Anda di halaman 1dari 17

ROCK BOLTING

Rock and Soils 2009


Don Cameron

CONTENT
Introduction to rock bolting

Rock Bolts, Rock Anchors


Tension bolt

mechanical bolt

friction bolt

grouted bolt or cable

Shear bolt (dowel action)

Long or relatively short?

Benefits of a Bolt

Ta

Na

io
s
n
te

Tensile force in bolt produces greater normal force &


hence joint friction and anti-sliding force, Ta

TYPES 0F ROCKBOLTS
A. Mechanically Anchored
Cone forced into expanding shell @ base by
screwing nut to shank
Voids subsequently grouted
Moderately hard to hard rocks
slipping likely in VERY hard rock

Blast vibration may loosen anchor

Digunakan untuk lubang bukaan pada


batuan terkekarkan
Daerah yang berpotensi terjadinya
runtuhan baji atau blok
Mudah dan cepat dalam
pemasangannya
Dapat ditarik untuk memberi efek
kuncian pada potensial baji yang tidak
stabil

Terbagi menjadi

( berdasarkan

pengaplikasiaannya):

Ungrouted mechanicals anchored bolt

pada daerah non korosi


Untuk penggunaan jangka pendek dan
menengah
Grouted mechanicals anchored bolt
Terdapat resiko korosi
Penggunaan jangka panjang
Grouted dilakukan setelah periode tarikan

Reference: Hoek, E., Ch 14 of


Practical Rock Engineering, 2007

http://www.rocscience.com/hoek/pdf/14_Rockbolts_and_cables.pdf

TYPES 0F ROCKBOLTS
B. Friction Anchored Rock Bolts (heavily jointed
rock) perlu wire mesh/shotcrete
Split-set & Swellex
1. Swellex - collapsed tube, expanded in drillhole
with water pressure

Pull-out resistance dependent on applied water


pressure

Expensive and temporary


http://www.swellex.com/

TYPES 0F ROCKBOLTS
B. Friction Anchored Rock Bolts
2. Split-set - collapsed tube, expanded in drillhole
with water pressure
borehole diameter crucial: must be slightly smaller than
split-set
no tension
bolt lengths < 3 m
www.splitset.com/rock-bolts.html

TYPES 0F ROCKBOLTS
C. Grouted Rock Bolts
Cement or resin cartridge placed in drillhole
Reobar drilled through cartridges
Top of the bolt not bonded to the grout (wrapped
in PVC tape)
Nut tensioned against anchored end
Versatile, high corrosion resistance

Reference: Hoek, E., Ch 14 of


Practical Rock Engineering, 2007

http://www.rocscience.com/hoek/pdf/14_Rockbolts_and_cables.pdf

TYPES 0F ROCKBOLTS
D. Grouted Cable Bolts
Temporary support systems
Untensioned fully grouted cables (used in the
mining industry)
act as passive reinforcement
the rock mass must be in a state of compression
during installation
dilation upon shearing tensions the anchor

Passive reinforcement
- non-tensioned

i
slid

ear
h
s
ng

Tensile force develops as slide initiates:


dilational joint only (rough, undulating)

Example of use of Cable Bolts


Windy Point Great Ocean Road
instability of 200,000 tons of rock
Sandstones, interbedded mudstones, 27 dip seaward

Problems during installation; slide moving @ 2 cm per


day
Slide stopped after first 7 anchors installed
45 x 170 ton anchors, 18 to 43m long
Estimated F of S = 1.07

Summary: Rock bolts


Rock bolts and cables can incorporate;
mechanical anchorage
grout

Rock bolts and cables may be posttensioned (active) or rely on the rock
mass to do the work (passive)