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Enumeration of body

parts
zrIrs<OyaVyakr[ AXyay
arrasakhyvykaraa adhyya
Su.Sh.05

Dr. S.L.Wewalwala
Department of Basic Principles

A - aga (major parts) crya Susruta`s


classification

t ;f zaoatae mXy< pm< ;< izr


#it,
tacca aaga - khcatastro madhya pacama
aha ira iti|
It`s (of the body) aaga (six major parts) are the
four kh (extremities), madhya (middle part /
trunk) the fifth,Part
and ira (head) theNumber
sixth. (Su.Sh.05)
04
kh (extremities)
01
madhya (middle part / trunk)
01
ira (head)
Total

06

crya Caraka`s classification


tay< zrIrSyaiv-ag> t*wa aE ba e
siKwnI izraeIvm!
ANtraix> #it ;fmm!,,
The body is divided into six parts,
two (02) upper limbs
two (02) lower limbs
head including neck and
the trunk
zrIrs<OyazarIr
(arrasakhyrra - ca.vi.7)

Ty -

pratyaga (minor parts)

mStk %dr p& nai llaq icbuk biSt Iva .


mastaka - head
udara - abdomen
pha - back
nbhi - umbilicus
lala - forehead
cibuka - chin
basti - urinary bladder
grv - neck

These are one

Ty -

pratyaga (minor parts)

k[R ne U z A<s g{f k]a Stn vN][ v&;


[ paR iS)k janu kpRr ba ^ -&tyae e
e
kara Ears
vanka Groins
a
netra

Eyes

vaa

Testes

bhr
akh
a

Brows
Temples

prva
sphik

Flanks
Buttocks

jnu
krpara

Knees
Elbows

asa Shoulders
gaa Cheeks

These are two


kak Axilla
bhu
Arms each
Ail
- aguli
(fingers and
stana
Breasts
ru toes together
Thighs 20)
aets! - srotas (channels / pores) will be discussed in

Minor parts are divided again as follows


correlation

correlation

tvac

skin

jla

network

kal

membranes

krca

brush like structures

dhtav

tissues

rajju

ropes/ binders

mala

wastes

sevan

sutures / raphae

do

vitiators

saghta

confluence of bones

yakt

liver

smata

borders

plha

spleen

asthi

bones

puppusa

lungs

sadhi

joints, places of union

uuka

caecum

snyu

ligaments

hdaya

heart

pei

muscles

ay

viscera

marma

fatal spots

antri

intestines

sir

veins

vkkau

kidneys

dhaman

arteries

srotasi

channels,
yogavhi
pores, orifices srotsi

kaar

tendons

passages performing
specific functions

Minor parts and their number


minor part

Number

minor part

Number

tvac

07

jla

16

kal

07

krca

06

dhtav

07

rajju

04

mala

03

sevan

07

do

03

saghta

14

yakt

01

smata

14

plha

01

asthi

300 (modern 210)

puppusa

02

sadhi

210

uuka

01

snyu

900

hdaya

01

pei

500 (modern 513)

ay

07

marma

107

antri

02

sir

700

vkkau

02

dhaman

24

srotasi

09

yogavhi
srotsi

22

kaar

16

aya (Seats / place of residence /


viscera)
Ayurveda text
correlation
01 vtaya (seat of vta)
large intestine ?
.
02 pittaya (seat of pitta)
.

stomach,
duodenum,
pancreas and gall
bladder ?

03 leshmaya (seat of kapha)


.

stomach and
lungs ?

04 raktaya (seat of blood)


.

liver and spleen ?

05 maya (seat of undigested


.
food)

stomach and
small intestine ?

06 pakvaya (seat of digested


.
food)

large intestine ?

antra (intestines)
antra are (two in number); three and half vyma in
length in men and half vyma less in women
Note: vyma is the distance between two horizontally extended
arms and will be 182 cm approx and so 3 and half vyma is 638
cm approx.

