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Chapter 2 - Statics

2.1 Characteristics of a Force

A force can be simply defined as a


push or a pull, indicated by an arrow,
exerted by one body or source on
another, tending to produce a change
in the motion of the body being acted
upon.

Forces in building structures are a


result of gravity induced loads
(structure/material weights, occupancy
loads), wind pressures and inertial
loads from earthquake.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
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Newtons Laws

Sir Isaac Newton summarized the effects of


force on a body in three basic laws:

First Law: Any body at rest will remain at


rest and any body in motion will move
uniformly in a straight line unless acted
upon by a force.(This is equilibrium the
state of a body in which it is at rest and
there is no net force acting on the body.
The study of bodies in equilibrium is
statics.

Second Law: The time rate of change of


momentum is equal to the force producing
it, and the change takes place in the
direction in which the force is acting. (F =
ma)

Third Law: For every force of action, there


is a reaction that is equal in magnitude,
opposite in direction, and has the same line
of action. (Basic concept of force)

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Sir Isaac Newton 1643-1727


English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher

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Characteristics of a Force

Forces are vectors, having the


additional property of direction.

Vectors are quantities that have both


magnitude and direction and must be
combined according to certain rules of
addition.

A force is characterized by its (a) point


of application , (b) magnitude , and (c)
its direction . In diagrammatic form a
force is represented by an arrow with
the arrowhead indicating the sense of
the force.

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Characteristics of a Force - contd

a) The point of application defines the


point where the force is applied.

b) Magnitude refers to the quantity of


force; a numerical measure of its
intensity. Basic units of force that will
be used throughout are the pound (lb.
or #) and the kilo pound (kilo pound or
kip or k = 1000 lb.)

c) The direction of a force is defined by


its line of action and sense. The line of
action represents an infinite straight
line along which the force is acting.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
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Rigid Bodies

In statics, structural elements (bodies)


are theoretically assumed as rigid
bodies displaying negligible or no
noticeable deformation under load.

Bodies that deform under the


application of forces, called
deformable bodies, are the purview of
strength of materials

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
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Principle of Transmissibility

An important principle of statics that


applies to rigid bodies is the principle
of transmissibility .

The principle states that the external


effects on a body remain unchanged
when a force F, acting at point A, is
replaced by a force F of equal
magnitude at point B, provided that
both forces have the same sense and
line of action.

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Types of Force Systems

Structural elements and frameworks


are generally subjected to various
combinations of forces.

Force systems are often identified by


the type or types of systems on which
they act:

(a) collinear

(b) coplanar parallel

(c) coplanar concurrent

(d) non-coplanar parallel

(e) non-coplanar concurrent

(f) non-coplanar, non-concurrent

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2.2 Vector Addition


Characteristics of Vectors

The process of adding forces is called


vector addition and the net force is
called the resultant.

Vectors, however, have magnitude and


direction, thus require a special
procedure for combining them.

The vector sum of a series of collinear


forces requires the algebraic sum of the
forces to account for the directions of
each respective force.

Vectors may be added using a


graphical technique or a strictly
analytical approach.

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Example of a graphical solution utilizing the


parallelogram law.

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Vector Addition - Parallelogram Method

An important characteristic of coplanar,


concurrent vectors is that they must be added
according to the parallelogram law.

The parallelogram law states that:


If two forces act concurrently at a point, the
resultant force can be represented by the diagonal
of the parallelogram formed by the sides, parallel
and proportional to the two forces.

The graphical method of the parallelogram law


involves the construction, to scale, of a
parallelogram using forces (vectors) A and B as the
legs.

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Vector Addition - Parallelogram Method (contd)

Complete the parallelogram and draw in the


diagonal connecting the origin and the opposite
corner.

The diagonal represents the vector addition of A


and B.

A convenient scale is used in drawing A and B ,


whereby the magnitude of R is scaled off using
the same scale.

To complete the representation, the angle must


be designated from some reference axis; in this
case the horizontal axis x.

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Vector Addition - Tip-to-Tail Method

Another graphical vector addition approach, is the


triangle rule or tip - to - tail method.

Construct, to scale, only half of the parallelogram


by arranging the forces in a tip-to-tail fashion with
the net result being a triangle.

The sum of the two vectors, A and B, may be


found by arranging them in a tip-to-tail sequence
with the tip of A to the tail of B or vice versa.

The resultant R can be obtained by drawing a line


beginning at the tail of the first vector and ending
at the tip of the last vector.

Both magnitude and direction are scaled directly


from the drawing and the sense of the resultant
moves from the tail of the first force to the tip of
the last force.

