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# SIMILARITY

behavior

over

prototype

in

wind

## tunnel as that of model at real

operating condition, it is necessary to
establish

the

similarities

## them in three aspects.

between

TYPES OF SIMILARITIES TO BE
ESTABLISHED
Geometrical similarity
Kinematic similarity
Dynamic similarity

GEOMETRICAL SIMILARITY
When the ratios of the dimensions of
model to corresponding dimensions
of prototype are same then the
geometrical similarity is said to be
established
prototype.

between

model

and

## Let L , T, A and V be the characteristic

length, maximum thickness, surface area
and volume of an aerofoil (model) & let l ,
t, a and v be the corresponding
dimensions of an aerofoil (prototype) then
L/l = T/t = r & A/a = r2 &
r scaling factor

V/v = r3

KINEMATIC SIMILARITY
When the ratios of the flow parameters
( velocity, acceleration etc ) of an model to
corresponding flow parameters of aerofoil
are same along with their vector points
(directions), then kinematic similarity is
said to be established between them.

## Let (V1)m & (V2) m be the velocities of a

fluid flow over a model and (A1) m and
(A2) m be the acceleration of fluid over a
model at point 1 and 2 respectively
AND
(v1)p ,(v2) p, (a1) p and (a2) p be the
corresponding flow parameters over a
prototype at their corresponding points
1 & 2 respectively, then

(V1)m / (v1)p

(V2) m /(v2) p

RV

R V - Velocity ratio
(A1) m / (a1) p

(A2) m / (a2) p

= RA

R A Acceleration ratio
R

and R

## represent different flow characteristics.

DYNAMIC SIMILARITY
When the ratios of the forces acting
on the model to corresponding forces
acting on the prototype along with
their vectors (directions) are same,
then dynamic stability is said to be
established between them.

## Let Fi, Fv and Fg be the inertia force, viscous

force and gravity force at any point A on
model and fi , fv and fg be the corresponding
forces acting on the prototype at
corresponding point A, then
F i / fi =

F v / fv

= F g / fg = R f

Rf - Force ratio

## FORCES ACTING ON A FLUID FLOW

Inertia force
Viscous force
Gravity force
Pressure force
Surface tension force
Elastic force

INERTIA FORCE
It is equal to the product of mass (m) and
acceleration (a) .
It acts in the direction opposite to direction of
acceleration of fluid

## Fi = m x a = x volume x V/T = x volume/T x

V
=xAxVXV
V2

x A x V2 =

x L2 X

VISCOUS FORCE
It is present in the fluid flow
problems when viscous is considered.
It is the product of shear stress and
flow surface area.
Fv =
xA
=
x du/dy
xA
= x (V/L) x A

=xVxL

GRAVITY FORCE
Gravity force exists on every matter on
earth hence it is associated with fluid flow
on earth.
It is product of mass and acceleration due
to gravity.
Fg = m x g = x
x L3 x g
= xAxLxg

volume x g

PRESSURE FORCE
It is well considered in case of
internal flow.
It is equal to the product of pressure
intensity and cross sectional area.
Fp = P x A = P x L 2

## SURFACE TENSION FORCE

It is equal to the product of surface
tension and fluid flow length.
Fs = x L

ELASTIC FORCE
It is equal to the product of elastic
stress and fluid flow area.
Fs = k x A = k x L 2

NON- DIMENSIONLESS
NUMBERS
Since only non dimensional numbers

## remains unaffected by scaling of model,

it is of great importance and helps to
obtain same flow behavior as that of
real operating conditions.
These are obtained as the ratio inertia

## force to remaining other five forces.

IMP. NON-DIMENSIONLESS
NUMBERS
REYNOLDS NUMBER
FROUDES NUMBER
EULERS NUMBER
WEBERS NUMBER
MACH NUMBER

## REYNOLDS NUMBER (Re)

It is defined as ratio of inertia force to viscous
force.
It is of great importance for low speed
incompressible flow regimes.

Re = Fi / Fv
= ( x V x L)

Dynamic viscosity
kinematic viscosity

( x L2 X V2 )
=

(V x L)

( x V x L)

## FROUDES NUMBER (Fr)

It is defined as the square root of ratio of
the inertia force to gravity force.
Fr = (Fi / Fg )1/2 = (( x A x V2 )/( x A x L x
g)) 1/2
=

V/(L x g ) 1/2

## EULERS NUMBER (Eu)

It is defined as the square root of the ratio
of inertia force to pressure force.
Eu =

1/2

V/(P/)1/2

## WEBER NUMBER (We)

It is defined as the square root of the ratio
of inertia force to surface tension force.
We = (Fi / Fs )1/2 = ( ( x L2 X V2 ) / ( x L))
1/2

V / ( x L) 1/2

## MACH NUMBER (M)

It is defined as the square root of the
ratio of inertia force to elastic force.
It is of great for compressible fluid flow
regimes.
M = (Fi / Fe )1/2 = (( x L2 X V2)/(k x L2 ))

1/2

= V / (k / )1/2 = V / a
Where

a = (k / )1/2

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
It is a technique of establishing a
relationship
between
different
physical quantities.
So obtained physical quantities can
be dimensional or non-dimensional.

