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Mata Kuliah Kimia

Atmosfer

Prolog
Heri Ismanto
Semester Ganjil T. A. 2012/ 2013
Beban Studi 3 SKS
Akademi Meteorologi Dan

Outline
Pengantar
Kehadiran
Sistem Penilaian :
Tugas Mandiri
Ujian Tengah Semester
Ujian Akhir Semester
Rentang dan Bobot Nilai Akhir

Rencana Perkuliahan

Pengantar
Nama
: Heri Ismanto
Riwayat Pekerjaan :
Observer dan Forecaster, Stasiun Meteorologi
Mutiara Palu, Sulawesi Tengah (2004 2007)
Observer dan Forecaster, Stasiun Meteorologi
Hasanuddin Makassar (2007 2011)
Sub Informasi Meteorologi Penerbangan,
BMKG Jakarta (2011-sekarang)

Riwayat Pendidikan :
Diploma III Meteorologi, AMG lulus tahun 2004
S1 Fisika, lulus 2007
S2 Sains Kebumian, lulus 2011

Perkenalan Taruna/i

Nama
Status
Asal Daerah
Riwayat Pendidikan
Motivasi Memilih AMG &
Meteorologi
Perolehan Informasi tentang AMG
Ketertarikan terhadap Mata Kuliah

Taruna:

Kehadiran

Minimal 70% (10 kali) perkuliahan


harus hadir
Apapun sebabnya
Jika kurang dari 70%, tidak
diperkenankan mengikuti UAS

Dosen :
Minimal 14 kali tatap muka
Jika ada tugas dinas sehingga tidak
hadir, dapat diganti dengan hari/dosen
lain:
sepengetahuan Kasubag Adm Akademik &
Ketarunaan
sesuai kesepakatan dengan Taruna/i (misal
Senin Sore/ Sabtu Pagi/ hari lainnya)

Sistem Penilaian

Kehadiran Taruna (10 %)


Tugas Mandiri & Materi Pengayaan (15%)
Ujian Tengah Semester (25 %)
Ujian Akhir (50%) terdiri dari :
Presentasi & Diskusi Materi Pengayaan (15%)
Ujian Akhir Semester Tertulis (35%)
Materi pengayaan dapat berupa hardcopy
(langsung) maupun softcopy via email
(lebih disarankan demi kelestarian
lingkungan)

Sistem Penilaian ..
(lanjut)
Rentangan Nilai

Nilai Akhir

Bobot

90.51 100

4.00

85.51 90.50

3.70

80.51 85.50

B+

3.35

75.51 80.50

3.00

70.51 75.50

2.70

65.51 70.50

C+

2.35

60.51 60.50

2.00

55.51 60.50

1.70

50.51 55.50

D+

1.35

45.51 50.50

1.00

40.51 45.50

0.70

00.00 40.50

Sasaran Perkuliahan
Taruna memahami :
Komposisi kimia zat-zat/ gas Atmosfer
Proses-proses kimia yang terjadi di
Atmosfer
Hubungan dinamika gas-gas di
Atmosfer dengan Cuaca, Iklim dan
Kualitas Udara
Peran gas rumah kaca di Atmosfer
Sebab-akibat perubahan gas rumah
kaca di Atmosfer serta hubungannya
dengan Pemanasan Global dan
Perubahan Iklim

Rencana Perkuliahan

Komposisi Atmosfer Bumi (1 2)


Tekanan Atmosfer (3)
Siklus Geochemical (4 - 6) Pengayaan 1
Efek Rumah Kaca (7)
UTS (8)
Efek Rumah Kaca Lanjutan(9) Pengayaan 2
Aerosol (10)P-11
Ozone (11)P-13
Hujan Asam(12) Pengayaan 3
Presentasi Materi Pengayaan Taruna/i (13 14)
UAS (15)
Referensi : Jacob, Daniel J. 1999. Introduction to Atmospheric
Chemistry , Princeton University Press (ditambah jurnal dan
sumber ilmiah lain yang terkait dengan materi)

Rencana Perkuliahan......
(Tentatif)
UT
S

Idul
Adha

Nat
al

Maulid
Nabi

TB
Hijriyah

Motivasi

Berdamai Dengan Diri


Sendiri
Apapun keadaan kita sekarang yakinlah
adalah keadaan dimana kita akan
mencapai kesuksesan.
Tuhan tidak menciptakan kita tanpa
maksud, pasti ada sesuatu yang bisa kita
lakukan dalam kehidupan ini. Kalau tidak !,
mungkin kita sudah dicabut nyawa kita
oleh Malaikat.
Mengeluh bukan solusi, jalan terbaik
adalah bersyukur atas keadaan kita
sekarang, melangkah satu demi satu tuk
menuju kecemerlangan.
Kita bukan bersaing dengan orang lain,
lebih baik bersaing dengan diri sendiri.

