Anda di halaman 1dari 61

Membran sel

The Cell
Membrane

CellMembrane:
AtVeryHigh
Magnification
&incolor

Membrane Structure

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/CellMembranes.html

Membran sel..

Fungsi:

Membatasiisiseldarilingkungannya
Mengaturpermeabilitasterhadapsenyawasenyawa/ionionygmelewatinya
diaturolehproteinintegral
Proteinselaputbfgssbgproteinpengenal(reseptor)molekul2khusus(hormon,
antigen,metabolit)&agensiakhas(bakteri,virusetc)
Proteinselaputbfgssbgenzimkhusus,co.pdselaputmitokondria,kloroplas,RE,
badangolgi,membranplasma
Sebagaireseptorthdpperubahanlingkunganco.suhu,intensitascahayaetc.

Membran sel.

Cont.

Selaputplasmamemp.Sifathidrofobikdibag.tengah&
hidrofilikdipermukaanluarmaupundipermukaansitosolik.
Selaputplasmatdrdrsenyawa2lipid(memberisifat
hidrofobikmenentukanstruktur),proteinmenentukanfgs
membran,&KH(memberisifathidrofilik).
Komposisipenyusunmembranbervariasisesuaidgmacam
selaputnya&dptberubahsesuaitingkatperkenmbangansel,
umurdanlingkungan
www.biologie.unihamburg.de/bonline/e22/22.htm

Membran sel.Cont.

Fluidlikecompositionslikesoapbubbles:
2lapislipid
Proteintertanampdlaplipid(dsbtprotein
transmembrane)
Proteinygmengapungdiantaralipid(dsbtprotein
integral)
Proteinsygtdptpdbagluarlipidbilayer(peripheral).

Lipid membran
Sebagianbesartssnatasphospholipid
Phospholipidtssnatasglycerol&2asamlemak+PO4
group
PLipidsmerupakanmolekulpolar

PLipidsarerepresentedlikethis
Textpg.81

Lipid membran
bentukBilayer
Outsidelayer

InsideLayer

Model molekul phospholipid


amphipatic

phosphate (hydrophilic) -head


glycerol
asam lemak (hydrophobic) - tail

Protein membran
Integral: embedded within bilayer
Peripheral: reside outside hydrophobic region of
lipids

Protein membran.

Textpg80

cont.

Protein membran integral

Protein membran peripheral

Integral

Model membran
Fluid Mosaic Model 1972 Singer & Nicolson :
lipid diatur dlm struktur 2 lapis dg protein
yg berbeda2 tertanam / menempel pada
lipid (mosaik), dimana protein & fosfolipid
dpt bergerak bebas pada membran (fluid).

FluidMosaicMembrane

Textpg80

FluidMosaic.cont.
Components of a phospholipid bilayer.
1. phospholipids
2. proteins - enzymes, receptors,
transport.
3. glycolipids
4. glycoproteins
5. carbohydrates
6. cholesterol

MembraneFunctions
allowsfordifferentconditionsbetween
insideandoutsideofcell
subdividescellintocompartmentswith
differentinternalconditions
allowsreleaseofsubstancesfromcellvia
vesiclefusionwithoutermembrane:
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/exocyt.gif

Fluiditasmembran
Bagmanadrmembranyg
memberikancirikhasfluid/
cair?

Membrane hrs tetap dlm


keadaan cair utk fgs
perakitan & fgs biologis
Bakteri & yeast beradaptasi
pd temperatur yg
bervariasi dg merubah pjg
& ketidakjenuhan ekor
hidrofobiknya, makin tdk
jenuh = makin cair
Sel hwn mengatur fluiditas dg
cholesterol

Cholesterolmembuatlipidbilayerkurangberbentuk&
menurunkanpermeabilitasthdpmolekulkecillarutairdg
imobilisasiparsialmolekulfosfolipidpdmsg2molekulkolesterol.
Tanpacholesterol,selhwnmemerlukanddgsel.

Permeabilitasmembran
Membranes are
impermeable to
certain molecules.
How do these
molecules enter the
cell?

