Anda di halaman 1dari 54

Chapter 2 - Statics

A force can be simply defined as a

push or a pull, indicated by an arrow,
exerted by one body or source on
another, tending to produce a change
in the motion of the body being acted
upon.

Forces in building structures are a

(structure/material weights, occupancy

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Newtons Laws

Sir Isaac Newton summarized the effects of

force on a body in three basic laws:

First Law: Any body at rest will remain at

rest and any body in motion will move
uniformly in a straight line unless acted
upon by a force.(This is equilibrium the
state of a body in which it is at rest and
there is no net force acting on the body.
The study of bodies in equilibrium is
statics.

Second Law: The time rate of change of

momentum is equal to the force producing
it, and the change takes place in the
direction in which the force is acting. (F =
ma)

Third Law: For every force of action, there

is a reaction that is equal in magnitude,
opposite in direction, and has the same line
of action. (Basic concept of force)

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Sir Isaac Newton 1643-1727

English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.

Characteristics of a Force

Vectors are quantities that have both

magnitude and direction and must be
combined according to certain rules of

A force is characterized by its (a) point

of application , (b) magnitude , and (c)
its direction . In diagrammatic form a
force is represented by an arrow with
the arrowhead indicating the sense of
the force.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

a) The point of application defines the

point where the force is applied.

b) Magnitude refers to the quantity of

force; a numerical measure of its
intensity. Basic units of force that will
be used throughout are the pound (lb.
or #) and the kilo pound (kilo pound or
kip or k = 1000 lb.)

c) The direction of a force is defined by

its line of action and sense. The line of
action represents an infinite straight
line along which the force is acting.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Rigid Bodies

In statics, structural elements (bodies)

are theoretically assumed as rigid
bodies displaying negligible or no

Bodies that deform under the

application of forces, called
deformable bodies, are the purview of
strength of materials

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.

Principle of Transmissibility

An important principle of statics that

applies to rigid bodies is the principle
of transmissibility .

The principle states that the external

effects on a body remain unchanged
when a force F, acting at point A, is
replaced by a force F of equal
magnitude at point B, provided that
both forces have the same sense and
line of action.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Structural elements and frameworks

are generally subjected to various
combinations of forces.

Force systems are often identified by

the type or types of systems on which
they act:

(a) collinear

(f) non-coplanar, non-concurrent

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.

Characteristics of Vectors

The process of adding forces is called

vector addition and the net force is
called the resultant.

Vectors, however, have magnitude and

direction, thus require a special
procedure for combining them.

The vector sum of a series of collinear

forces requires the algebraic sum of the
forces to account for the directions of
each respective force.

Vectors may be added using a

graphical technique or a strictly
analytical approach.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Example of a graphical solution utilizing the

parallelogram law.

An important characteristic of coplanar,

concurrent vectors is that they must be added
according to the parallelogram law.

The parallelogram law states that:

If two forces act concurrently at a point, the
resultant force can be represented by the diagonal
of the parallelogram formed by the sides, parallel
and proportional to the two forces.

The graphical method of the parallelogram law

involves the construction, to scale, of a
parallelogram using forces (vectors) A and B as the
legs.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Complete the parallelogram and draw in the

diagonal connecting the origin and the opposite
corner.

and B.

A convenient scale is used in drawing A and B ,

whereby the magnitude of R is scaled off using
the same scale.

To complete the representation, the angle must

be designated from some reference axis; in this
case the horizontal axis x.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Another graphical vector addition approach, is the

triangle rule or tip - to - tail method.

Construct, to scale, only half of the parallelogram

by arranging the forces in a tip-to-tail fashion with
the net result being a triangle.

The sum of the two vectors, A and B, may be

found by arranging them in a tip-to-tail sequence
with the tip of A to the tail of B or vice versa.

The resultant R can be obtained by drawing a line

beginning at the tail of the first vector and ending
at the tip of the last vector.

Both magnitude and direction are scaled directly

from the drawing and the sense of the resultant
moves from the tail of the first force to the tip of
the last force.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Drawing the other half of the parallelogram will

yield the complimentary triangle and the same
resultant force R.

The order in which the vectors are drawn is

unimportant, where A + B = B + A.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A utility pole supports two tension forces A and B

with the directions shown. Using the parallelogram
law and the tip-to-tail methods, determine the
resultant force for A and B (magnitude and direction).
Scale: 1"=200 lb.

Begin by drawing the two forces, using the

suggested scale, with a reference x and y axis passing
through the origin at point O.

Accuracy in the drawings will have direct impact on

the accuracy of the results.

Construct a line parallel to A, passing through the

tip of force B and similarly, draw a line parallel to B,
completing the parallelogram.

Carefully connect the origin at O to the diagonally

opposite corner of the parallelogram.

