 2: Embodiment design

Planning

Phase 3

Phases 4

The Concept of Concurrent Engineering


Inspection

Marketing

Manufacturing

Serviceability

Design
Coordinator

Sales

Packaging

Assembly

Function
32

Design of Standards:
Standard :

A standard is a generally agreed-upon set of procedures,


criteria, dimensions, materials or parts.

Engineering standards may describe the dimensions and


sizes of small parts like screws and bearings.

It tells the engineer how to do it.


Societies for Standards :

ASME

: American Society for Mechanical Engineers

ASTM

: American Society for Testing and Materials

AISC

ANSI

: American National Standards Institute

ISO

: International Organization for Standardization

:American Institute of Steel Construction

Few widely used Modeling packages are:

Pro/E

CATIA V5

UNIGRAPHICS

SOLID WORKS

AUTODESK INVENTOR

IDEAS

34

Every analysis involves four main steps:


Preliminary Decisions
Which analysis type?
What to model?
Preprocessing
Define Material
Element type
Create or import the model geometry
Mesh the geometry
Solution
Apply loads
Solve
Postprocessing
Review results
Check the validity of the solution

Preliminary
Decisions

Preprocessing

Solution

Postprocessing

October 22, 2015

Mr. B. Ramesh, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph's College


of Engineering, Chennai-119

36