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POWER

STATION
PMPS

PUMP
It is a machine which imparts energy in to a liquid to
perform a particular function in a system.
-Two basic methods are used to impart energy
Volumetric or positive displacement
Addition of kinetic Energy
-There are three broad categories of pumps:
Positive displacement
Rotodynamic -It is a machine which imparts
energy in to a liquid to
Miscellaneous

CONTD.
- Pumps comes in various varieties
depending upon the operating principal
and applications.
- Pumps are further classified as under:
Positive
Displacement
Rotary
Reciprocating

Rotodynamic

Miscellaneous

Axial Flow
Mixed Flow
Centrifugal

Jet
Injector
Air lift

Sectional view of pump

DIFFUSER PUMP

AXIAL FLOW

MIXED FLOW

POSSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
PUMP

CONTD.
Many types & sizes of Pumps are used in
Power station ranging from large outputs
to very small ones.
The most common type is the centrifugal
Pump (Rotodynamic).
Depending up application & duty/system
requirements the pumps are classified as
shown in the table-I in a typical power
station

CONTD.
The most commonly deployed pumps in a
modern Power Station are:

Circulating Water Pumps


Condensate Pumps
Boiler Feed Pumps
General Service Pumps

These also form major & vital auxiliaries.


Following types of centrifugal pumps are used
normally known as:
Volute type
Diffuser type
Axial Flow & Mixed Flow type

CONTD.
Volute Type
The liquid enters the pump at the impeller
eye & is thrown radially in to the pump
casing of increasing area in the direction
of rotation, called volute which becomes
maximum at the point of discharge.
These pumps are generally used for low
discharge heads or for large flow.

CONTD.
Diffuser Type
-It is a similar radial flow volute casing
pump having diffuser vanes around the
impeller so that the liquid is discharged to
next impeller. The main function is to
convert as much velocity energy as
practicable to pressure energy.
-For high head work needs, such type of
pumps are provided.

CONTD.
Axial Flow & Mixed Flow Type: - In axial flow type, liquid flows parallel to
axis or shaft of the pump and pressure is
generated by the propelling & lifting action
of the impeller vanes.
- In mixed flow type, liquid is discharged
both radially & axially in to volute casing
Pressure is developed both by centrifugal
force & by the lift of the impeller vanes.

POWER PLANT PUMP


APPLICATION
CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS: - These pumps supply cooling water at required
flow & head to turbine condenser and other plant
auxiliary cooling water heat exchangers.
- The most common types of pumps used for
circulating water system are: Vertical Wet Pit
Vertical Dry Pit
Horizontal Dry Pit

CONTD.
Condensate Pumps: This pump can be horizontal & vertical,
multistage used for extraction of condensate
from the turbine condenser and have medium
flow medium head. It is a centrifugal multi
stage pump deployed to pump condensate in
to the deareater from condenser hot well
through L.P.Heaters.

CONDENSATE PUMP

CONTD.
Boiler Feed Pump: It is again a multistage centrifugal pump
having diffuser vanes capable of
generating high head & flow. This is used
to pump feed water to the boiler drawn
from deareator against high pressure,
through H.P. heaters in a regenerative
system . This is pre boiler system of
Thermal Power Station

BOILER FEED PUMP

Characterstic Curves of Pumps


- Every manufacturer provides the
characteristic curves & its pump
determined from the results of a series of
tests carried out its work.
- These characteristic curves expressed
graphically usually show:- Pump discharge head against flow.
- Power consumption against flow
- Pump efficiency against flow

PUMP OPERATING POINT

SYSTEM CHARACTERISTIC
CURVES
To ensure a requisite liquid flow rate at requisite
pressure in a system. System characteristic
curves needs to be drawn graphically between
system frictional head & flow.
This is essential from pumping selection/sizing
point of view and also to know the Pump
Operating point.
Pump operating point can be obtained by super
imposing the both the system & pump
characteristic curves will always be where the
curves intersect.

CONTD

Positive Displacement Pump

A positive displacement pump, unlike a centrifugal pump, will


produce the same flow at a given rpm no matter what the discharge
pressure is. A positive displacement pump cannot be operated
against a closed valve on the discharge side of the pump, i.e., it
does not have a shut-off head like a centrifugal pump does. If a
positive displacement pump is allowed to operate against a closed
discharge valve, it will continue to produce flow which will increase
the pressure in the discharge line until either the line bursts or the
pump is severely damaged or both.
Types of Positive Displacement Pumps
Single Rotor - Vane, Piston, Flexible Member, Single Screw
Multiple Rotor -Gear Lobe, Circumferential Piston, Multiple Screw

POSSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
PUMP

COMMON TERMINOLOGY OF
PUMPS
To ensure proper pump application & selection the
certain definition & terminology is used in today's practice
by designers & manufacturers.
Head: It is pressure generated by a liquid column of
vertical height h and is defined as h meters head. It
is also called static head.
There are three heads in common use in connection with
pump.
Potential Head
Velocity Head
Frictional Head
Total Head (Virtual head)

CONTD.
Potential head.
Water at a vertical height of H metres above a
datum level possesses potential energy equal to
the product of its mass, height and acceleration
due to gravity. i.e.
Potential energy = MgH
Where M is mass in kg. H is height in meters,
and g = 9.81m/s2The pressure exerted by a
head of H metres is given by:
Pressure = water density x 9.81 x head

CONTD.
Velocity head
If a particle of water, starting from rest, is allowed
to fall freely, its velocity v after t seconds is given
by:
v=gt metres per second
The distance travelled will be equal to the
average velocity multiplied by the time in
seconds, i.e.
Distance = gt /2 metres
But t = v/g and let the distance by H metres,
Then H = v2 /2g

CONTD
Friction head
This is the friction loss expressed as the head of an
equivalent water column. Some resistance is inevitable
whenever water flows, even in smooth pipes, but the loss
is most pronounced when the water flows through valves,
bends and constrictions.
An approximate value of the head loss is given by the
expression:
hf=fv2 L/2gD
Where hf = the loss in metres, f = a coefficient that
depends upon the pipe internal surface, v = mean velocity
in metres per second, L = pipe length in metres, D = pipe
diameter in metres

CONTD.
Total head (virtual head)
The total head (sometimes called the virtual head) is
the total capacity for work at any point per unit mass of
the substance being considered.
Gross total head = potential head + kinetic head +
losses
Table 2 illustrates diagrammatic representation of the
various pumping heads of an conventional pumping
system

POWER & EFFICIENCY OF


PUMPS
Hydraulic Power in KW(Ph) is the required power
needed for specific duty of a pump and is expressed by
the following equation: Ph (in kw) = Q (m /sec) x Total head in mtr (hd-hs)x
q(kg/m ) x g (m/Sec2 )/1000
Where hd - discharge hs - Suction ,q - density of
fluid/liquid, g - accelaration due to gravity
Pump Shaft in kw Power Ps = Ph/ pump efficiency
Electrical Input Power in kw = Ps/motor efficiency

AFFINITY LAWS
Being a rotodynamic device, the various
performance parameters of flow, head &
power absorbed to speed relating one
condition to condition otherare known as
Affinity Laws and are as under: This helps the designer/application
engineer to have a good approximation to
improve the pump performance.

CONTD
Flow Q2/Q1=(n2xD2)/(n1xD1)
Head h2/h1=(n2/n1)2x(D2/D1)2
Power kW2/kW1 =(n2/n1)3x(D2/D1)3
Where Q ---- Flow(m3/hr)

n ---- Pump rpm

D ----- Impeller dia (m)

kW ----- Power

CAVITATION
All centrifugal pumps have a tendency to
cavitate when the pressure at the inlet
approaches the vapour pressure of the liquid
being handled.
Based on the system design & requirement, it is
imperative to avoid the cavitation in order to
save impeller from physical damages caused
due to repeated formation & collapse of vapour
cavatity by keeping the sufficient inlet pressure
above the vapour pressure by keeping a Net
positive suction head (NPSH)

CONTD.

The NPSH is expressed as follows:NPSH = P (Vp+Ls+hf) or P+Lh-(Vp+hf)


P=Absolute pressure at liquid surface.
Vp=Vapur pressure (ab) at pumping temp.
Ls=max static suction lift
Lh=max Static Suction head
hf =friction loss in suction piping

SPECIFIC SPEED
Hydrantic Institute Standard have defined
suction specific speed, both required &
available corresponding to required &
available NPSH. These are expressed as
S and SA respectively.
It is an index number only based suction
characteristics both required and available
calculated from the equation:-

CONTD
SA = ( nx Q1/2)/(NPSHA)3/4
S = (nxQ1/2)/ ( NPSHR)3/4
Higher value of S are associated with better suction
capabilities & is mainly a function of impeller inlet and
suction inlet design. It varies from 6000 to 12000
.NOTE;-NPSHR is a performance characteristic
established through closed loop tests conducted by
the pump manufacturer.

CONTD.

Where S = Suction Specific Speed


n = Pump r.p.m.
Q = Pump flow in m /h
NPSHR = Net positive suction head reqd in mtr.
NPSHA = Net positive suction head available in mtr
S must be equal to or more than SA to prevent
cavitation.

Miscellaneous Pumps
To handle liquids with suspended solid of
abrasive in nature, and depending upon
the service requirements, slurry pumps
are also provided
These pumps are provided mainly for
handling of ash & acidic effluent discharge
of a power station.

Sectional View , Slurry Pump

THANKS