bhahirmuka srotas (nine external orifices)


ravaa

ears

02

nayana

eyes

02

vadana

mouth

01

ghrna

nose

02

guda

anus

01

mehra

penis/urethra

01
09

extra 03 in women as below


stanya

breasts

02

raktavaha

vagina

01

jla (networks)
There are four jalas
ma
sir

01
01

snyu
asthi

01
01

In maibadha (wrist) and gulpa (ankle) these are


present together combined with one another and
forming windows (spaces in between) by such
combination; by these (four kinds of) networks the
entire body is made of gavakita (having
windows / open spaces all over)

krca (Brush like structures)


krca are 06 in number and are present in the
hands, feet, neck and penis, two in the hands (one in
each), two in the feet(one in each) and one each in
the neck and penis.
Note: Brush-like structures are the aponeuroses. (flat, broad end of
ligaments), that present in the palm is known as palmar
aponeurosis, and that in the sole is known as planter aponeurosis.

msa rajju (muscular bands / ropes)

maht msa rajju (big muscular ropes /


straps) are four in number, meant for binding
(attaching) the pei (individual muscles) to the
bones located on both sides of the pha
vasa (vertibral column) two outside and two

sevan (sutures / raphae)


sevan (sutures / raphae) are seven; of these, five
are in the head and one each in the tongue and
ephas (scrotum); these should be avoided from the
use
of sharp instruments (surgical operations).
Note: Sutures are marks of joining of two structures specially the
bones, the sutures of the head (skull) are frontal, coronal, squamosal
(temporal), lambdoidal and saggital.

asthisaghta (confluence of bones)


confluence of bones are fourteen; of these, three are
in gulpha (ankle), jnu (knee) and vakaa (groin),
in the same way the other leg and the two arms are
described; one each is at the trika (upper back) and
ira (head)

asthi sakhy (number of bones)


Place

Number
of bones

kh (extremities)

120

roi (pelvis)
prsva (flanks)
pha (back)

117

uras (chest)
above neck and in head
Total

63
300

asthi vidha (kinds of bones)


Type
Modern type
kapla flat bones

rucak
a

Teeth

taru
a

Young /
cartilages

Places
jnu (knee), nitamba
(buttocks), amsa
(shoulder), gaa (cheek),
tlu (palate), akha
(temples), ira (head),

ghrna (nose), kara


(ears), grv (neck),
akikoa (orbit of eye),

valaya curved /
irregular bones

prya (flanks), pha


(back), uras (chest),

nalak
a

remaining bones

tubular / long
bones

asti prdnyat (importance of bones)


Just as the trees remain firm on the ground by their pith
inside them, similarly the body remains erect by the
support of the bodies inside it. Though the skin and
muscles get destroyed after sometime, bones do not get
destroyed since these are supported by the bones they
do not either get broken or fall off (from their places)

asti sandhi (joints / articulations)


cevata
(Moveable)

sthir (immoveable)

kh (extremities)
hanu (lower jaw)
ka (waist)

all the remaining


joints

sandhi vidha (types of joints)


Type

Correlation

Places

kor sadhi

hinge

fingers, wrist,
ankle, knee, elbow
(krpara)

ulkhala sadhi

ball and socket

axilla, groin, teeth

smudga sadhi

box with lid

shoulder, anus,
buttocks

pratara sadhi

round float, boat

neck and vertebral


column

tunnasevan
sadhi

stitch like suture

flat bones of head


and pelvis

vyasatua
sadhi

crows beak

lower jaw

maala sadhi

round, circular

tubes (ni), throat,


heart, eyes,
trachea

snyu vidha (kinds of ligaments)


Type

pratnavati

Broad / Spread
out

vtta
(kaar)
uira

round /
cylindrical

pthula

thick / big

Place
extremities, all
body joints

hollow / ring like at the end of


stomach, large
intestines,
urinary bladder
flanks, chest,
back, head

pe svarpa - shape of muscles


pe (muscles) are either thick or thin, big or minute,
stout/thick or round/circular, (ring like) short or long,
stable, hard or soft, smooth (silky) or rough (coarse).
They cover (envelop or conceal) the joints, bones,
veins and ligaments in their places naturally
(appropriate to each place)
pe prayojana - usefulness of muscles
Since sira (veins), snayu (ligaments), asthi (bones),
asthi parva (joints of bones) and sandhi (other joints
of muscles etc.) of the body are covered by muscles,

tma adya - soul


invisible
It is not possible to see with the (physical) eyes the
very minute vibhu (tma or soul) in the body, he
can be seen with jna caku (eye of knowledge)
and tapas caku (eye of penance)

The physician will become greatly learned


only after observing the body carefully (with
his own eyes), study of the science, getting
rid of doubts by personal observation and
study of texts, he should carry on his
activities. (crya Susruta)
su.sha.05.51