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Design for Manufacturing

By
Raghavendra(093
303)
Gangadhar(09330
4)
Bhagwath(09330

Design for X Topics

Design for Manufacturing

Design for Production

Design for Assembly

Design for Recycling/Disposal

Design for Life Cycle

Prototyping

Manufacturing cost is a key determinant of


the economic success of a product since
such success depends on the profit margin
earned on each sale of the product and on
how many units of the product the firm can
sell. Profit margin is the difference between
the manufacturers selling price and the cost
of making the product.
Economically successful design is thus about
ensuring
high
product
quality
while
minimizing manufacturing costs and DFM is
one method of achieving this

DFM requires cross-functional


team

DFM utilizes information of several types:

Sketches, drawings, product specifications, and design


alternatives.
A detailed understanding of production and assembly
processes
Estimates of manufacturing costs, production volumes,
and ramp-up timing.
DFM efforts commonly draw
upon expertise from manufacturing engineers ,cost
accountants and production personnel, in addition to
product designers.
DFM is performed throughout the Development process.

DFM Method
1. Estimate the manufacturing costs.
2. Reduce the costs of components.
3. Reduce the costs of assembly.
4. Reduce the costs of supporting production.
5. Consider the impact of DFM decisions on
other factors.

DFM Method
Proposed Design

Estimate the Manufacutring


Costs

Reduce the Costs of


Components

Reduce the Costs of


Assembly

Consider the Impact of DFM


Decisions on Other Factors

Recompute the
Manufacturing Costs

Good
enough
?
Y

Acceptable Design

Reduce the Costs of


Supporting Production

Estimate the Manufacturing


Costs
Equipment

Information Tooling

Raw Materials
Labor

Manufacturing System

Finished Goods

Purchased
Components

Energy

Supplies Services

Waste

INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL OF A MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

Definition of Manufacturing Cost:


Sum of all the expenditures for the inputs of the
system (i.e. purchased components, energy,
raw materials, etc.) and for disposal of the
wastes produced by the system
Unit manufacturing cost is computed by dividing
the

total

manufacturing

costs

for

some

period(usually a quarter or by a year) by the


number of units of the product manufactured
during that period.

Elements of the Manufacturing Cost of a


Product

Manufacturing Cost

Components

Standard

Raw
Material

Custom

Processing

Assembly

Labor

Tooling

Overhead

Equipment
and Tooling

Support

Indirect
Allocation

Fixed Costs vs. Variable Costs


Fixed Costs incurred in a predetermined
amount, regardless of number of units
produced
(i.e. setting up the factory
work area or cost of an injection mold)
Purchasing injection mold is example of fixed
cost.
Variable Costs incurred in direct proportion
to the number of units produced
(i.e. cost of raw materials)
Cost of raw materials is example of variable
cost.

ESTIMATING COSTS OF STANDARD


COMPONENTS

The costs of standard components are estimated by either


Comparing each part to a substantially similar part the firm is
already is producing or purchasing in comparable volumes or
Soliciting price quotes from vendors or suppliers.

ESTIMATING COSTS OF CUSTOM COMPONENTS


When the custom component is a single part , we estimate
its cost by adding up the costs of raw materials ,processing
and tooling.
The raw materials costs can be estimated by computing the
mass of the part, allowing for some scrap, and multiplying by
the cost per unit mass of the raw material .

Processing costs include costs for the operator(s) of the


processing machinery as well as the cost of using the
equipment itself.
Tooling costs are incurred for the design and fabrication of
the cutters,molds,dies or fixtures required to use certain
machinery to fabricate parts
ESTIMATING THE COST OF ASSEMBLY
Manual assembly costs can be estimated by summing the
estimated time of each assembly operation and multiplying
by a labor rate.
Assembly operations require from about 4 seconds to about
60 seconds each, depending upon the size of the parts , the
difficulty of the operation , and the production quantities .

ESTIMATING THE OVERHEAD COSTS


Most firms assign overhead charges by using overhead
rates( also called burden rates).
Overhead rates are typically applied to one or two cost
drivers.
Cost drivers are parameters of the product which are
directly measurable.
Overhead charges are added to direct costs in proportion
to the drivers.
Under the ABC approach , a firm utilizes more and
different cost drivers and allocates all indirect costs to the
associated cost drivers where they fit best.
As a result , the firm may have overhead rates applied to
various dimensions of product complexity

EXAMPLE REPRESENTING CALCULATION OF


MANUFACTURING COST

Reduce the Cost of Components


Understand the Process Constraints and Cost
Drivers
Redesign Components to Eliminate Processing
Steps
Choose the Appropriate Economic Scale for the
Part Process
Standardize Components and Processes
Adhere to Black Box Component Procurement

Understand the Process Constraints and


Cost Drivers
Redesign costly parts with the same
performance while avoiding high
manufacturing costs.
Work closely with design engineersraise
awareness of difficult operations and high
costs.

Redesign Components to Eliminate


Processing Steps
Reduce the number of steps of
the production process
Eliminate unnecessary steps.
Use substitution steps, where
applicable.
Analysis Tool Process Flow
Chart and Value Stream
Mapping

Choose the Appropriate Economic Scale


for the Part Process
Economies of Scale As production volume
increases, manufacturing costs usually
decrease.
Fixed costs divided among more
units.
Variable costs are lower since the
firm can use more efficient
processes and equipment.

Standardize Components and Processes


Economies of Scale The unit
cost of a component decreases
as the production volume
increases.
Standard Componentscommon
to more than one product
Analysis tools group
technology and mass
customization

Adhere to Black Box Component


Procurement
Customers
Requirement

BLACK BOX

Out Put

Black boxonly give a description of what


the component has to do, not how to
achieve it.
Successful black box design requires clear
definitions of the functions, interfaces, and
interactions of each component.

Reduce the Costs of


Assembly
Design for Assembly (DFA) index
Integrated Parts (Advantages and
Disadvantages)
Maximize Ease of Assembly
Consider Customer Assembly

The Assembly from Heaven*


Can be assembled one-handed by a blind
person
wearing a boxing glove
Is stable and self-aligning
Tolerances are loose and forgiving
Few fasteners
Few tools and fixtures
Parts presented in the right orientation
Parts asymmetric for easy feeding

Design for Assembly Index

(Theoretical minimum number of parts) x (3 seconds)


DFA index =
Estimated total assembly time

Determining the Theoretical Minimum


Number of Parts
Does the part need to move relative to the
rest of the assembly?
Must the part be made of a different
material from the rest of the assembly for
fundamental physical reasons?
Does the part have to be separated from
the assembly for assembly access,
replacement, or repair?

Integrated Part Design

Home Hot Water System Family Part

Comparison between Assembled &


Integrated Parts

Advantages of Integrated Parts


Do not have to be assembled
Often less expensive to fabricate rather
than the sum of each individual part
Allows critical geometric features to be
controlled by the part fabrication process
versus a similar assembly process

Disadvantages of Integrated Parts


Conflict with other sound approaches to
minimize costs
Not always a wise strategy

Maximize Ease of Assembly


Part is inserted from the top
of the assembly
Part is self-aligning
Part does not need to be
oriented
Part requires only one hand
for assembly
Part requires no tools
Part is assembled in a single,
linear motion
Part is secured immediately
upon insertion

Consider Customer Assembly


Customers will tolerate some
assembly
Design product so that
customers can easily and
assemble correctly
Customers will likely ignore
directions

DFMA Example

DFMA-Example 1 Analysis

DFMA Worksheet for Datum Design

Item

Base

3.5

2.9

Bush

12.3

10.2

Motor Subassembly

9.5

7.9

Motor Screw

21.0

17.5

Sensor Subassembly

8.5

7.1

Setscrew

10.6

8.8

Standoff

16.0

13.3

End plate

8.4

7.0

End-plate screw

16.6

13.8

Plastic bush

3.5

2.9

Thread lead

5.0

4.2

Reorient

4.5

3.8

Cover

9.4

7.9

Cover Screw

34.2

26.0

TOTALS

19

160.0

133.0

Number

Theoretical Part
Count

Assembly Time(s)

Assembly Cost
(cents)

DFMA Example 1 Analysis

Total actual assembly Time T1= 163 s

Theoretical total part count is 4 and average assembly time is 3 s. Theoretical assembly time
T2= 4 x 3 s = 12 s

Calculate Design Efficiency :

T2
12 s

0.07362
T1
163s

or 7.362%

DFMA Recommended
redesign

Bushes are integral to the base


Snap-on plastic cover replaces
standoff,
cover ,plastic bush, six screws.
Using pilot point screw to fix the
base, which redesign to be selfalignment.

DFMA- An Improved Design

DFMA Worksheet for an


Improved Design

Base

3.5

2.9

Motor
Subassembly
Motor Screw

4.5

3.8

12.0

10.0

8.5

7.1

Sensor
Subassembly
Setscrew

8.5

7.1

Thread leads

5.0

4.2

Plastic Cover

4.0

3.3

TOTALS

46.0

38.4

Number

Theoretical
Part Count

Assembly Cost
(cents)

Item

Assembly
Time(s)

DFMA Cost Differential


Worksheet
.

New Design

Cost,$

Item

Cost, $

12.91

Base (nylon)

13.43

Bush(2)

2.40

Motor Screw(2)

0.20

Motor Screw(2)

0.20

Setscrew

0.10

Setscrew

0.10

Standoff(2)

5.19

Endplate

5.89

End-plate Screw

0.20

Plastic bush

0.10

Cover

8.05

Plastic Cover (include


tooling)

8.00

Cover screw(4)

0.40

Totals

35.44

21.73

Old Design

Item

Base (Aluminum)

Improved Assembly Design


Efficiency

Total actual assembly Time T1= 46 s


Theoretical total part count is 4 and
average assembly time is 3 s.
Theoretical assembly time T2= 4 x 3 s =
12 s
Calculate Design Efficiency :

T2
12 s

0.26087
T1
46 s

or 26.087%

DFMA Calculate Total


Saving
Total Saving =
Saving from Assembly Time
Reduction
+ Saving from parts reduction
= $0.95 + $13.71
= $14.66

Proposed Design

Estimate the Manufacutring


Costs

Reduce the Costs of


Components

Reduce the Costs of


Assembly

Consider the Impact of DFM


Decisions on Other Factors

Recompute the
Manufacturing Costs

Good
enough
?
Y

Acceptable Design

Reduce the Costs of


Supporting Production

3.Reduce the Costs of


Supporting Production
Reduction in no of parts- reduction
in inventory.
Reduction in assembly contentreduces no of workers
Standardizing no of parts- reduces
demands on engineering support
and quality control.

Minimize Systemic
Complexity
Production system consist- many
suppliers, parts,people,processes.
Needs to be monitered.Comlexicity is
driven by design.
Minimize Systemic Complexity
(inputs, outputs, and transforming
processes)
Use smart design decisions

Error Proofing
Anticipate possible failure modes
Take appropriate corrective actions in the early stages
Use color coding to easily identify similar looking, but
different parts

5.Consider the Impact of DFM


Decisions on Other Factors

Development Time
Development Cost
Product Quality
External Factors
Component reuse
Life cycle costscost of toxic disposal.
warranty period cost.

Conclusion
DFM is aimed at reducing
manufacturing cost while
simultaneously improving product
quality,development time, and
development cost.

References
Ulrich, K. & Eppinger, S. (2000).
Product
Design and Development. Boston,
MA:
Irwin McGraw-Hill.
Product Design for Assembly,
Geoffrey Boothroyd and Peter
Dewhurst, 1991, Boothroyd Dewhurst
Inc.

Thank you