Apa Prasasti Hidup-MU


Hidup hanya mampir minum di Dunia,
ha ha masak mampir minum 60 tahun.
Siapa yang hidupnya begitu-begitu
saja yang sudah hampir abad ?
Tekadkan akan dikenang sebagai
apa diri kita sepeninggal kita
nanti. (Majapahit, Laksamana
Cheng Hoo, Soekarno , )

Jangan Takut Gagal


Orang berani sebenarnya orang yang
takut tetapi memilih bertindak berani
untuk mencapai sesuatu yang
dinginkannya.
Orang berani sebenarnya dalam
dirinya..Takut..Berani
Takut.Berani; akhirnya jadi berani
beneran.
Terus Berusaha

Kalo hidup kita begini-begini saja, coba


cek apa yang selama ini kita lakukan.
Sekarang Berusaha menjadi diri yang
memperbaiki usaha yang lebih baik
dari kehidupan kita sebelumnya.
Hidup ini tidak mudah memang !
Teruslah berusaha konsisten naik
tangga satu demi satu,

Stressss..TANDA Doa anda


akan segera dikabulkan Tuhan
Saya ingin sukses, kaya, dll
Tiba tiba kita stres menghadapi kuliah kok
susah, TID g keluar / orang tua tdk bisa kirim,
keluarga sedang ada musibah, ada orang jahat
terhadap kita.
Tuhan sedang melatihkan sifat yang dimiliki
orang sukses / kaya.
Sukses membutuhkan kelayakan bagi diri kita.

Prolog Materi

WHAT IS THE
ATMOSPHERE?

The atmosphere seen from space

Gaesous envelope surrounding the Earth


Mixture of gases, also contains suspended solid and liquid particles (aerosols)
(partikel padat yang ada di udara (juga disebut abu atau partikulat) maupun
tetesan cair.
Istilah aerosol berasal dari kenyataan bahwa bahan yang "melayang" di udara
adalah suspensi (campuran di mana partikel padat, cair, maupun gabungan
keduanya disuspensikan di cairan/udara).

Aerosols are the visible components of the atmosphere


California fire plumes

Pollution off U.S. east coast

Dust off West Africa

Koloid adalah suatu campuran zat heterogen


dua zat atau lebih di mana partikel-partikel zat
yang berukuran koloid tersebar merata dalam
zat lain. Ukuran koloid berkisar antara 1-100
nm
( 10-7 10-5 cm ).

WHAT ABOUT CLOUDS?


Clouds are made up of water droplets or ice
crystals (1-100 m), much larger than typical aerosols
(0.01-10 m). They are technically aerosols but
have unique properties and are in practice
considered separately.

Aerosol cair : uap air sebagai


Koloid terdispersi gas/udara sebagai
Koloid pendispersi

WHAT ABOUT HAZE,


SMOKE?
Haze, smoke adalah aerosol padat, partikel padat terdispersi
dalam gas / udara (pendispersi)

clean day

moderately polluted day


Acadia National Park
http://www.hazecam.net/

Aerosol Size Naming


Convention
Usually divided into three size groups ( D - diameter)
1.

Aitken Nuclei 2 x 10-3 m < D 2 m

2.

Large Nuclei 2 m < D 2.5 m


(also called the accumulation mode)

3. Giant Nuclei D > 2.5 m

Origins of Atmospheric
Aerosols
1.

Condensation and sublimation of of vapors and the formation of


smokes in natural and man-made combustion.

2.

Reactions between trace gases in the atmosphere through the


action of heat, radiation, or humidity.

3.

The mechanical disruption and dispersal of matter at the earths


surface, either as sea spray over the oceans, or as mineral dusts
over the continents.

4.

Coagulation of nuclei which tends to produce larger particles of


mixed constitution

Aerosol Makeup
Typical substances formed in large quantities by
condensation following combustion include ashes,
soot, tar products, oils as well as sulfuric acid and
sulfates. These particles are primarily within the
range of Aitken nuclei.
Mechanical disintegration, by wind and water, of
rocks and soil produces particles with diameters >
0.2 m. These fall primarily in the large nuclei
range.
According to Jaenicke (Science, 308 p. 73, 2005)
about 25% of the number of particles with
diameter greater than 0.2 m are biogenic.
(remains to be verified).

Aerosol Makeup - continued


Chemical reactions between nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and
various trace gases (e.g., sulfur dioxide, chlorine, ammonia, ozone,
and oxides of nitrogen) primarily produce particles in the Aitken
and Large range.
Examples
Formation of ammonium chloride from NH3 and HCl
Oxidation of SO2 to H2SO4
Reaction of sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and water to produce
ammonium sulfate particles.
Production of higher oxides of nitrogen through the action of
heat, ozone or ultraviolet radiation

Cloud Condensation Nuclei CCN

Comprises a small fraction of the total aerosol population


Sea salt is the predominant constituent of CCN with D > 1m
For 0.1 m < D < 1 m, the main component is thought to be
sulfate, which may be present as sulfuric acid, ammonium
sulfate, or from phytoplankton produced dimethylsulfide (see
Charlson et al., Nature, 326, 655-661).