## Application in fluid flow

To derive a rational formulae for fluid flow
problems.
To check the dimensional homogeneity of fluid
flow equations.
To derive an equations in terms of nondimensional parameters so that it can be
applied to any model even after scaling.
To plan the design of model for scaling.

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
TECHNIQUES

RAYLEIGHS METHOD
BUCKINKHAMS METHOD

BUCKINGHAMS
METHOD

## It is more convenient method than

Rayleighs method as it can deal with large
number of dependent variables.
If there are n no. of variables (dependent
and independent) in a dimensionally
homogeneous equation and if these
variables
contain
m
fundamental
dimensions (M,L,T etc.) then the variables
can be arranged into (n-m) dimensionless
terms which are called as terms.

PROBLEM 1
Derive an expression for lift force (F L) and lift
coefficient (CL) generated by an aerofoil. Assume
that
FL = f (,V, l, ,)
- density of air (kg/m3)
V- velocity of flow of air (m/s)
l- chord length of an aerofoil (m)
- dynamic viscosity
(kg/m/s)
- geometrical angle of attack (degrees)

Step 1
Form a function F1 such that
F1 = f1 (FL, ,V, l, ,) = 0
FL = f (,V, l, ,)
FL - FL = f(,V, l, ,) - FL = 0= F1
f1 (FL, ,V, l, ,) = 0 = F1

STEP 2
Identify the number of variables (n)
and its dimensions in standard form
(M,L,T), no. of dimensions m=3
f1 (FL, ,V, l, ,) = 0
n=6

FL - M L T-2

V
l

M L-3
L T-1
L
M L-1 T-1
M 0 L 0 T0

STEP 3
Generate a function f in terms of (n-m)
non dimensional parameters .(n-m=63=3)
f1 (FL, , V, l, ,) = 0 = F1 = f1 ( 1, 2, 3 )
Identify the no. of repeating variables.
Generally in case fluid flow problems
repeating variables are , V, D or l.

STEP 4
Assign the value for 1, 2, 3 consisting of
(m+1) variables and introduce the constants
a1,b1,c1,..c3 to repeating variables in 1, 2, 3
terms.
1 = la . Vb .

c1

.FL

2 = la . Vb .

c2

3 = la . Vb .

c3

STEP 5
Determine the values of the constants a 1,b1,c1,..c3.
Taking 1 term
1 = la1. Vb1 . c1 .FL
M0 L0 T0 = L a1 . ( L T-1 ) b1. ( M L-3 ) c1 . M L T-2
M0 L0 T0 = L a1+b1-3c1 . M c1+1 . T -b1-2
Solving for M,
Solving for L ,
Solving for T,

0 = c 1+1
0 = a 1+b1-3c1+1
0 = -b 1-2
c1=-1, b1=-2, a1=-2

Taking 2 term
2 = l a . Vb . c .
2

## M0 L0 T0 = L a . ( L T-1 ) b . ( M L-3 ) c . M L-1 T-1

M0 L0 T0 = L a +b -3c -1 . M c +1 . T b -1
2

Solving for M,
Solving for L ,
Solving for T,

0 = c2+1
0 = a2+b2-3c2-1
0 = -b2-1

## c2=-1, b2=-1, a2=-1

Taking 3 term
3 = l a . Vb . c .
3

M0 L0 T0 = L a . ( L T-1 ) b . ( M L-3 ) c . M0 L0 T0
M0 L0 T0 = L a +b -3c +0 . M c +0 . T b +0
3

Solving for M,
0 = c3+0
Solving for L ,
0 = a3+b3-3c3+0
Solving for T,
0 = -b3+0
c3 =0, b3=0, a3=0

STEP 6
Form the function F1 by substituting the
values of constants a1,b1,c1,..c3.
1 = FL

/ . V2 . l2

2 =

/ . V . l

3 = 0. V 0 . l 0 .
F1 = f1 (FL / V2l2 , / Vl , )
=0

STEP 7
Determination of lift force FL .
F1 = f1 (FL / V2l2 , / Vl , )=0
F1 = f2 ( / Vl , ) - FL / V2l2 =0
FL / V2l2 = f2 ( / Vl , )
FL = V2l2 f2 ( / Vl , )
f2 ( / V l , ) corresponds to lift coefficient (CL)
CL = f2 ( / V l , ) = FL / V2l2 = FL / V2S