Howtogetothermoleculesacross
membranes??
Transport proteins Transports
molecules or ions across biological
membranes
3 types of transport proteins:
proteins
1. uniport
2. symport
3. antiport

Uniport Transport Protein


Carriesasinglesoluteacrossthe
membrane.

extracellular
fluid

intracellular
fluid

Symport Transport Protein


Translocate 2 different solutes simultaneously in
same direction.

extracellular
fluid

intracellular
fluid

Antiport Transport Protein


Exchanges 2 solutes by transporting
them in opposite directions.
directions
extracellular
fluid

intracellular
fluid

Therearetwowaysthatthemoleculestypicallymovethrough
themembrane:
passivetransportandactivetransport
Activetransportrequiresthatthecelluseenergythatithas
obtainedfromfoodtomovethemolecules(orlargerparticles)
throughthecellmembrane.
Passivetransportdoesnotrequiresuchanenergy
expenditure,andoccursspontaneously.

Mekanismetransportmembran
I.PassiveTransport
Difusiperpindahan substansi (molekul) dg turunnya
gradien konsentrasi dari daerah dg konsentrasi
molekul tinggi ke daerah dg konsentrasi molekul
rendah.
rendah
Facilitateddiffusiontipe passive transport yg
menggunakan bantuan transport proteins.
Osmosis

Osmosis
Perpindahanairmelewati
membransemipermeable.
Airbergerakdrkonsentrasi
airtinggikekonsentrasiair
rendah.
Example:Saltinwater,cell
membraneisbarrier.Salt
willNOTmoveacross
membrane,waterwill.

Question:
Whats in a Solution?
Answer:
solute

solvent

solution

Molekul terlarut + pelarut larutan


NaCl

H20

saltwater

OsmosispadamediaHypertonic
(larutandgkonsentrasizatterlaruttinggi)

cell

Hypertonicsolutionsshrinkcells

OsmosispadamediaHypotonic
(larutandgkonsentrasizatterlarutrendah)

Hypotonicsolutionsswellcells

Movement of H2O
Water will ALWAYS diffuses down a concentration
gradient from a HYPOTONIC solution to a
HYPERTONIC solution.
solution

ALWAYS REMEMBER
HYPOTONIC
HYPERTONIC

Selhewan
Sel hewan diletakkan ke dalam larutan
hipotonik akan mengalami HEMOLYSIS (sel
pecah).
Sel hewan diletakkan ke dalamin larutan
hipertonik akan mengkerut.
mengkerut
hemolisis

Red
Blood
Cells

Seltumbuhan
Firmness or tension (vacuole full) that is
found in plant cells (cell wall) that are in a
hypotonic environment is called TURGID.
This process is called TURGOR PRESSURE.
Water

Water

Water

Central
Vacuole

Water

When the plasma membrane pulls away


from the cell wall (vacuole empty) in a
hypertonic environment (loss of water) is
called PLASMOLYSIS
Water

Water
plasma membrane

Cell
Wall

Water

Diffusionviacarrierproteins
(facilitateddiffusion)

The solute molecules are bound to a specific protein carrier


(permease), which carries them across

is driven by potential energy of a concentration gradient.

e.g.movementpfglucoseintoredbloodcells,whichisnotinhibitedby
respiratoryinhibitors

Glucose Transporter:
How it works..
glucosebindstooutsideof
transporter(exteriorside
withhigherglucoseconc.)
glucosebindingcausesa
conform.changein
protein
glucosedropsoffinside
cell
proteinreassumes1st
configuration

Types of Protein Transporters:


Ion Channels

workbyfacilitateddiffusionNoEnergy!
dealwithsmallmolecules...ions
openporesaregatedCanchangeshape.
importantincellcommunication

Ion Channels
Workfast:Noconform.changesneeded
Notsimpleporesinmembrane:
specifictodifferentions(Na,K,Ca...)
Toxins,drugsmayaffectchannels
saxitoxin,tetrodotoxin
cysticfibrosis

Toxinshowtheywork

MembraneTransportMechanisms
II.ActiveTransport
ActivetransportThe movement of molecules (small
or large) across the plasma membrane & against
concentrationgradient in which energy (ATP, PEP,light
energy,electrontransport) is required.
required
Examples:
1.
2.
3.

