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# ANCHORING

Lt Cdr K E Bourn

ANCHORING
INTRODUCTION

## This lecture aims to teach the

principles of choosing and planning an
anchorage
Anchorages are often used to practice
pilotage techniques
It is often necessary to anchor for
operational reasons or to seek shelter
2

ANCHORING
CONTENTS

Choosing an Anchorage
Calculation of the amount of cable to use
Planning an anchorage
Beam marks
Monitoring of position
Execution of the Anchorage Plan (with some
reprise of the Visual Pilotage Lesson)
Reference: BR45(1) Chapter 14 Page 383
3

CHOOSING AN ANCHORAGE - 1
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED
Depth of Water (Height of Tide [HOT])
During the Approach, the HOT for that Approach is
used for the Limiting Danger Lines (LDLs)
Minimum safe depth determined by the lowest HOT
during the stay at the anchorage must be used for the
LDLs around the anchorage position

## Length overall and draught of the ship

The amount of cable available
4

CHOOSING AN ANCHORAGE - 2
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED
Nature of the Seabed - Type of holding ground.
Good Holding Ground?:
Clay, Mud & Sand

## Poor Holding Ground?:

Shingle, Rock & Coral

the wind

## Consider the weather shore

Avoid Scend and waves
Danger of dragging
What is the Weather forecast?
5

CHOOSING AN ANCHORAGE - 3
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED

## The strength and direction of the tidal stream in the

anchorage.
Thus the direction of approach. Aim to stem the tide
during the approach.
From the tidal and wind direction select which anchor to
use

## Number of Shackles of Cable Required:

Equals 2 x depth in fathoms*
or Equals 1.5 x depth in metres*
(*Using MAXIMUM HOT during the stay)
6
Length of one shackle = 15fathoms, 90 feet or 27 metres

CHOOSING AN ANCHORAGE - 4
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED

## Calculation of the Safety Swinging Circle

(SSC)
Used for planning the anchor position
Circumference may touch the LDL drawn
for the Minimum HOT during the stay
SSC = Maximum Amount of Cable + Length of
Ship + Safety Margin of 1 cable (200 yards)
7

CHOOSING AN ANCHORAGE - 5
SAFETY SWINGING CIRCLE

Safety Swinging
Circle

+Length of Ship

## Safety Swinging Circle shown just touching SSC8

CHOOSING AN ANCHORAGE - 6
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED

## Landing Places (eg: Norfolk Island)

Shipping Routes & Proximity of Other Vessels
Beware of anchoring in the Main Channel
Possibility exists of another ship(s) being anchored
in your desired position (have an alternative plan
Shoot up anchorage position and fix adjacent ships.
If going to go to the alternate anchorage position then
make the decision early

9
rocks etc

## SHOOTING UP A SHIP AT ANCHOR

10

ANCHORAGE PLANNING - 1
CHARTWORK
STEPWISE PREPARATION OF AN
ANCHORAGE PLAN ON A CHART

11

Take your
chart ...

12

Draw LDL

13

Draw LDL
Choose
Anchorage
Position
(using the
SSC)

14

NM
T0
29

NLT 098

NLT
01

6
05

T
NM

34
NLT

Draw LDL
Choose
anchorage
Draw Clearing
Bearings

NLT 082

15

NM
T0
29

NLT
01

02
8

6
05

T
NM

34
NLT

Draw LDL
Choose
anchorage
Clearing
Bearings
Select
and Courses
(*Transit if
possible)

088
NLT 098

NLT 082

16

NM
T0
29

34
NLT

Let go

6
05

NLT
01

T
NM

02
8

Draw LDL
Choose
Anchorage
Clearing
Bearings
Select
and Courses
Establish Let
Go Position

088
NLT 098

NLT 082

17

NM
T0
29

34
NLT

6
05

1c
2c

3c

088
10c
NLT 098

8c

NLT
01

T
NM

Let go

02
8

Draw LDL
Choose
Anchorage
Clearing
Bearings
Select
and Courses
Establish LG
Position
Lay off DTR
(Min of 1 Mile