The resultant R should yield a magnitude of 630 lbs.

and a direction theta of 83 relative to the x axis.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Begin the tip-to-tail process by constructing a

reference x and y axis with the origin at O.

In Example (a), draw force A to scale. At the tip of

force A construct, to scale, force B.

Draw a line from the origin at O to the tip of the

last force B. This line represents the resultant R of
forces A + B and can be scaled to obtain the
magnitude and direction.

As in the parallelogram method, the resultant is,

R = 630 lbs. and the angle theta is 83.

By changing the order of forces being drawn, the

triangle that results will be the other half of the
parallelogram.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

The sum of any number of vectors may be obtained

by applying repeatedly the parallelogram law to
successive pairs of vectors until all of the given
vectors are replaced by a single resultant vector.

Note: The graphical method of vector addition

requires that all vectors be coplanar.

Assume that three coplanar forces A, B, and C are

acting at point O and the resultant of all three is
desired.

The parallelogram law is applied successively until

the final resultant force R' is obtained.

The addition of vectors A and B yields the

intermediate resultant R, where R is then added
vectorially to vector C, resulting in R'.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A simpler solution may be obtained by using the

tip-to-tail method.

The vectors are drawn to scale but not necessarily

in any particular sequence.

The final resultant is obtained by connecting the

beginning origin point to the tip of the last force.

Scale the length of the final resultant and measure

the final theta angle using a protractor.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A tent stake is subjected to three pulling

forces. Using the graphical tip-to-tail
method, determine the resultant of forces
A, B, and C (magnitude and direction).

In the tip-to-tail method for this

problem, where all three forces have
known directions and magnitudes, the
sequence of drawing the forces is
unimportant.

The solution that results by using the

sequence A+B+C is R = 50 lbs.

The resultant direction is given by the

angle = 53.1 from the horizontal
reference axis.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2.3 Force Systems

Resolution of Forces into Rectangular Components

Combining force directions in a systematic way

can be accomplished by resolving each force into
its respective components along the x and y axes.

The original force represents the diagonal and the

components are the sides of the parallelogram.

Components of a force are generally perpendicular

to each other and are called rectangular
components.

The x and y axes of a rectangular coordinate

system are most often assumed to be horizontal
and vertical respectively.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.

Components of a Force

A force F with a direction from the horizontal x

axis can be resolved into its rectangular components
Fx and Fy.

, where:

In effect, the force components Fx and Fy form the

legs of a parallelogram with the diagonal
representing the original force F.

right triangles;

Force directions indicated by a slope relationship

result in components expressed as ratios of the
original force.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A cantilever beam is subjected to a force F at its free end B.

Resolve the force into its rectangular components along the
x and y axes.

Draw, to a reasonably accurate scale, the force F at an

angle of =40 from the horizontal x axis.

From the tail end of the force arrow, construct

perpendicular lines to the respective x and y axes.

The parallelogram that results has the original force F as

the diagonal (resultant).

Component Fx represents the side of the parallelogram

along the x axis and Fy is the vertical side along the y axis.

Note that the sense (arrowhead) of each component force

is shown at the same location as the original force F.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

expressed as:

The directions of the respective components are

generally assigned a plus (+) or minus (-) based on the
conventions of the Cartesian coordinate system. Forces
directed to the right, along the x axis, are assumed as
positive (+) forces and forces going to the left are
considered negative (-).

This same problem will be examined using the angle

= 50 referenced from the vertical y axis.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A large eye bolt is used in supporting a canopy over the

entry to an office building. The tension developed in the
support rod is equal to 2600 newtons. Determine the
rectangular components of the force if the rod is at a 5 in
12 slope.

Component forces Tx and Ty can be expressed as ratios

of the original force T=2600 N.

are equal to:

Based on the sign convention discussed earlier, the

horizontal component Tx is positive (+) along the x axis
and Ty is negative, going in a downward direction
along the y axis.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

The basic idea in this methodology is to resolve all

concurrent forces in the system into x and y components
and combine algebraically, all components in the
respective x and y directions.

Summing all of the forces along the x axis yields the

resultant Rx and similarly, summing y component
forces results in Ry.

Component resultants, Rx and Ry, form the two sides of

a rectangle in which the diagonal R represents the final
resultant of the entire concurrent force system.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A general procedure for determining the resultant of a

coplanar, concurrent force system using the component
method is as follows:

components.

Note the direction of each component force, plus

or minus, based on a sign convention.

Sum the horizontal component forces

algebraically, noting the plus or minus direction
for each force.

Sum the horizontal component forces

algebraically, noting the plus or minus direction
for each force. The general expression for the
resultant Rx may be written as: Rx =Fx

Sum the vertical component forces algebraically,

such that: Ry =Fy

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Note the sign for each component resultant. A

positive Rx means that the horizontal resultant is
directed to the right and a negative Rx would be
shown going to the left.

Sketch, to a relative scale, the resultants Rx and Ry

on an x-y coordinate axis.

Component resultants Rx and Ry form the two

sides of a rectangle. Construct the other two sides
of the rectangle and draw the diagonal that passes
through the origin and the diagonally opposite
corner.

The direction of the resultant force is obtained by

using the trigonometric function:

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Three stay cables are used in supporting a bridge deck.

The three cables are coplanar and concurrent at the
top of the tower at D and generate a large downward
compressive force. To minimize the effect of bending
in the tower, it is necessary to tension the cable DC
such that the resultant of cable forces DA, DB, and DC
remain vertically downward.

Draw a coordinate axis with the forces and

respective components.

Indicate clearly the direction of each force and the

directions of the components.

It is sometimes more convenient to set up a table

which lists the forces and respective components.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Example Problem 2.5 - (contd)

The resultant Rx is found by summing the component forces listed under the Fx column.

Substituting for DC in the Ry equation;

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.

Moment of a Force

A force that produces a rotation or twist of the body

about an axis or point is referred to as the moment of a
force.

The moment of a force with respect to a reference point is

equal to the product of the force and the perpendicular
distance of the force from the point.

The perpendicular distance from the line of action of the

force to the reference point is often referred to as the
moment arm.

Mi = moment about any reference point `i.

F = applied force in pounds
d = perpendicular distance from the reference point `i
to the line of action of the applied force.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A 1 meter long lever is inclined at a 5:12 slope with a vertically

applied force of 200N. Determine the moment about pivot point A
caused by the applied force.

The moment of the force about point A is found by multiplying

the magnitude of the force times the perpendicular distance
from A to the line of action of the force.

Directions for moments about a reference point are either

clockwise or counterclockwise rotation.

A commonly used sign convention is to assume

counterclockwise rotation as positive (+) and clockwise rotation
as negative (-).

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Varignons theorem states that:

The moment of a force about a point is equal to the
algebraic sum of the moments of the components of the
force with respect to the same point.

In the upturned cantilever beam shown, employing

Varignons theorem uses the given dimensions instead of
determining the perpendicular distance `d in figure (a).

Force F is resolved into its horizontal and vertical

components and the moment arm distances dx and dy .

The resulting moment MA is computed by algebraically

summing the moments about point A generated by each of
the component forces.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A wind force of 2,000 pounds, at an angle of from the

horizontal, is applied at joint A on a roof truss.
Determine the moment due to the force F about the
supports at B and C and the crown at D. Use the principle
of moments in determining MB , MC , and MD .

components.

The perpendicular moment arms for the components are

easily determined from the dimensions already given for
the truss.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

The plus or minus direction for the respective component forces is

unimportant but the direction of rotation caused by the force
(clockwise or counterclockwise) relative to the reference point
must be indicated.

Using the reference point at support C, the moment MC is

calculated to be:

The moment at the crown of the roof truss is equal to:

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A unique arrangement of forces can produce a tendency for a

member to rotate without experiencing any translation.

A couple is defined as two forces having the same magnitude,

parallel lines of action, but opposite sense (arrowhead
direction).

Couples have pure rotational effects on a body with no capacity

to translate (move) the body in the vertical or horizontal
direction.

The moment of a couple, M, is computed as the product of the

force F times the perpendicular distance d between the two
equal and opposite forces.

The moment of a couple is a constant value and is independent

of any specific reference point.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A cantilevered truss supports three applied loads F 1, F2, and

F3 as shown. Determine the resultant moment due to the
three forces about support A. What is the moment due to the
three forces if the moments are summed about support B?

components.

Note that the x-components of forces F1 and F2 form a

couple system and the y-component of force F 2 and force F3
also form a couple.

Summing moments due to the three applied forces about

support point A results in the equation:

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A check of the moments using each force/component

independently will result in the same answer for M A
and MB .

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Resolution of a Force into a Force and

Couple Acting at Another Point

A force F can be moved along its line of action (principle

of transmissibility) without changing the external
effects on the body.

However, a force cannot be moved away from its

original line of action without modifying the external
effects on the rigid body.

If the applied force F is changed from point A to point B

on the cantilevered beam, differing deflections at the
free end result.

The deflection 2 (F applied at point B) is considerably

larger than 1 (F applied at a point A).

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

The objective is to have F moved to point A without

changing the effects on the rigid body.

Two forces F2 and F2 are applied at A with a line of

action parallel to that of the original force at B.

The addition of the equal and opposite forces at A does

not change the effect on the rigid body.

Observe that the forces F1 at B and F2 at A are equal

and opposite forces with parallel lines of action, thus
forming a couple system.