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Vector Addition - Tip-to-Tail Method (contd)

Drawing the other half of the parallelogram will


yield the complimentary triangle and the same
resultant force R.

The order in which the vectors are drawn is


unimportant, where A + B = B + A.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
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Example 2.1 - Parallelogram Method

A utility pole supports two tension forces A and B


with the directions shown. Using the parallelogram
law and the tip-to-tail methods, determine the
resultant force for A and B (magnitude and direction).
Scale: 1"=200 lb.

Begin by drawing the two forces, using the


suggested scale, with a reference x and y axis passing
through the origin at point O.

Accuracy in the drawings will have direct impact on


the accuracy of the results.

Construct a line parallel to A, passing through the


tip of force B and similarly, draw a line parallel to B,
completing the parallelogram.

Carefully connect the origin at O to the diagonally


opposite corner of the parallelogram.

The resultant R should yield a magnitude of 630 lbs.


and a direction theta of 83 relative to the x axis.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
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Example 2.1 - Tip-to-Tail Method

Begin the tip-to-tail process by constructing a


reference x and y axis with the origin at O.

In Example (a), draw force A to scale. At the tip of


force A construct, to scale, force B.

Draw a line from the origin at O to the tip of the


last force B. This line represents the resultant R of
forces A + B and can be scaled to obtain the
magnitude and direction.

As in the parallelogram method, the resultant is,


R = 630 lbs. and the angle theta is 83.

By changing the order of forces being drawn, the


triangle that results will be the other half of the
parallelogram.

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Graphical Addition of Three or More Vectors

The sum of any number of vectors may be obtained


by applying repeatedly the parallelogram law to
successive pairs of vectors until all of the given
vectors are replaced by a single resultant vector.

Note: The graphical method of vector addition


requires that all vectors be coplanar.

Assume that three coplanar forces A, B, and C are


acting at point O and the resultant of all three is
desired.

The parallelogram law is applied successively until


the final resultant force R' is obtained.

The addition of vectors A and B yields the


intermediate resultant R, where R is then added
vectorially to vector C, resulting in R'.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
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Three of More Vectors - Tip-to-Tail

A simpler solution may be obtained by using the


tip-to-tail method.

The vectors are drawn to scale but not necessarily


in any particular sequence.

The final resultant is obtained by connecting the


beginning origin point to the tip of the last force.

Scale the length of the final resultant and measure


the final theta angle using a protractor.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
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Example 2.2 - Resultant by Tip-to-Tail

A tent stake is subjected to three pulling


forces. Using the graphical tip-to-tail
method, determine the resultant of forces
A, B, and C (magnitude and direction).

In the tip-to-tail method for this


problem, where all three forces have
known directions and magnitudes, the
sequence of drawing the forces is
unimportant.

The solution that results by using the


sequence A+B+C is R = 50 lbs.

The resultant direction is given by the


angle = 53.1 from the horizontal
reference axis.

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2.3 Force Systems


Resolution of Forces into Rectangular Components

Combining force directions in a systematic way


can be accomplished by resolving each force into
its respective components along the x and y axes.

Resolution of a force into its components has the


reverse effect of vector addition.

The original force represents the diagonal and the


components are the sides of the parallelogram.

Components of a force are generally perpendicular


to each other and are called rectangular
components.

The x and y axes of a rectangular coordinate


system are most often assumed to be horizontal
and vertical respectively.

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Components of a Force

A force F with a direction from the horizontal x


axis can be resolved into its rectangular components
Fx and Fy.

Both Fx and Fy are trigonometric functions of F and


, where:

In effect, the force components Fx and Fy form the


legs of a parallelogram with the diagonal
representing the original force F.

Therefore, applying the Pythagorean theorem for


right triangles;

Force directions indicated by a slope relationship


result in components expressed as ratios of the
original force.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
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Example 2.3 - Components of a Force

A cantilever beam is subjected to a force F at its free end B.


Resolve the force into its rectangular components along the
x and y axes.

Draw, to a reasonably accurate scale, the force F at an


angle of =40 from the horizontal x axis.

From the tail end of the force arrow, construct


perpendicular lines to the respective x and y axes.

The parallelogram that results has the original force F as


the diagonal (resultant).

Component Fx represents the side of the parallelogram


along the x axis and Fy is the vertical side along the y axis.

Note that the sense (arrowhead) of each component force


is shown at the same location as the original force F.

