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14/15 Fall semester

Engineering Chemistry

Instructor: Rama Oktavian


Email: rama.oktavian86@gmail.com
Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15, F. 09-11

Korosi

Korosi : Peristiwa
perusakan atau
degradasi
material logam
akibat bereaksi
secara kimia
dengan
lingkungan

Korosi
Contoh: Korosi dari logam yang disebabkan oleh
air pada umumnya merupakan hasil dari reaksi
kimia dimana permukaan logam teroksidasi
membentuk iron oxide (rust).

Korosi

Korosi merupakan proses oksidasi yang


terjadi pada suhu yang rendah
Korosi merupakan proses elektrokimia
Adanya kontak secara kimia dan elektrik
antara
Anode, electrode pada sel elektrolit yang
memberikan elektron.
Cathode, electrode pada sel elektrolit yang
menerima elektron

Korosi
Korosi dapat terjadi karena:
-- Karakteristik dari logam yang memberikan elektron.
-- Adanya reaksi oksidasi dan reduksi yang disebakan oleh
electron tersebut.
Laju korosi dipengaruhi oleh:
-- Suhu
-- Konsentrasi dari reaktan dan produk
-- mechanical stress & erosion
-- the energy state of the metal

Korosi

Korosi
Two reactions are necessary:

Zn

Zn

2e
(anodic reaction)
-- oxidation reaction:
-- reduction reaction: 2H 2e H 2 (gas) (cathodic reaction)

H+
oxidation reaction
Zn
Zn2+
H+

Zinc

flow of e2ein the metal

H+
H+

Acid
solution

H+

H2(gas)

H+

H+
reduction reaction

Other reduction reactions:


-- in an acid solution

O2 4H 4e 2H2O

Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2

-- in a neutral or base solution

O2 2H2O 4e 4(OH)

Korosi

Galvanic couple: Two metals electrically

connected in a liquid electrolyte wherein


one metal becomes an anode and
corrodes, while the other acts as a
cathode.

Korosi
Two outcomes:
e-

H2(gas) 2e
Mn+ H+
ions
H+

Platinum

metal, M

ne-

e-

25C

1M Mn+ soln 1M H+ soln

--Metal is the anode (-)


o
Vmetal
0 (relative to Pt)

Standard Electrode Potential

e-

nemetal, M

e-

--Metal sample mass

Mn+
ions

H+ 2eH+

Platinum

--Metal sample mass

25C

1M Mn+ soln 1M H+ soln

--Metal is the cathode (+)

o
Vmetal
0 (relative to Pt)

Korosi

more anodic

more cathodic

EMF series
metal
Au
Cu
Pb
Sn
Ni
Co
Cd
Fe
Cr
Zn
Al
Mg
Na
K

Metal with smaller

o
Vmetal

+1.420 V
+0.340
- 0.126
- 0.136
- 0.250
- 0.277
- 0.403
- 0.440
- 0.744
- 0.763
- 1.662
- 2.262
- 2.714
- 2.924

Vmetal (i.e., more active)


corrodes.Ex: Cd-Ni cell

DV =
0.153V

Cd

25C

Ni

1.0 M
1.0 M
Cd 2+ solution Ni2+ solution

EMF: Electromotive Force

Korosi
The EMF of a standard Ni-Cd galvanic cell is -0.153
V. If the standard half-cell EMF for the oxidation of
Ni is -0.250 V, what is the standard half-cell EMF of
cadmium if cadmium is the anode?
Solution:
The standard half-cell EMF of the cadmium can be calculated
by considering the half-cell reactions:

Korosi
Rusting of iron

The oxidation reaction that


will occur at the local
anodes is
Fe Fe2+ + 2e- (anodic
reaction)
The reduction reaction that will
occur at the local cathodes is
A piece of iron immersed in
oxygenated water, ferric hyroxide
[Fe(OH)3] will form on its surface

O2 + 2H2O + 4e- 4OH(cathodic reaction)

Korosi

more anodic
(active)

more cathodic
(inert)

Ranks the reactivity of metals/alloys in seawater


Platinum
Gold
Graphite
Titanium
Silver
316 Stainless Steel
Nickel (passive)
Copper
Nickel (active)
Tin
Lead
316 Stainless Steel
Iron/Steel
Aluminum Alloys
Cadmium
Zinc
Magnesium

Korosi
Consider a magnesium-iron galvanic cell consisting of a
magnesium electrode in a solution of 1 M MgSO4 and an iron
electrode in a solution of 1 M FeSO4. Each electrode and its
electrolyte are separated by a porous wall, and the whole cell
is at 25C. Both electrodes are connected with a copper wire.

Mg

25C

Fe

a)Which electrode is the anode?


1.0 M
1.0 M
b)Which electrode corrodes?
+2
2+
c)In which direction will the electrons flow? Mg solution Fe solution
d)In which direction will the anions in the solution move?
e)In which direction will the cations in the solution move?
f)Write an equation for the half-cell reaction at the anode.
g)Write an equation for the half-cell reaction at the cathode.

Korosi
a) The magnesium electrode is the anode.
b) The magnesium electrode corrodes since the

anode in a galvanic cell corrodes (oxidizes).


c) The electrons will flow from the anode, Mg, to the
cathode, Fe.
d) The SO42 anions will flow toward the magnesium
anode.
e) The cations will flow toward the iron cathode.
f) The oxidation reaction that occurs at the
magnesium anode is: Mg Mg2++2e
g) The reduction reaction that occurs at the iron
anode is: Fe2++2e Fe .

Korosi
Tipe tipe korosi:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Uniform or general attack corrosion


Galvanic or two-metal corrosion
Pitting corrosion
Crevice corrosion
Intergranular corrosion
Stress corrosion
Erosion corrosion
Selective leaching or dealloying

Korosi
1. Uniform/general attack (korosi umum)
Korosi yang umum terjadi pada baja.
Akibat adanya reaksi kimia atau elektro kimia yang merata
pada permukaan logam
Pencegahannya :
a. penggunaan material yang tepat dan pelapisan (coating),
b. inhibitor (suatu zat yang ditambahkan dalam konsentrasi
yang kecil ke lingkungan untuk menurunkan laju korosi),
c. proteksi katodik.

Korosi
1. Uniform/general attack (korosi umum)

Korosi
2. Galvanic corrosion (korosi galvanis)

Terjadi akibat adanya beda


potensial antara dua benda yang
terhubung secara elektrolit.
Logam yang ketahanan korosinya
kurang: anodik
logam yang ketahanan korosinya
tinggi : katodik

Korosi
3. Crevice corrosion (korosi celah)
Korosi lokal yang sering terjadi
pada celah atau daerah yang
dilindungi.
Penyebabnya: adanya larutan yang
terjebak pada lubang dari
permukaan gasket, lap joint, atau
kotoran yang terjebak dibawah
baut atau pada kepala rivet.
Pencegahannya: sangat sulit. Cara
lain dengan mengkondisikan dalam
kelembaban yang rendah (low
humidity)

Daerah yang kemungkinan


terkena korosi.

Korosi
4. Pitting corrosion (korosi sumur)
Serangan korosi mengakibatkan
terjadinya lubang-lubang pada logam.
Diameter lubang relatif kecil.

Korosi
5. Erosion corrosion (korosi erosi)

Proses korosi yang dipercepat


dengan adanya gesekan antara
fluida korosif dengan permukaan
logam.
Pencegahannya:
Pelapisan (coating) dengan
permukaan yang keras.
Proteksi katodik.

Korosi
6. Stress corrosion (korosi tegangan)
Sering juga disebut stress corrosion cracking, yaitu retak
(crack) yang disebabkan oleh tegangan tarik (tensile stress)
dan korosi yang spesifik. Contoh : hydrogen embrittlement

Korosi
PENCEGAHAN KOROSI
Korosi dapat dikontrol dengan berbagai cara. Pertimbangan
utama adalah masalah ekonomi, terutama akibat yang
ditimbulkannya .
Kontrol terhadap korosi

Pemilihan material:
- Logam
- Non logam

Coating (pelapisan):
- Logam
- Organik
- Non organik

Disain:
- menghindari konsentrasi
tegangan
- menghindari kontak
dengan logam tidak
sejenis
- menghindari adanya
jebakan air

Proteksi katodik
dan anodik

Kontrol lingkungan.
(temperatur,
konsentrasi oksigen
dll).

Korosi
Metallic Selection

General rules for metallic selection


For reducing or, nonoxidizing conditions such

as air-free acids & aqueous solutions, Ni & Cu


alloy are often used.
For oxidizing conditons, Cr containing alloy are
used.
For extremely powerful oxidizing conditions, Ti
& its alloy are commonly used.

Korosi
Coatings

Metallic, inorganic, & organic coatings are


applied to metals to prevent or reduce
corrosion
Metallic coating eg.; Zinc coating on steel

(sacrificial anode)
Inorganic coating (ceramics & glass) eg.;
Glass-lined steel vessels
Organic coating eg.; paints, varnishes &
lacquers

Korosi
Alteration of Environment
4 general methods of altering an environment to
prevent or reduce corrosion are:

Lower the system temperature to lower the reaction

rates and thus reduce corrosion. Certain exceptions


exist, such as seawater, for which the temperature
should be raised rather than reduced.

Decrease the velocity of corrosive fluids such that

erosion corrosion is reduced while fluid stagnation is


avoided.

Remove oxygen from water solutions.


Reduce the concentration of corrosive ions in a solution

which is corroding a metal.

Cathodic protection
The protection of a metal by connecting it to a

sacrificial anode or by impressing a DC voltage to


make it cathode
Eg;
sacrificial anode
Impressed current

Cathodic protection of an
underground pipeline by using
sacrificial Mg anode
Cathodic protection of an
underground tank by using impressed
currents