Sodium (Na) - Potassium (K) Pump


Exocytosis
Endocytosis

Sodium-Potassium Pump
The mechanism that uses energy (active
transport) released from splitting ATP to
transport Sodium (Na+) out of and
Potassium (K+) into cells.
intracellular
fluid

extracellular
fluid

K+

K+

Na+

Na+

Sodium-Potassium Pump.
cont.

http://www.cat.cc.md.us/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/eustruct/sppump.html

NaKPumpModel:PartI
3Na+bindtoinnerregionofprotein
Na+bindingtriggersphosphorylationof
protein.ATPADP+Pi
Phosphorylationcausesconformation
changeandNa+bindingsitefacesoutside
3Na+releasedtooutside

NaKActivePump:PartII
2K+ionsonoutsideareabletobind
K+bindingcausesdephosphorylationand
newconformationchange
2K+ionsexposedtoinsideandreleased
CyclicprocessusesATPenergytodriveNa
&Kiontransportagainstconc.Gradient

Question: How are large molecules


transported into and out of the
plasma membranes?
Answer: Exocytosis and Endocytosis

Endocytosis
Transportsmacromoleculesandlargeparticlesintothe
cell.
Partofthemembraneengulfstheparticleandfoldsinward
tobudoff.
The energy requiring movement of particles
(foreign or natural) into the cell.
3 types of endocytosis:
A. Phagocytosis
B. Pinocytosis
C. Receptor-mediated endocytosis

PuttingOuttheGarbage
Vesicles(lysosomes,othersecretory
vesicles)canfusewiththemembraneand
openupthetheoutside

A. Phagocytosis
Cell eating: cells engulf particles with
pseudopodia and pinches off a food
Bacteria
vacuole.
Two examples:
1. White Blood Cell
2. Amoeba

Food
Vacuole

White Blood Cell

Phagocytosis.

cont.

Invaginationofmembranesurroundingtheparticles.
depressionthenpinchedofftoformphagocyticvacuole.
Lysosomesreleasetheirenzymes
Usefulproductsareabsorbedandundigestedmatteris
expelledbyexocytosis.

B. Pinocytosis
Cell drinking: droplets of extracellular
fluid are absorbed into the cell by
small vesicles.
vesicles
Example:
1. Fungi

Hyphae

Food Particles

Pinocytosis....

cont.

C. Receptor-Mediated
Endocytosis
Importing specific macromolecules
(hormones) into the cell by the inward
budding of vesicles formed from coated
pits (receptors).

Liver Cell

Hormones
Receptors

Exocytosis
Cell secretes macromolecules (proteins and
other biochemicals) out of cell
Part of the Endomembrane System: the
fusion of transport vesicles with plasma
membrane.
replacetheplasmamembranethathavebeen
removedbyendocytosisortoaddnewmembrane

Exocytosis
(CellularSecretion)

Membrane Permeability
1)lipidsolublesolutesgothroughfaster
1) smallermoleculesgofaster
1)uncharged&weaklychargedgofaster

2)Channelsorporesmayalsoexistin
1

membranetoallowtransport

Cellular Membranes

REVIEW
Importance of Membranes
Membrane Structure
Proteins
Fluid Mosaic model
Permeability
Types of Transport
Passive and Active

Membrane Structure
The cell is highly organized with many functional units or organelles inside. Most of
these units are limited by one or more membranes. To perform the functions of an
organelle, the membrane is specialized in that it contains specific proteins and lipid
components that enable it to perform its unique roles.
In essence membranes are essential for the integrity and function of the cell.
Membrane functions:
be protective
regulate transport in and out of cell or organelle
allow selective receptivity and signal transduction by providing transmembrane
receptors that bind signaling molecules
allow cell recognition
provide anchoring sites for cytoskeletal components. This allows the cell to
maintain its shape and perhaps move to distant sites.
provide a stable site for the binding and catalysis of enzymes.
regulate the fusion of the membrane with other membranes in the cell via
specialized junctions
provide a passageway across the membrane for certain molecules
allow directed cell or organelle motility