4c
5c
NLT 082

18

Allow for
Wind and
Tide
3

NM
T0
29

0.5

34
NLT

2c

3c

1.0

088(086)

10c
NLT 098

8c

wo

1c

NLT
01

6
05

8)

T
NM

Let go

02
8(0
2

Draw LDL
Choose
Anchorage
Clearing
Bearings
Select
and courses
Establish LG
Position
Lay off DTR

4c
5c

NLT 082
1.0

19

NM
T0
29

0.5

Allow for
Wind &Tide
Note Min
expected
Depths on
each Leg

34
NLT

2c

3c

1.0

088(086)

10c
NLT 098

8c

wo

1c

NLT
01

6
05

8)

T
NM

Let go

02
8(0
2

Draw LDL
Choose
Anchorage
Clearing
Bearings
Select
and Courses
Establish LG
Position
Lay off DTR

4c
5c

NLT 082
1.0

20

NM
T0
29

0.5

34
NLT

2c

3c

1.0

088(086)

10c
NLT 098

8c

wo

1c

NLT
01

6
05

8)

T
NM

Let go

02
8(0
2

Draw LDL
Choose
Anchorage
Clearing
Bearings
Select
and Courses
Establish LG
position
Lay off DTR

4c
5c

NLT 082
1.0

Allow for
Wind &
Tide
Note Min
Expected
Depths
Find
Cable
required
21

NM
T0
29

0.5

34
NLT

2c

3c

1.0

088(086)

10c
NLT 098

8c

wo

1c

NLT
01

6
05

8)

T
NM

Let go

02
8(0
2

Draw LDL
Choose
Anchorage
Clearing
Bearings
Select
and Courses
Establish LG
Position
Lay off DTR

4c
5c

NLT 082
1.0

Allow for
Wind &
Tide
Note Min
Expected
Depth
Find
Cable
required
Select
WO Marks
22

## BEAM MARKS FOR

ANCHORAGE COUNTDOWN
Charted A & B are good Beam
Marks for the anchorage
C is the Headmark for the final
approach

(03
3 0)

## C also makes a good Wheel Over mark

for the end of the 0890 leg (as parallel to
next course)

03
00

02
8

Let go

088

WO

0890 (0910)

1.2 kn

23

ANCHORAGE PLANNING - 2
Prepare a Secondary Anchorage in case
the Primary is fouled
Also prepare Blind Anchorage Plans
based on the Primary & Secondary
Visuals.
Finally check that the Safety Swinging
Circle is still clear of the LDL
24

ANOTHER EXAMPLE
OF A PREPARED
CHART
(ALSO WITH BLIND
PILOTAGE PLAN)
25

26

THEN MAKE UP
NOs NOTE BOOK
(Reference: BR45(1) Page 393)
088

Bwtr Fort

10c 10kts
Safety
Swinging
Circle

1c
2c
3c

NLT
015

T
NM

02
8(0
28
)

Let go

6
05

4c

1.0 088(086) 5c

wo
10c 8c
NLT 098

028

14

194

139.5

0.1c

204

151

NM
T0

0.5

34
NLT

29

8c

2.1c

NLT 082
1.0

## Dist Course Min Remarks

Mark1Mark2
5c
086
065
Speed Depth
4c
11.6 091
069
3c
097
073
2c Slow
104
079
086
0.5 Slow
116
090
LG Astern 10
120
094
Depth: 8m+2m tide = 10m
Bottom: Mud - good holding
TS: 190 0.5kts Wind: W 5-10kts

Bwtr
12.8c
11.8c
10.8c
9.8c
8.8c
8.3c
7.8c

27

ANCHORAGE PLANNING
SUMMARY - 1

## Draw the LDLs

Choose an Anchorage Position using SSC
Draw Clearing Bearings
Establish LET GO (LG) position
Lay off Distance To Run (DTR)
Select Beam Marks for DTR to LG
Note predicted Wind and Tidal Stream

