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The study of composition
Alchemy (330)

of water , movement, growth ,

embodying , disembodying , drawing the spirits from the
bodies and bonding spirit within bodies. ( ZOSIMOS)

Chymistry (1661)
The subject

Chymistry (1663)
draw from them the different substance on their composition

of the material principles of mixt bodies. (BOYLE)

A scientific art , by which one learns to dissolve bodies and

and exalt them to higher perfection . (GLASER)

The art of resolving mixtures , compound and aggregate
bodies into their principles , and of composing such bodies
from those principle. (STAHL)
The science concerned with the laws and effects of molecular
forces. (DUMAS)



Chemistry (1947)
The science of their substances , their structure , their properties


and the reaction that changes them into other substances.


The study of matter and the changes it undergoes.

The branch of science, which deals with the study of matter, its
composition, its properties and the changes that it undergoes
in composition as well as in energy during various processes, is
defined as chemistry. It has been further divided into different
branches depending upon specialized fields of study. The major
branches of chemistry are:
: study of carbon compounds especially hydrocarbons
Organic Chemistry

and derivatives.
: study of compounds of all other elements except carbon. It
Inorganic Chemistry
largely concerns itself with the study of minerals found in the
Earth's crust.
: basically concerned with laws and theories of the different
Physical Chemistry
branches of chemistry.
: The chemistry involved in industrial processes is studied
Industrial Chemistry
under this branch.
: This branch deals with the qualitative and quantitative
Analytical Chemistry
analysis of various substances.
: deals with the chemical changes going on in the bodies of
living organisms; plants and animals.

Nuclear Chemistry
: Nuclear reactions, such as nuclear fission, nuclear fusion,
transmutation processes etc. are studied under this branch.

In addition, with new developments emerging in

recent years, more branches of chemistry are being
added. These include, pharmaceutical chemistry,
geochemistry, agricultural chemistry, medicinal
chemistry, solid-state chemistry, etc.

As chemistry concerns itself with matter and

materials of the universe, it obviously plays a very
significant role in almost all walks of life. Modern
daily life involves the use of many chemical products
and many chemical changes, although we are
unaware of them. Major contributions of chemistry to
the different walks of life in modern world are as :







Significant contributions towards securing
enough food grains and protecting crops
have been made by the use of chemistry.
These includes:
Chemical fertilizers like urea, ammonium
sulphate, calcium nitrate etc . ,for the
better production of crops.

Insecticides such as DDT, BHC,

malathion, dieldrin, furodan etc., for the
protection of crops from insects and to
help in the safe storage of food grains.

Preservatives like sodium benzoate,

sodium metabisulphite and salicylic acid
for better preservation of food and check
its wastage.



Cl3 C

forensic science
You have seen it on your favorite TV program when the
police uses gaseous fumes to expose fingerprints
found at a crime scene. Have you ever wondered what
those fumes are??
Here too is
cyanoacrylate, trade name, Super Glue. It is this same Super Glue that
you can purchase at any depot. When cyanoacrylate is heated or mixed
with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), it releases fumes that interact with the
amino acids that are found in the fingerprint residues found on an object,
thus making a white print.
Silver nitrate ,technicians apply silver nitrate to a latent fingerprint,
the chloride found in fingerprint residue interacts with the silver nitrate
and forms another compound called silver chloride. This reveals a
black or reddish-brown fingerprint in the presence of ultraviolet light.
Ninhydrin, also known as triketohydrindene hydrate, An object
suspected of containing latent fingerprints is sprayed with a solution
of ninhydrin, heating up the object to a temperature of 80 to 100
degrees Fahrenheit can reduce the reaction time. The resulting
fingerprint will be a purple/blue print.

The eradication of a number of diseases
and major contributions to improving
human health, have been made by
modern chemical discoveries.
Life saving drugs and prophylactics, i.e., disease preventing
serum and vaccines.

Anesthetics and antiseptics

Disinfectants and germicides

Antibiotics, drug that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria, an

analgesic is often used to relieve pain.

health care

Amino glycosides

Sulfonamide drugs
(the first antibacterial



Aspirin (acetyl salicylic


Chemistry plays an important role in most
industrial processes. Important examples are
manufacture of:
Synthetic fibre like rayon, nylon, Dacron, orlon etc.
Plastics like Bakelite, Teflon, polythene etc.
Paints, varnishes, enamels, dyes etc.
Cement, glass and ceramics and extraction of metals like
silver, magnesium, gold, iron etc.





life styles
In every walk of life, chemistry has been
the pioneer contributor towards enabling
the comfort, convenience and pleasures of
man. Chemistry has helped us in getting a
number of amenities. Some examples are:

Domestic requirements such as better fabrics,

soaps, shampoos, cosmetics, dyes, oils, flavoring
essences, paper etc.

Air conditioning, refrigeration and domestic

gadgets: To keep people cool and food fresh in all
seasons, we make use of air conditioning.
Chemical substances like liquid ammonia, liquid
sulphur dioxide, CFC etc., are used in these

All consumer electronic gadgets based on

Printed Circuit Board technology (PCB'S) use
specialized chemical coatings for their functioning.

life science
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the chemical
inside the nucleus of all cells that carries the
genetic instructions for making living
organisms. A DNA molecule consists of two
strands that wrap around each other to
resemble a twisted ladder. The sides are
made of sugar and phosphate molecules. The
rungs are made of nitrogen-containing
chemicals called bases. Each strand is
composed of one sugar molecule, one
phosphate molecule, and a base. Four
different bases are present in DNA - adenine
(A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine
(G). The particular order of the bases
arranged along the sugar - phosphate
backbone is called the DNA sequence; the
sequence specifies the exact genetic
instructions required to create a particular
organism with its own unique traits.

Dark Side of Chemistry

Chemistry has also been misused by unscrupulous people,

endangering the society

It has given the menace of harmful drugs and

their bulk processing, like LSD, cocaine, brown
sugar, angel dust, etc. that cripple the society.
Chemistry has also developed explosives such as
TNT, RDX and other deadly chemical weapons of
destruction - the atomic and hydrogen bombs.
Terrorists and aggressive societies have used these
with devastating effects.