Anda di halaman 1dari 38

AIRCRAFT

ELECTRONIC
INSTRUMENT
SYSTEMS
1

INTRODUCTION:

Instruments have a vital role in controlling


aircraft

They are means of communicating data


between the aircraft systems and the controller
(the Pilot)

Content and format of data displays are


standard. Why?

For easier control and less mental effort

COMMON FORMS OF
DISPLAYS

Quantitative

Qualitative
3

QUANTITATIVE DISPLAYS:
Data is presented in terms of a numerical value and by the
relative position between a pointer or index and a
graduated scale

Example:
An Airspeed Indicator

QUALITATIVE DISPLAYS
Data is presented in pictorial or symbolic format

Example:
Attitude Director
Indicator

INSTRUMENT PANELS
AND LAYOUTS

Primary Data must be in the pilots line of


vision

Indications are so coordinated as to create a


picture of the aircraft flight condition

Important for instruments to be properly


grouped to maintain coordination

Must assist pilot in observing them with


minimum effort

THE BASIC SIX


LAYOUT
Airspeed
Indicator

Turn & Bank


Indicator

Gyro
Horizon

Direction
Indicator

Altitude
Indicator

Vertical
Speeded
Indicator

THE BASIC T LAYOUT


Attitude Director
Indicator
Mach &
Airspeed
Indicator

Altitude
Indicator

Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Radio Magnetic
Indicator
Horizontal Situation
Indicator

TYPES OF INDICATORS

Analogue Indicators

Mechanical Instruments showing a pointer moving on a dial or


scale.

Used mainly in older generation Aircraft

Electronic displays

Instrumentation in the form of a CRT or LCD display.

Used in modern Aircraft

Example of
an Analogue
Instrument:
An Analogue
Altimeter
which
indicates
Altitude
10

Example of an Electronic
Instrument:
Electronic Attitude
Director Indicator (EADI)
or Primary Flight Display.
It also displays Altitude
and Airspeed

11

Another example of an
Electronic Instrument:
Electronic Horizontal
Situation Indicator
(EHSI) or Navigation
Flight Display. It also
displays Weather
information

12

THE ANALOGUE COCKPIT

Basic T-displays

Boeing 737-200 Cockpit all instruments are analogue

13

THE GLASS COCKPIT

Basic T layout display

Airbus A320 cockpit Almost all instruments are


digital displays

14

Basic T layout display

15
Airbus A340 cockpit Almost all instruments are digital displays

Basic T layout display

Boeing 737 New Generation Glass Cockpit

16

Basic T layout display

Another Glass Cockpit The Boeing 747 modern generation aircraft

17

MAJOR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN


COCKPITS

Analogue

Basic T-layout consists of separate analogue instruments

Separate T-layout for Pilot and Co-pilot

Glass

Basic T-layout grouped in 2 CRTs

One common T-layout spread on whole instrument panel

18

ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT
SYSTEMS

All modern aircraft use electronic display devices

EIDS (Electronics Instrument Display Systems)

EFIS (Electronic Flight Instrument Systems)

Highly sophisticated technology providing the pilot with


attitude and navigation information

19

ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT
SYSTEMS

Divided into two main sections:

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)

Aircraft and System Monitoring Instrument System

20

Pilot's Instrument Panel


ADI
or
PFD

ADI
or
PFD
Remote
Light Sensor

Control
Panel

HSI
or
ND

HSI
or
ND

ADI

ADI

Control
Panel

HSI

Alternate
Selector
Switches

HSI

Left
Symbol
Generator

Centre
Symbol
Generator

Right
Symbol
Generator

Left IRS
VOR 1
WXR
Left ADC
Loc 1

Centre IRS
VOR 3
WXR
Left/Right ADC
Loc 1/2
Inputs

Right IRS
VOR 2
WXR
Right ADC
Loc 2

BASIC
AIRCRAF
T EFIS
SYSTEM

21

MCDU

ECAM
system
displays

ND or
EHSI
Displays
Nav. Info.
And
Weather

PFD or
EADI
Displays
Attitude,
Airspeed,
Altitude,
etc.

Printer
The Airbus A320 EIS Cockpit Layout

22

FEATURES OF THE EIS


SYSTEM

All is controlled by a Central Processing Unit (Data


Management Unit)

Parameters, Error messages and maintenance data can be


retrieved via MCDU or a Printer

Data filtering: Important data accentuated; temporary


unimportant suppressed

Information can be transferred from one monitor to another

23

MORE FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES OF EIS


SYSTEMS

Variability and Variety

Coloured Displays

All monitors/displays for the system are


the same (ie: less components needed)

Brightness controlled automatically


depending upon the level of sunlight

Data can be sent via Radio to ground


24
(ACARS Arinc Communication Addressing
and Reporting Systems)

ONE DISADVANTAGE
HOWEVER:

In bright sunlight it might be more


difficult to read monitor indications
than it was with analogue indicators.

25

MONITORING SYSTEMS

Part of Electronic Instrument System:

On Airbus:

ECAM system (Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring)

On Boeing:

EICAS system (Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System)

26

ECAM
SYSTEM:
Monitors aircraft functions and relays them to the pilots

Produces messages detailing failures

In certain cases lists procedures to undertake to correct


problems

Colour coded warning scheme helps pilots to instantly


assess the situation

27

PFD

ND CRT control
and transfer
ECAM Control
Panel

Engine/warning
CRT
System/Status
CRT
MCDU

EFIS/ECAM SYSTEM
COMPONENTS
(AIRBUS)

Printer

28

The Engine/Warning CRT Display shows:

Engine Parameters

Fuel on Board

Flight Control
position

Warning/caution
messages

Memo (when no
failure exist)

29

System/Status CRT Display shows:

System synoptic
diagrams

Status messages

30

THE ECAM
CONTROL
PANEL

Allows selection of system/status pages

Suppression and recall of


warning/caution messages

Pressing ALL will allow successive


presentation of all system pages.

31

The MCDU and Printer

MCDU (Multifunction
Control & Display Unit)

The heart of the A320/319.

Everything that the airbus


can do, can be controlled
from this unit, including
Maintenance Tests.

Aircraft Performance Data


as well as Maintenance Data
can be printed on a Printer.

32

CRT SWITCHING

Data can be
transferred
between displays

Very useful in
the case of CRT
failure

33

EICAS
SYSTEM:

Provide aircraft engines parameters such as


RPM, temperature values, fuel flow, etc.

Monitors systems like hydraulic, airconditioning, electrical, etc.

Generates crew annunciations and warnings.

34

EICAS Caution and


Annunciation
Panel
CRT switching
Control Panel

EFIS/EICAS
SYSTEM
COMPONENTS

Engine Primary
Display
Engine Secondary
Display or
Status/Maintenance
Display

35

EICAS Display Units

Engine Primary
Display and Warning
Display

Engine Secondary
Display and
Status/Maintenance
Display

36

EICAS Warning and


Caution
Annunciation Panel

37

ECAM/EFIS/EICAS DISPLAY
MESSAGE COLOUR CODING:

RED:

Warning

AMBER:

Caution

GREEN:Normal Operation

BLUE:

In addition to the CRT display, warnings and cautions


generate an attention getter and audible sound in
the cockpit.

Action to be carried out

38