B. Chemical Composition
The bimodal nature of the size-number distribution of atmospheric particles suggests at
least two distinct mechanisms of formation, and the chemical composition of the particles
reflects their origins.
Fine particles have a diameter smaller than about 2.5 m, and are produced by
the condensation of vapors, accumulation, and coagulation. They have a chemical
composition that reflects the condensable trace gases in the atmosphere: SO 2, NH3, HNO3,
VOCs, and H2O. The chemical composition is water with SO4-2, NO3-, NH 4+, Pb, Cl-, Br-,
C(soot), and organic matter; where biomass burning is prevalent, K+.
Coarse Particles have a diameter greater than about 2.5 m, are produced by
mechanical weathering of surface materials. Their lifetimes, controlled by fallout and
washout, are generally short. The composition of particles in this size range reflects that of
the earth's surface - silicate (SiO2), iron and aluminum oxides, CaCO3 and MgCO3; over the
oceans , NaCl.

ORIGIN OF THE
ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL

Aerosol: dispersed condensed matter suspended in a gas


Size range: 0.001 m (molecular cluster) to 100 m (small raindrop)

Soil dust
Sea salt

Environmental importance: health (respiration), visibility, radiative balance,


cloud formation, heterogeneous reactions, delivery of nutrients

Terima Kasih

Facts
Since ~1800
Earth has warmed 0.8oC (since 1880)
GHG atmospheric concentrations
have increased
CO2: 280 ppm 370 ppm
CH4: 0.7 ppm 1.75 ppm
N2O: 270 ppb 320 ppb

Climate is controlled by the


Greenhouse Effect

The Natural Greenhouse


Effect
345 Wm-2

105 Wm-2

Atmospheric Absorption
68 Wm -2

Contribution
to the
Greenhouse
Contribution
to theNatural
Natural Greenhouse

Water
Water
Dioxide
Carbon
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
MethaneOxide
Nitrous
Nitrous Oxide

90-95%
90-98%
3-5%
5-7%
<1%
<1%<1%
<1%

Physics and Chemistry of the


Atmosphere
Greenhouse gas concentrations
Radiative forcings
Feedbacks
Chemistry, physics, meteorology
Water vapor and clouds

Atmospheric CO2
Concentrations

Currently ~372 ppm

Aerosols/Particles
Major impact on climate
Atmospherically inhomogeneous, short
lifetimes unlike GHGs
Direct Effects Fairly straight-forward
Particles scatter and absorb solar radiation
Light scattering cools (all particles)
Light absorption warms (primarily BC and
iron-containing dust)

Indirect Effects Very difficult to quantify


Cloud formation (condensation nuclei)
Cloud properties (water droplet size; cloud
water content)

Feedbacks
2x CO2 Direct warming ~0.5-1.0oC
Predictions ~5oC require positive
climate system FEEDBACKS that
amplify the direct warming from the
extra GHGs.
Water vapor
Clouds

Inherent uncertainties in feedback


mechanisms

Water Vapor and Clouds


ICE CRYSTALS
WATER
VAPOR

CLOUDS
WATER DROPLETS

PRECIPITATION
8-Day Atmospheric Water Cycle

SEA SURFACE - EVAPORATION

On average, clouds cover 40-45% of the Earths surface


Additional 2-3% cloud cover offsets warming from man-made
GHG (+2.5 Wm-2)
Model grid scale requirements make it impossible to directly
model clouds and their climate effects

Mechanisms of the radiative forcing


due to greenhouse gases and of the direct radiative forcings
due to aerosols

Global-average radiative forcing (RF) estimates and ranges in


2005
(relative to 1750) for anthropogenic GHGs and other important
agents and mechanisms

Carbon dioxide and methane mixing ratios versus time


(NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory
http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccgg/insitu.html)

Other GHGs
N2O mixing ratios show an increase from a preindustrial value of around 270 ppb (Prather et
al., 2001) to 318 319 ppb in early 2004
CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-13, HCFC-22, and CCl4
concentrations increased from a pre-industrial
value of zero to 268 ppt, 533 ppt, 4 ppt, 132 ppt,
and 102 ppt respectively (1998 concentrations) leads to radiative forcings of 0.07 W m-2, 0.17 W
m-2, 0.03 W m-2, 0.03 W m-2 and 0.01 W m-2
Ozone: approximate doubling of concentrations
between the pre-industrial and present day.

Carbon cycle

Processes in an atmospheric
chemistry model

Sulfur cycle

Sulfur emissions