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Example 2.3 - (contd)

The equations for the component forces can be


expressed as:

The directions of the respective components are


generally assigned a plus (+) or minus (-) based on the
conventions of the Cartesian coordinate system. Forces
directed to the right, along the x axis, are assumed as
positive (+) forces and forces going to the left are
considered negative (-).

This same problem will be examined using the angle


= 50 referenced from the vertical y axis.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
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Example 2.4 - Force Components

A large eye bolt is used in supporting a canopy over the


entry to an office building. The tension developed in the
support rod is equal to 2600 newtons. Determine the
rectangular components of the force if the rod is at a 5 in
12 slope.

Component forces Tx and Ty can be expressed as ratios


of the original force T=2600 N.

Using similar triangle relationships, the components


are equal to:

Based on the sign convention discussed earlier, the


horizontal component Tx is positive (+) along the x axis
and Ty is negative, going in a downward direction
along the y axis.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
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Vector Addition by the Component Method

The basic idea in this methodology is to resolve all


concurrent forces in the system into x and y components
and combine algebraically, all components in the
respective x and y directions.

Summing all of the forces along the x axis yields the


resultant Rx and similarly, summing y component
forces results in Ry.

Component resultants, Rx and Ry, form the two sides of


a rectangle in which the diagonal R represents the final
resultant of the entire concurrent force system.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
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Vector Addition by Component Method

A general procedure for determining the resultant of a


coplanar, concurrent force system using the component
method is as follows:

Resolve each force into their respective x and y


components.

Note the direction of each component force, plus


or minus, based on a sign convention.

Sum the horizontal component forces


algebraically, noting the plus or minus direction
for each force.

Sum the horizontal component forces


algebraically, noting the plus or minus direction
for each force. The general expression for the
resultant Rx may be written as: Rx =Fx

Sum the vertical component forces algebraically,


such that: Ry =Fy

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Vector Addition by Component Method - (contd)

Note the sign for each component resultant. A


positive Rx means that the horizontal resultant is
directed to the right and a negative Rx would be
shown going to the left.

Sketch, to a relative scale, the resultants Rx and Ry


on an x-y coordinate axis.

Component resultants Rx and Ry form the two


sides of a rectangle. Construct the other two sides
of the rectangle and draw the diagonal that passes
through the origin and the diagonally opposite
corner.

The final resultant R can be computed as:

The direction of the resultant force is obtained by


using the trigonometric function:

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Example Problem 2.5 - Vector Addition-Component Method

Three stay cables are used in supporting a bridge deck.


The three cables are coplanar and concurrent at the
top of the tower at D and generate a large downward
compressive force. To minimize the effect of bending
in the tower, it is necessary to tension the cable DC
such that the resultant of cable forces DA, DB, and DC
remain vertically downward.

Draw a coordinate axis with the forces and


respective components.

Indicate clearly the direction of each force and the


directions of the components.

It is sometimes more convenient to set up a table


which lists the forces and respective components.

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Example Problem 2.5 - (contd)

The resultant Rx is found by summing the component forces listed under the Fx column.

Ry is the sum of the vertical components in the Fy column.

Solve for the unknown DC using the Rx equation.

Substituting for DC in the Ry equation;

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Moment of a Force

A force that produces a rotation or twist of the body


about an axis or point is referred to as the moment of a
force.

The moment of a force with respect to a reference point is


equal to the product of the force and the perpendicular
distance of the force from the point.

The perpendicular distance from the line of action of the


force to the reference point is often referred to as the
moment arm.

The moment equation can be written as:

Mi = moment about any reference point `i.


F = applied force in pounds
d = perpendicular distance from the reference point `i
to the line of action of the applied force.

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Example Problem 2.6 - Moment of a Force

A 1 meter long lever is inclined at a 5:12 slope with a vertically


applied force of 200N. Determine the moment about pivot point A
caused by the applied force.

The moment of the force about point A is found by multiplying


the magnitude of the force times the perpendicular distance
from A to the line of action of the force.

Directions for moments about a reference point are either


clockwise or counterclockwise rotation.

A commonly used sign convention is to assume


counterclockwise rotation as positive (+) and clockwise rotation
as negative (-).

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Principle of Moments - Varignons Theorem

Varignons theorem states that:


The moment of a force about a point is equal to the
algebraic sum of the moments of the components of the
force with respect to the same point.

In the upturned cantilever beam shown, employing


Varignons theorem uses the given dimensions instead of
determining the perpendicular distance `d in figure (a).

Force F is resolved into its horizontal and vertical


components and the moment arm distances dx and dy .

The resulting moment MA is computed by algebraically


summing the moments about point A generated by each of
the component forces.