The moment due to the couple is equal to (F)x(d) and is

a constant value anywhere on the rigid body.

The couple MA can then be placed at any convenient

location with the remaining force F2 at A.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Check that the moment at the support C remains

the same between the diagrams in (a) and (c).

In Figure (a):

Therefore;

Any force F acting on a rigid body may be moved to

any given point A (with a parallel line of action),
provided that a couple M is added. The moment M
of the couple is equal to F times the perpendicular
distance between the original line of action and the
new location A.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Two forces A and B shown on the girder can be replaced

with a single resultant force R, which produces an
equivalent effect as the original forces.

The equivalent resultant R must produce the same

translational tendency as forces A and B as well as the same
rotational effect.

Only a single location R will produce an equivalent effect as

the girder with forces A and B.

The magnitude of the resultant R of the parallel forces A and

B equals the algebraic summation of A and B, where
R = A + B.

Location of the resultant R is obtained by employing the

principle of moments.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Equilibrium

Any body at rest will remain at rest and any body in

motion will move uniformly in straight lines unless acted
upon by a force.

The mathematical requirement necessary to establish a

condition of two dimensional equilibrium can be stated
as:

the minimum number of equations of equilibrium

necessary to justify a state of balance is also the
maximum number of equations of equilibrium
permitted.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

In the example shown:

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Concurrent Force System

Equilibrium of a Particle

When the resultant of all concurrent forces acting on a

particle is zero, the particle is in a state of equilibrium.

In the example shown, three forces, T, CA and CB

intersect at the common point C.

The three concurrent forces represent a force diagram

with point C as the origin on an x-y coordinate axis.

diagram (FBD).

A two-dimensional concurrent force system requires

two conditions of equilibrium to be satisfied.

Concurrent force systems produce no rotational

tendencies.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Two truss member forces of magnitude F1 = 9 kips

and F2 = 15 kips are applied to a bolted
connection as shown. Knowing that the
connection is in equilibrium, determine the
magnitudes of member forces F3 and F4.

joint at A.

A tabular format will be used to keep track of

the force components.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Write the two equations of equilibrium;

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A strut CB is guyed back to a wall support through cable

BA. Two forces are applied to the concurrent joint at B.
Determine the tension in cable BA and the force in member
CB for a condition of equilibrium to occur.

unknown forces.

Incorrect assumptions about the force directions will be

revealed at the end of the process with a negative answer.

A negative sign simply mean that the direction of the

force was incorrectly assumed in the initial FBD, however,
the magnitude remains unaffected.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

compression.

An arrowhead shown pulling away from the concurrent

point designates a tension force while an arrowhead
directed at the point is considered in compression.

Step two: resolve all angled forces into their respective x

and y components.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Step three: Write the two equations of equilibrium

and solve for the unknown forces BA and CB.

BA = +1300 kN,

BA and CB resulted in positive answers indicating

that their directions were correctly assumed.

CB = + 1414 kN

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Nonconcurrent, Coplanar Force System

Equilibrium of a Rigid Body

A rigid body is in equilibrium when the resultant of

all external forces and moments acting on it is zero.

Equilibrium

Since only three equations may be written for the

coplanar system, no more than three unknowns can be
solved.

Non-equilibrium or failure condition

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Forces on rigid bodies are non-concurrent but remain

coplanar in a two dimensional system.

The magnitudes and directions of the known external

forces should be clearly indicated on free-body diagrams.

Forces that are normally considered acting on a rigid

body are as follows:

Forces developed within a sectioned member.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Unknown external forces, usually the support

reactions or constraints, develop on the rigid body to
resist translational and rotational tendencies.

The type of reaction offered by the support depends

on the constraint condition.

Some of the most commonly used support

constraints are summarized in Table on the next
slide.

When the sense of the reacting force or moment is

not apparent, arbitrarily assign a direction to it.

If the assumed direction happens to be incorrect, the

calculated answer(s) in the equilibrium equations
will result in a negative value.

The magnitude of the numerical answer is still

correct.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

Support Conditions for Coplanar Structures

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A bridge spans across a river carrying the applied loads

as shown. Assuming that the bridge itself weighs 4 kips
(located at mid-span), determine the support reactions
that develop at A and B.

Write the three equations of equilibrium and solve for

the support reactions.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

A simply supported beam AB is attached to a cantilever

beam BC using a hinge at B. Construct FBDs and solve for
the support reactions at A and C and the internal forces
developed at the hinge at B.

A total of four unknown support reactions in the FBD, but

the three equations of equilibrium are insufficient to solve
for all of the unknowns.

It is possible to separate the compound beam into to two

equilibrium.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

From FBD (d): Record the values obtained for Bx and By

as known forces.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye