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analysis

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push or a pull, indicated by an arrow,

exerted by one body or source on

another, tending to produce a change

in the motion of the body being acted

upon.

result of gravity induced loads

(structure/material weights, occupancy

loads), wind pressures and inertial

loads from earthquake.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Newtons Laws

force on a body in three basic laws:

rest and any body in motion will move

uniformly in a straight line unless acted

upon by a force.(This is equilibrium the

state of a body in which it is at rest and

there is no net force acting on the body.

The study of bodies in equilibrium is

statics.

momentum is equal to the force producing

it, and the change takes place in the

direction in which the force is acting. (F =

ma)

is a reaction that is equal in magnitude,

opposite in direction, and has the same line

of action. (Basic concept of force)

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th

edition

Barry Onouye

English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Characteristics of a Force

additional property of direction.

magnitude and direction and must be

combined according to certain rules of

addition.

of application , (b) magnitude , and (c)

its direction . In diagrammatic form a

force is represented by an arrow with

the arrowhead indicating the sense of

the force.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

point where the force is applied.

force; a numerical measure of its

intensity. Basic units of force that will

be used throughout are the pound (lb.

or #) and the kilo pound (kilo pound or

kip or k = 1000 lb.)

its line of action and sense. The line of

action represents an infinite straight

line along which the force is acting.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Rigid Bodies

are theoretically assumed as rigid

bodies displaying negligible or no

noticeable deformation under load.

application of forces, called

deformable bodies, are the purview of

strength of materials

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Principle of Transmissibility

applies to rigid bodies is the principle

of transmissibility .

effects on a body remain unchanged

when a force F, acting at point A, is

replaced by a force F of equal

magnitude at point B, provided that

both forces have the same sense and

line of action.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

are generally subjected to various

combinations of forces.

the type or types of systems on which

they act:

(a) collinear

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Characteristics of Vectors

vector addition and the net force is

called the resultant.

direction, thus require a special

procedure for combining them.

forces requires the algebraic sum of the

forces to account for the directions of

each respective force.

graphical technique or a strictly

analytical approach.

edition

Barry Onouye

parallelogram law.

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

concurrent vectors is that they must be added

according to the parallelogram law.

If two forces act concurrently at a point, the

resultant force can be represented by the diagonal

of the parallelogram formed by the sides, parallel

and proportional to the two forces.

involves the construction, to scale, of a

parallelogram using forces (vectors) A and B as the

legs.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

diagonal connecting the origin and the opposite

corner.

and B.

whereby the magnitude of R is scaled off using

the same scale.

be designated from some reference axis; in this

case the horizontal axis x.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

triangle rule or tip - to - tail method.

by arranging the forces in a tip-to-tail fashion with

the net result being a triangle.

found by arranging them in a tip-to-tail sequence

with the tip of A to the tail of B or vice versa.

beginning at the tail of the first vector and ending

at the tip of the last vector.

from the drawing and the sense of the resultant

moves from the tail of the first force to the tip of

the last force.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

yield the complimentary triangle and the same

resultant force R.

unimportant, where A + B = B + A.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

with the directions shown. Using the parallelogram

law and the tip-to-tail methods, determine the

resultant force for A and B (magnitude and direction).

Scale: 1"=200 lb.

suggested scale, with a reference x and y axis passing

through the origin at point O.

the accuracy of the results.

tip of force B and similarly, draw a line parallel to B,

completing the parallelogram.

opposite corner of the parallelogram.

and a direction theta of 83 relative to the x axis.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

reference x and y axis with the origin at O.

force A construct, to scale, force B.

last force B. This line represents the resultant R of

forces A + B and can be scaled to obtain the

magnitude and direction.

R = 630 lbs. and the angle theta is 83.

triangle that results will be the other half of the

parallelogram.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

by applying repeatedly the parallelogram law to

successive pairs of vectors until all of the given

vectors are replaced by a single resultant vector.

requires that all vectors be coplanar.

acting at point O and the resultant of all three is

desired.

the final resultant force R' is obtained.

intermediate resultant R, where R is then added

vectorially to vector C, resulting in R'.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

tip-to-tail method.

in any particular sequence.

beginning origin point to the tip of the last force.

the final theta angle using a protractor.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

forces. Using the graphical tip-to-tail

method, determine the resultant of forces

A, B, and C (magnitude and direction).

problem, where all three forces have

known directions and magnitudes, the

sequence of drawing the forces is

unimportant.

sequence A+B+C is R = 50 lbs.

angle = 53.1 from the horizontal

reference axis.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Resolution of Forces into Rectangular Components

can be accomplished by resolving each force into

its respective components along the x and y axes.

reverse effect of vector addition.

components are the sides of the parallelogram.

to each other and are called rectangular

components.

system are most often assumed to be horizontal

and vertical respectively.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Components of a Force

axis can be resolved into its rectangular components

Fx and Fy.

, where:

legs of a parallelogram with the diagonal

representing the original force F.

right triangles;

result in components expressed as ratios of the

original force.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Resolve the force into its rectangular components along the

x and y axes.

angle of =40 from the horizontal x axis.

perpendicular lines to the respective x and y axes.

the diagonal (resultant).

along the x axis and Fy is the vertical side along the y axis.

is shown at the same location as the original force F.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

expressed as:

generally assigned a plus (+) or minus (-) based on the

conventions of the Cartesian coordinate system. Forces

directed to the right, along the x axis, are assumed as

positive (+) forces and forces going to the left are

considered negative (-).

= 50 referenced from the vertical y axis.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

entry to an office building. The tension developed in the

support rod is equal to 2600 newtons. Determine the

rectangular components of the force if the rod is at a 5 in

12 slope.

of the original force T=2600 N.

are equal to:

horizontal component Tx is positive (+) along the x axis

and Ty is negative, going in a downward direction

along the y axis.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

concurrent forces in the system into x and y components

and combine algebraically, all components in the

respective x and y directions.

resultant Rx and similarly, summing y component

forces results in Ry.

a rectangle in which the diagonal R represents the final

resultant of the entire concurrent force system.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

coplanar, concurrent force system using the component

method is as follows:

components.

or minus, based on a sign convention.

algebraically, noting the plus or minus direction

for each force.

algebraically, noting the plus or minus direction

for each force. The general expression for the

resultant Rx may be written as: Rx =Fx

such that: Ry =Fy

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

positive Rx means that the horizontal resultant is

directed to the right and a negative Rx would be

shown going to the left.

on an x-y coordinate axis.

sides of a rectangle. Construct the other two sides

of the rectangle and draw the diagonal that passes

through the origin and the diagonally opposite

corner.

using the trigonometric function:

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

The three cables are coplanar and concurrent at the

top of the tower at D and generate a large downward

compressive force. To minimize the effect of bending

in the tower, it is necessary to tension the cable DC

such that the resultant of cable forces DA, DB, and DC

remain vertically downward.

respective components.

directions of the components.

which lists the forces and respective components.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

The resultant Rx is found by summing the component forces listed under the Fx column.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Moment of a Force

about an axis or point is referred to as the moment of a

force.

equal to the product of the force and the perpendicular

distance of the force from the point.

force to the reference point is often referred to as the

moment arm.

F = applied force in pounds

d = perpendicular distance from the reference point `i

to the line of action of the applied force.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

applied force of 200N. Determine the moment about pivot point A

caused by the applied force.

the magnitude of the force times the perpendicular distance

from A to the line of action of the force.

clockwise or counterclockwise rotation.

counterclockwise rotation as positive (+) and clockwise rotation

as negative (-).

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

The moment of a force about a point is equal to the

algebraic sum of the moments of the components of the

force with respect to the same point.

Varignons theorem uses the given dimensions instead of

determining the perpendicular distance `d in figure (a).

components and the moment arm distances dx and dy .

summing the moments about point A generated by each of

the component forces.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

horizontal, is applied at joint A on a roof truss.

Determine the moment due to the force F about the

supports at B and C and the crown at D. Use the principle

of moments in determining MB , MC , and MD .

components.

easily determined from the dimensions already given for

the truss.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

unimportant but the direction of rotation caused by the force

(clockwise or counterclockwise) relative to the reference point

must be indicated.

calculated to be:

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Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

member to rotate without experiencing any translation.

parallel lines of action, but opposite sense (arrowhead

direction).

to translate (move) the body in the vertical or horizontal

direction.

force F times the perpendicular distance d between the two

equal and opposite forces.

of any specific reference point.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

F3 as shown. Determine the resultant moment due to the

three forces about support A. What is the moment due to the

three forces if the moments are summed about support B?

components.

couple system and the y-component of force F 2 and force F3

also form a couple.

support point A results in the equation:

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

independently will result in the same answer for M A

and MB .

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Couple Acting at Another Point

of transmissibility) without changing the external

effects on the body.

original line of action without modifying the external

effects on the rigid body.

on the cantilevered beam, differing deflections at the

free end result.

larger than 1 (F applied at a point A).

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

changing the effects on the rigid body.

action parallel to that of the original force at B.

not change the effect on the rigid body.

and opposite forces with parallel lines of action, thus

forming a couple system.

a constant value anywhere on the rigid body.

location with the remaining force F2 at A.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

the same between the diagrams in (a) and (c).

In Figure (a):

Therefore;

any given point A (with a parallel line of action),

provided that a couple M is added. The moment M

of the couple is equal to F times the perpendicular

distance between the original line of action and the

new location A.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

with a single resultant force R, which produces an

equivalent effect as the original forces.

translational tendency as forces A and B as well as the same

rotational effect.

the girder with forces A and B.

B equals the algebraic summation of A and B, where

R = A + B.

principle of moments.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Equilibrium

motion will move uniformly in straight lines unless acted

upon by a force.

condition of two dimensional equilibrium can be stated

as:

necessary to justify a state of balance is also the

maximum number of equations of equilibrium

permitted.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Equilibrium of a Particle

particle is zero, the particle is in a state of equilibrium.

intersect at the common point C.

with point C as the origin on an x-y coordinate axis.

diagram (FBD).

two conditions of equilibrium to be satisfied.

tendencies.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

and F2 = 15 kips are applied to a bolted

connection as shown. Knowing that the

connection is in equilibrium, determine the

magnitudes of member forces F3 and F4.

joint at A.

the force components.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

BA. Two forces are applied to the concurrent joint at B.

Determine the tension in cable BA and the force in member

CB for a condition of equilibrium to occur.

unknown forces.

revealed at the end of the process with a negative answer.

force was incorrectly assumed in the initial FBD, however,

the magnitude remains unaffected.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

compression.

point designates a tension force while an arrowhead

directed at the point is considered in compression.

and y components.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

and solve for the unknown forces BA and CB.

BA = +1300 kN,

that their directions were correctly assumed.

CB = + 1414 kN

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Equilibrium of a Rigid Body

all external forces and moments acting on it is zero.

Equilibrium

coplanar system, no more than three unknowns can be

solved.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

coplanar in a two dimensional system.

forces should be clearly indicated on free-body diagrams.

body are as follows:

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

reactions or constraints, develop on the rigid body to

resist translational and rotational tendencies.

on the constraint condition.

constraints are summarized in Table on the next

slide.

not apparent, arbitrarily assign a direction to it.

calculated answer(s) in the equilibrium equations

will result in a negative value.

correct.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

as shown. Assuming that the bridge itself weighs 4 kips

(located at mid-span), determine the support reactions

that develop at A and B.

the support reactions.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

beam BC using a hinge at B. Construct FBDs and solve for

the support reactions at A and C and the internal forces

developed at the hinge at B.

the three equations of equilibrium are insufficient to solve

for all of the unknowns.

additional FBDs and write additional equations of

equilibrium.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

as known forces.

edition

Barry Onouye

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

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