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Example Problem 2.7 - Varignons Theorem

A wind force of 2,000 pounds, at an angle of from the


horizontal, is applied at joint A on a roof truss.
Determine the moment due to the force F about the
supports at B and C and the crown at D. Use the principle
of moments in determining MB , MC , and MD .

Begin by resolving the force F into its respective x and y


components.

The perpendicular moment arms for the components are


easily determined from the dimensions already given for
the truss.

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Example Problem 2.7 - (contd)

The plus or minus direction for the respective component forces is


unimportant but the direction of rotation caused by the force
(clockwise or counterclockwise) relative to the reference point
must be indicated.

The moment MB , relative to support point B, is computed as:

Using the reference point at support C, the moment MC is


calculated to be:

The moment at the crown of the roof truss is equal to:

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Couple and Moment of a Couple

A unique arrangement of forces can produce a tendency for a


member to rotate without experiencing any translation.

This force system is referred to as a couple.

A couple is defined as two forces having the same magnitude,


parallel lines of action, but opposite sense (arrowhead
direction).

Couples have pure rotational effects on a body with no capacity


to translate (move) the body in the vertical or horizontal
direction.

The moment of a couple, M, is computed as the product of the


force F times the perpendicular distance d between the two
equal and opposite forces.

The moment of a couple is a constant value and is independent


of any specific reference point.

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Example Problem 2.8 - Moment of a Couple

A cantilevered truss supports three applied loads F 1, F2, and


F3 as shown. Determine the resultant moment due to the
three forces about support A. What is the moment due to the
three forces if the moments are summed about support B?

Resolve forces F1 and F2 into their respective x and y


components.

Note that the x-components of forces F1 and F2 form a


couple system and the y-component of force F 2 and force F3
also form a couple.

Summing moments due to the three applied forces about


support point A results in the equation:

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Example Problem 2.8 - (contd)

Changing the reference point to B:

A check of the moments using each force/component


independently will result in the same answer for M A
and MB .

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Resolution of a Force into a Force and


Couple Acting at Another Point

A force F can be moved along its line of action (principle


of transmissibility) without changing the external
effects on the body.

However, a force cannot be moved away from its


original line of action without modifying the external
effects on the rigid body.

If the applied force F is changed from point A to point B


on the cantilevered beam, differing deflections at the
free end result.

The deflection 2 (F applied at point B) is considerably


larger than 1 (F applied at a point A).

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Example 2.9 - Force and Couple at Another Point

The objective is to have F moved to point A without


changing the effects on the rigid body.

Two forces F2 and F2 are applied at A with a line of


action parallel to that of the original force at B.

The addition of the equal and opposite forces at A does


not change the effect on the rigid body.

Observe that the forces F1 at B and F2 at A are equal


and opposite forces with parallel lines of action, thus
forming a couple system.

The moment due to the couple is equal to (F)x(d) and is


a constant value anywhere on the rigid body.

The couple MA can then be placed at any convenient


location with the remaining force F2 at A.

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Example 2.9 - Force and Couple at Another Point - (contd)

Check that the moment at the support C remains


the same between the diagrams in (a) and (c).

In Figure (a):

Checking Figure (c):

Therefore;

Any force F acting on a rigid body may be moved to


any given point A (with a parallel line of action),
provided that a couple M is added. The moment M
of the couple is equal to F times the perpendicular
distance between the original line of action and the
new location A.

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Resultant of Two Parallel Forces

Two forces A and B shown on the girder can be replaced


with a single resultant force R, which produces an
equivalent effect as the original forces.

The equivalent resultant R must produce the same


translational tendency as forces A and B as well as the same
rotational effect.

Only a single location R will produce an equivalent effect as


the girder with forces A and B.

The magnitude of the resultant R of the parallel forces A and


B equals the algebraic summation of A and B, where
R = A + B.

Location of the resultant R is obtained by employing the


principle of moments.

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2.4 Equilibrium Equations: 2 Dimensional


Equilibrium

Newtons first law refers to a state of balance or rest.

Any body at rest will remain at rest and any body in


motion will move uniformly in straight lines unless acted
upon by a force.

The mathematical requirement necessary to establish a


condition of two dimensional equilibrium can be stated
as:

the minimum number of equations of equilibrium


necessary to justify a state of balance is also the
maximum number of equations of equilibrium
permitted.

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Collinear Force System

Forces acting along the same line of action.

Only one equation of equilibrium is required.

In the example shown:

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Concurrent Force System


Equilibrium of a Particle

When the resultant of all concurrent forces acting on a


particle is zero, the particle is in a state of equilibrium.