28

ANCHORAGE PLANNING
SUMMARY - 2

## Note Minimum Depth expected for each leg

Calculate length of cable required
Select Wheel Over marks
Prepare an alternative anchorage in case the
primary is foul
Check Safety Swinging Circle (SSC) clear of LDL
Make up Navigators Note Book
Brief Captain and OOW
29

## BRIEFING OF THE PLAN

TO THE COMMAND
The Captain
Charts, Publications, Dividers, NOs Notebook,
Weather forecast, Laptop (W)ECDIS etc
Presentation
In a logical manner, with Track, Headmarks,
Beam marks, HOT, Tidal Stream, Wheelovers,
Dangers, Number of Shackles required, Port or
Starboard Anchor, Type of Holding Ground

30

EXECUTION OF
ANCHORAGE
PLAN
REPRISE OF MOST OF VISUAL
PILOTAGE TECHNIQUES

31

## Take over the Ship as

OOW in good time
The Take Over Point from
OOW NO and from NO
CO should be pre-planned

32

ANCHORAGE EXECUTION - 1
Be on the Bridge in plenty of time to
organise yourself, identify the first Head
Mark and settle down to the task
Make sure you have binoculars, Note Book
with waterproof cover and are warm and
dry
Keep a constant flow of information (The
Commentary) to the Command (CO) and
between you and the chart table
33

ANCHORAGE EXECUTION - 2
Constantly be aware of the developing situation
concerning other shipping (Situational
Awareness) , the weather, Sea State and visibility
- there is no substitute for using ones eyes
Look all round, not just ahead or astern (Beware
of tunnel vision)
Listen as well, not just to the CO and the
Lookouts, but also the Radio to be aware of the
movements of other shipping (Situational
Awareness)
34

SHOOTING UP OF MARKS - 1

## All marks must be identified positively

Do NOT make assumptions.
NOT: I am looking for a Church spire.
There is one over there, that will do
syndrome!!!)

## Transit is the primary method

Must be confirmed
Shoot-ups must be in the Navigators
Notebook
35

SHOOTING UP
OF MARKS 2
METHODS

36

0000

0900
12

6c

5c

4c

3c

2c

1c

WO

## The distance to run to the Wheel-over point may be

planned using the Wheel-over mark

37

000

DISTANCE TO RUN TO WO - 2

090
12

6c

5c

4c

3c

2c

1c

WO

## The distance to run to the Wheelover may be planned

using the Wheelover mark
38

000

DISTANCE TO RUN TO WO - 3

090
12

6c

5c

4c

3c

2c

1c

WO

## You may also use a Beam Mark, especially if the

Head Mark will be obscured during the approach

39

000

DISTANCE TO RUN TO WO - 4

090
12

6c

5c

4c

3c

2c

1c

WO

## You should use 2 Wheelover marks and 2 sets of

bearings for DTR in case one mark is obscured

40

TRANSITS
CHARTED & LOCAL

## Wherever possible use a Charted

Transit
But should that not be possible
then make use of LOCAL NATURAL
(Chinese) transit once the Gyro says
that the ship is back on track

41

STERNMARKS
RUNNING A TRANSIT - 1

42

RUNNING A TRANSIT - 2

## If you see this, then the ship is to Starboard of

Track - alter to Port to bring the marks in line 43

44

45

## Look down the bearing - Port of Track

46

HOW MUCH OFF TRACK?
How much off track are you?
At 1 mile, one degree = 35 yards off track
So if you know how far away the headmark is, what it
should bear, and what it actually bears, you know how far off
track you are
For example, 2 degrees off desired bearing at a range of 5
miles
How far off track are you?
2 x 5 x 35 = 350 yards off Track

47

ANCHORAGE EXECUTION - 3
COMMENTARY

On/Off Track and by how much
Action to regain Track
Distance and time to next WO
Distance to Run to in Position (the LG Point)
Minimum expected depth - LISTEN to Echo
Sounder Reports
Tidal Stream and likely effect of the wind
Shipping situation and recommended avoiding
actions (if required)

48

ANCHORAGE EXECUTION - 4
COMMENTARY

## Report outcome of Gyro Checks (pre-planned and

opportunity)
Number of Shackles Required
Anchor required (Port or Starboard)
Type of Holding Ground
During final approach give Courses to Steer, NOT Wheel Orders
Planned Speed reductions iaw Navigation Data Book
Report to CO when In Position Then the Captain should Take
the Ship and lay out the cable).

## IF UNCERTAIN AT ANY TIME SAY SO - AND

STOP THE SHIP IF NECESSARY
49

MONITORING OF POSITION - 1
The moment the
Anchor is let go Fix the ship and
note the Ships
Depth.

50

MONITORING OF POSITION - 2
Plot the position of
the Anchor:
Lay off from the
Anchor Fix the
Stem to Standard
(Pelorus) distance
in the direction of
51

MONITORING OF POSITION - 3
Cable used
+ Stem to Pelorus

BSC
Bridge Swinging Circle

## - Draw the BRIDGE

SWINGING
CIRCLE (BSC)
centred on the Anchor
position.
- Refix the ship
IMMEDIATELY to
see if is inside this
swinging circle - If
outside, ship is
dragging
52

SS
BRIDGE SWINGING
CIRCLE (BSC)

Max cable
+ length of ship
+ safety margin

## Redraw the Safety

Swinging Circle to
confirm that it is
still clear of the
LDL

MONITORING OF POSITION - 4
53

BSC
Bridge Swinging Circle

Choose 3 well
which will be
sensitive to
movement in
different directions

MONITORING OF POSITION - 5
54

Decide on NM &
NM 080

NL
3

00 0
NL
045 0

NL

20
00

55
NM 3

NM 260

## Bridge Swinging Circle

NL bearings
Make sure there
are no gaps in
bearings that ship
could slip
through

MONITORING OF POSITION - 6
55

Time

Point 1

NMT
NLT

255
225

1600
1615
1630
1645
1700
1715
1730
1745

Point 2

Point 3

085
045

165
135

OOW initials

- Make up a Table
in the Nav Record
Book, and instruct
the OOW/QM to
call you if the
bearings fall outside
of the NMT/NLT
limits
- Record Anchor
Details/Fix in
Ships Log

MONITORING OF POSITION - 7

MONITORING OF POSITION - 8
Do not forget that the BPSO can mark radar

## prominent points on the display at the moment

the Anchor is Let Go.
A Bridge Swinging Circle can then be
drawn around each.
Radar can also therefore be used to monitor
position, and sometimes more efficiently than
visual bearings which at times are not sensitive
enough.
57

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS - 1
Notice for Sea (RN Reference: FLOOs 1104)
Dependent on Weather Forecast and length of stay.

## The Anchor Watch

Basic instructions laid down in Captains Standing
Orders
Frequency at which OOW (or QM) check Visual
Bearings & Radar Safety Ranges laid down in the COs
Sea Order Book (Drafted by NO).
NO must brief the Bridge Team on Check Bearings
and Ranges
58

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS - 2
YAWING

YAWING can
develop in a strong
wind. This puts a
heavy strain on the
cable & anchor
especially at extremes
of yaw.
OPTIONS: Let go a
2nd Anchor under foot
mid yaw, OR weigh
anchor and sail

59

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS - 3
Anchoring in Deep Water:
During the approach veer a short length of cable (1
shackle or even more). This reduces the possibility of
anchor breaking flukes on sea bed as a result of anchor
gaining too much speed in the descent. (Beware: Under
Water Fittings)

## Running Anchoring or Dropping Anchorage?

Warships normally use Running Anchorage which is
more accurate and quicker, but Beware of Underwater
Fittings, Sonar domes etc
(Reference BR45(1) Page 392)
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