PROBLEM 2
Derive an expression for thrust (T) developed by
a propeller. Assume that

T= f(,V,D, ,a,)
- density of air (kg/m3)
V- velocity of flow of air (m/s)
D- Diameter of a Propeller (m)
- dynamic viscosity
(kg/m/s)
a- velocity of sound
(m/s)
- angular velocity (rad./s)

STEP 1
Form a function F1 such that

## F1 = f1 (T, ,V,D, ,a, ) = 0

T - T = f(,V,D, ,a, ) T = 0= F1
f1 (T, ,V,D, ,a, ) = 0 = F1

STEP 2
Identify the number of variables (n)
and its dimensions in standard form
(M,L,T),no. of dimensions m=3
f1 (T, ,V,D, ,a, ) = 0
n=7

V
D

M L T-2
M L-3
L T-1
L
M L-1 T-1
L T-1

- T-1

STEP 3
Generate a function f in terms of (n-m) non
dimensional parameters .(n-m=7-3=4)
f1 (T, ,V,D, ,a, ) = 0 = F1 = f1 ( 1, 2, 3 ,
4)
Identify the no. of repeating variables.
Generally in case fluid flow problems
repeating variables are , V, D or l.

STEP 4
Assign the value for 1, 2, 3 consisting of (m+1)
variables and introduce the constants a 1,b1,c1,
..c3 to repeating variables in 1, 2, 3 terms.

1 = Da . Vb . c .T
1

2 = Da . V b . c .
2

3 = Da . V b . c . a
3

4 = Da . V b . c .
4

STEP 5
Determine the values of the constants a1,b1,c1,..c3.
Taking 1 term

1 = D a1. Vb1 . c1 .T
M0 L0 T0 = L a1 . ( L T-1 ) b1. ( M L-3 ) c1 . M L T-2
M0 L0 T0 = L a1+b1-3c1 . M c1+1 . T -b1-2
Solving for M,
Solving for L ,
Solving for T,

0 = c1+1
0 = a1+b1-3c1+1
0 = -b1-2
c1=-1, b1=-2, a1=-2

Taking 2 term
2 = Da . Vb . c .
2

## M0 L0 T0 = L a . ( L T-1 ) b . ( M L-3 ) c . M L-1 T-1

M0 L0 T0 = L a +b -3c -1 . M c +1 . T b -1
2

Solving for M,
Solving for L ,
Solving for T,

0=c2+1
0=a2+b2-3c2-1
0=-b2-1

c2 =-1, b2 = -1, a2 = -1

Taking 3 term
3 = Da . Vb . c . a
M0 L0 T0 = L a . ( L T-1 ) b . ( M L-3 ) c . L T-1
M0 L0 T0 = L a +b -3c +1 . M c +0 . T b -1
3

3
3

Solving for M,
0 = c3+0
Solving for L ,
0 = a3+b3-3c3+1
Solving for T,
0 = -b3-1
c3 = 0, b3 = -1, a3 = 0

Taking 4 term
4 = Da . Vb . c .
M0 L0 T0 = L a . ( L T-1 ) b . ( M L-3 ) c . T-1
M0 L0 T0 = L a +b -3c . M c . T b -1
4

4
4

Solving for M,
0 = c4+0
Solving for L ,
0 = a4+b4-3c4+1
Solving for T,
0 = -b4-1
c4 = 0, b4 = -1, a4 = 1

STEP 5
Form the function F1 by substituting the
values of constants a1,b1,c1,..c3.
1 = T

/ . V2 . D2

/ . V . D
a/ V
D. / V

2 =
3 =
4 =
F 1 = f1 ( T
=0

/ V2D2

/ VD , a /V, D. /V )

STEP 6
Determination of thrust force T .
F1 = f1 ( T / V2D2 , / VD , a /V, D. /V ) = 0
F1 = f2 ( / VD , a /V, D. /V ) - T
T

/ V2D2 =0

/ V2D2 = f2 ( / VD , a /V, D. /V )

T = V2D2 f2 ( / VD , a /V, D. /V )

LIMITATION OF DIMESIONAL
ANALYSIS
Since we have to ourself consider the
dependent variable for the physical
quantities, any physical quantity/s
wrongly considered can lead to error in
results.
It
doesnt
gives
the
complete
information. It just gives relationship
between the selected parameters and
considered physical quantity.

PROBLEM 3
The thrust

## prototype of 600 mm dia at 480 rpm is

300 N with a torque of 30 Nm and
generates about 3 m/s forward speed.
What would be the forward speed, thrust
and torque for a model of 4.8 m dia at 120
rpm at sea level condition.

FORWARD SPEED
T = V2D2 f2 ( / VD , a /V, D. /V )
Dp.p

/ Vp= Dm.m / Vm

V=R=DN
=N

/ 60

/ 30

Dp.Np

/ Vp= Dm.Nm / Vm

## Substituting the values

(0.6 x 480)

3 = ( 4.8 x 120 )

Vm
Vm = 6 m/s

THRUST
Tp / pV2pD2p = Tm / mV2mD2m
Substituting the values
300 / (1.225 x 32 x0.62 ) = Tm / (1.225 x 62
x4.82 )
Tm = 76800 N

TORQUE
Efficiency = output / input
= (thrust x velocity) / (torque x angular velocity)
(Tp x Vp) / (p x p) = (Tm x Vm) / (m x m)
= N / 30
Substituting the values
(300 x 3) / (30 x 480) = (76800 x 6) / (m x 120)
m = 61422 Nm

PROBLEM 3
If the drag (D) of a body is assumed as
D=V2l2 f2 ( V l / )
where is density, is kinematic viscosity of fluid,
l length of body, V velocity of flow, then
determine the drag force experienced by the model
in air when its 1:8 scaled model tested in water
gives drag of 220 N at 12 m/s flow speed.
It is given kinematic viscosity of air is 13 times that
of water and density of water is 810 times that of
air.

D=V2l2 f2 ( V l / )
(V l / )m,a = (V l / )p,w
Vm, a = Vp, w x (lp, w / lm, a) x (m, ax p,w)
Substituting the values
= 12 x (1/8) x 13
Vm, a= 19.2 m/s

## (D /V2l2 )m,a = (D /V2l2 )p,w

Dm,a = Dp,w x (lm,a / lp,w )2 x (Vm,a / Vp,w)2 x (m,a /
p,w)
Substituting the values
Dm,a = 220 x 82 x (19.2 / 12 )2 x (1/810)
Dm,a= 45.9 N

PROBLEM 4
A scaled model of an aircraft with a scale
ratio of 1:40 is tested in a water tunnel and
gives the pressure drop of 7.5 kN/m2 .
Determine the corresponding pressure drop of
real model in air.
Take
Density of air a = 1.24 kg/m3
Density of water w = 1000 kg/m3
Viscosity of air = 0.00018 poise
Viscosity of water = 0.01 poise

## Since Reynolds no. would be same for both model

and prototype,
(( x V x L) / )m,a = (( x V x L) / )p,w
Vp,w / Vm,a = (m.a / p,w) x (Lm,a / Lp,w) x (m,a / p,w)
Substituting the values
Vp,w / Vm,a = (1.24 / 1000) x 40 x (0.01 / 0.00018)
Vp,w / Vm,a = 2.755

## Since Eulers no. is the factor that remains same in both

model and prototype and also consists pressure term it;
can be used to determine the pressure drop.

Vm,a
(Pm,a /

## (V / (P/)1/2 )m,a = (V / (P/)1/2 )p,w

/ (Pm,a / m,a)1/2 = Vp,w / (Pp,w /p,w)1/2

m,a

## Substituting the values,

(Pm,a /1.24)1/2 = (2.755 )x(7500 /1000)1/2
Pm,a = 1.225 N/m2

PROBLEM 5
Determine the scale factor (r) of a
propeller which is capable of
generating 80 kN thrust at 120 rpm if
its scaled model generates 0.5 kN at
480 rpm in a wind tunnel test.

## Dp.Np / Vp= Dm.Nm / Vm

Vm / Vp = (Dm/Dp) x (Nm/Np)
Tp / pV2pD2p = Tm / mV2mD2m

## Substituting the value of (Vm / Vp) and

rearranging
Tm / Tp = (m/p ) x (Dm/Dp)4 x (Nm/Np)2

## Substituting the values

80000/500 = (1 ) x (Dm/Dp)4 x
(120/480)2
(Dm/Dp) = 7.11 = r

PROBLEM 6
The aerofoil of an aircraft is scaled to
1:40 and is tested in a wind tunnel. If
the ratio of kinematic viscosity of
model at real operating condition to
that of prototype is 35 than
determine
the
aircrafts
cruise
altitude.

Vm lm / m = Vp lp / p
Vm/Vp = (lp/l m) x ( m / p) = (1/40) x (35)
Vm/Vp = 0.875
Vm/am= Vp/ap
Vm /Vp = am/ap , am = 297.5 m/s

am = 297.5= ( RT)1/2
T = 220.27 K
T = T0 h
T0 = 15C = 288 K (sea level standard temperature)
= 6.50 K / km ( troposphere lapse rate)
h = 10.42km

SCALE EFFECTS
The difference between the behavior of same
physical quantity for different scale ratios is
termed as scale effect. It can be positive or
negative.
Factors causing scale effect magnitude
- type of problem
- scale ratio
- sometimes only predominant forces are
considered which may cause the considerable
discrepancy.