In the example shown, three forces, T, CA and CB


intersect at the common point C.

The three concurrent forces represent a force diagram


with point C as the origin on an x-y coordinate axis.

This type of force diagram is referred to as a free body


diagram (FBD).

A two-dimensional concurrent force system requires


two conditions of equilibrium to be satisfied.

Concurrent force systems produce no rotational


tendencies.

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Example Problem 2.10 - Equilibrium of a Particle

Two truss member forces of magnitude F1 = 9 kips


and F2 = 15 kips are applied to a bolted
connection as shown. Knowing that the
connection is in equilibrium, determine the
magnitudes of member forces F3 and F4.

Begin by constructing the FBD of the concurrent


joint at A.

Then, resolve all forces into x and y directions.

A tabular format will be used to keep track of


the force components.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Example Problem 2.10 - (contd)

Write the two equations of equilibrium;

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Example Problem 2.11 - Equilibrium of a Particle

A strut CB is guyed back to a wall support through cable


BA. Two forces are applied to the concurrent joint at B.
Determine the tension in cable BA and the force in member
CB for a condition of equilibrium to occur.

First step: construct a FBD of the concurrent joint B.

Intuitively, guess at the direction for each of the two


unknown forces.

Incorrect assumptions about the force directions will be


revealed at the end of the process with a negative answer.

A negative sign simply mean that the direction of the


force was incorrectly assumed in the initial FBD, however,
the magnitude remains unaffected.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Example Problem 2.11 - (contd)

The cable will be assumed in tension and the strut CB in


compression.

An arrowhead shown pulling away from the concurrent


point designates a tension force while an arrowhead
directed at the point is considered in compression.

Step two: resolve all angled forces into their respective x


and y components.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Example Problem 2.11 - (contd)

Step three: Write the two equations of equilibrium


and solve for the unknown forces BA and CB.

Solve both equations simultaneously.

BA = +1300 kN,

BA and CB resulted in positive answers indicating


that their directions were correctly assumed.

CB = + 1414 kN

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Nonconcurrent, Coplanar Force System


Equilibrium of a Rigid Body

A rigid body is in equilibrium when the resultant of


all external forces and moments acting on it is zero.

Equilibrium of a rigid body may be written as:


Equilibrium

Since only three equations may be written for the


coplanar system, no more than three unknowns can be
solved.

Non-equilibrium or failure condition

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.


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Free-Body Diagrams of Rigid Bodies

Forces on rigid bodies are non-concurrent but remain


coplanar in a two dimensional system.

The magnitudes and directions of the known external


forces should be clearly indicated on free-body diagrams.

Forces that are normally considered acting on a rigid


body are as follows:

Externally applied forces.

Weight of the rigid body , if significant.

Reaction forces or constraints.

Externally applied moments.

Moment reactions or constraints.

Forces developed within a sectioned member.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.


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Free-Body Diagrams of Rigid Bodies - (contd)

Unknown external forces, usually the support


reactions or constraints, develop on the rigid body to
resist translational and rotational tendencies.

The type of reaction offered by the support depends


on the constraint condition.

Some of the most commonly used support


constraints are summarized in Table on the next
slide.

When the sense of the reacting force or moment is


not apparent, arbitrarily assign a direction to it.

If the assumed direction happens to be incorrect, the


calculated answer(s) in the equilibrium equations
will result in a negative value.

The magnitude of the numerical answer is still


correct.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.


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Support Conditions for Coplanar Structures

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Example Problem 2.12 - Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies

A bridge spans across a river carrying the applied loads


as shown. Assuming that the bridge itself weighs 4 kips
(located at mid-span), determine the support reactions
that develop at A and B.

Step 1: Construct the FBD of the truss.

Assume directions for the reactions Ax,Ay and By.

Write the three equations of equilibrium and solve for


the support reactions.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Example Problem 2.13 - Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies

A simply supported beam AB is attached to a cantilever


beam BC using a hinge at B. Construct FBDs and solve for
the support reactions at A and C and the internal forces
developed at the hinge at B.

A total of four unknown support reactions in the FBD, but


the three equations of equilibrium are insufficient to solve
for all of the unknowns.

It is possible to separate the compound beam into to two


additional FBDs and write additional equations of
equilibrium.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Example Problem 2.13 - (contd)

From FBD (c):

From FBD (d): Record the values obtained for Bx and By


as known forces.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, 4th
edition
Barry Onouye

2012, 2007, 2002, 1999 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved