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Cyclone

What are Cyclones?

"Cyclone" is an intense whirl in the atmosphere


with very strong winds circulating around it in
anti-clockwise direction in the Northern
Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the
Southern Hemisphere.

The amount of the pressure drop in the centre


and the rate at which it increases outwards gives
the intensity of the cyclones and the strength of
winds.

Criteria followed to classify


cyclones

As adopted by
Meteorological
Department of India

S.No.

Disturbance

1 knot - 1.85 km per hour

Wind Speed (Knots)

1.

Low

Less than 17.

2.

Depression

17-27(32-50 km/h)

3.

Deep Depression

28-33 (51-62 km/h)

4.

Cyclonic storm

34-47 (63-88 km/h)


48-63-(89-118 km/h)

5.

Severe cyclonic storm with


a core of Hurricane
winds

How to avoid the


catastrophe?

Effective Cyclone Disaster Prevention


and Mitigation Plan requires:

A Cyclone Forecast - and Warning Service.


Rapid dissemination of warnings to the
Government Agencies, Marine interests like the
Ports, Fisheries and Shipping and to General
Public.
Organisations to construct Cyclone Shelters in
the cyclone-prone areas and ready machinery
for evacuation of people to safer areas.
Community preparedness at all levels to meet
the exigencies.

Cyclone warning

"Two Stage Warning Scheme

The first stage warning known as the "Cyclone Alert" is


issued 48 hours in advance of the expected
commencement of the adverse weather over the coastal
areas.
The second stage warning known as the "Cyclone
Warning" is issued 24 hours in advance.
Both cyclone "Alert" and "Warning" messages are
passed to the AIR stations for repeated broadcast.

Catastrophic Failures

Foundations

The uplift forces from


cyclone winds can
sometimes pull buildings
completely out of the
ground.
In contrast to designing
for gravity loads, the
lighter the building the
larger (or heavier) the
foundation needs to be in
cyclone resistant
design.

Damaging Effects of
Cyclone on Houses

Due to the
high wind
pressure and
improper
connection of
the house to
the footings it
can be blown
away.

CYCLONES - Do's & Dont's

Before the Cyclone season:

Check the house; secure loose tiles, carry out repair


works for doors and windows
Remove dead woods or dying trees close to the house;
anchor removable objects like lumber piles, loose tin
sheds, loose bricks, garbage cans, sign-boards etc.
which can fly in strong winds
Keep some wooden boards ready so that glass windows
can be boarded if needed
Demolish condemned buildings
Keep some dry non-perishable food always ready for
emergency use

CYCLONES - Do's & Dont's

When Evacuation is instructed

Pack essentials for yourself and your family to last you a


few days, including medicines, special foods for babies
and children or elders.
Head for the proper shelter or evacuation points
indicated for your area.
Do not worry about your property
At the shelter follow instructions of the person in charge.
Remain in the shelter until you have been informed to
leave

CYCLONES - Do's & Dont's

Post-cyclone measures

You should remain in the shelter until informed


that you can return to your home.
Strictly avoid any loose and dangling wires
from the lamp posts.
Clear debris from your premises immediately.
Report the correct loss to appropriate
authorities

Landslides
A landslide is an
catastrophic event where a
block of earthen mass
slides downhill.
Cause significant loss of
life and billions of dollars
each year.

12

Landslides: Introduction

Consequences of Landslides
Injury
Death
Economic Loss
Disruption to Transport Links

Stability Assessment

Landslid
e
Preventi
ve
Measure
s

Temporarily
Safe

Safe
at the moment
13

Landslide
Warning

Remedial Measures

Landsli
de
Consequence
Remove Consequence

14

15

Slope before failure at Couva

Slope after Landslide

16

Principles of Disaster
Management

Training :

Identification of Training needs.


Scope of Training programmes.
Training policy.
Implementation of training.

Principles of Disaster
Management
Training (Contd.):
Design of training should be compatible to
support tasks required to be performed after
a Disaster at three levels.
Foundational Training
Team Training
Combined Organizational Training.

National Disaster Management Framework


Ministry of Home Affairs - GoI
To make Disaster Management an integral part of National
Development Agenda
To promote Awareness and Education in Disaster Management
To promote Human Resource Development in Disaster Management
(master plan for training and capacity building)
To develop Institutional Frameworks at the National and State levels
for mainstreaming disaster management
To establish multi-hazard preparedness, mitigation and prevention
plans at all levels
To enhance capacities at all levels for multi-hazard preparedness and
response

POPULATION
GROWTH

What is a population?
A group of organism of the same species
living in the same habitat
at the same time
where they can freely interbreed

2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

How can populations


change?
Natality
Mortality
Immigration
Emigration

2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

Natality
Increases population size
Each species will have its own maximum
birth rate
Maximum birth rates are seen when
conditions are ideal
This can lead to exponential growth

2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

Mortality
Mortality reduces population growth
It operates more when conditions are not
ideal
Overcrowding leading to competition,
spread of infectious disease

2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

Immigration
It increase population growth
It operates when populations are not
completely isolated

2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

Emigration
It decrease population growth
It operates when populations are not
completely isolated

2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

Interactions
Population growth =
(Natality + Immigration) - (Mortality +
Emigration)

2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

Population growth
K

3
2

Numbers

1
2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

Time

Phases of population
growth

Phase 1: Log or exponential phase


Unlimited population growth
The intrinsic rate of increase (r)
Abundant food, no disease, no predators
etc
Phase 2: Decline or transitional phase
Limiting factors slowing population growth
2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

Phase 3
Plateau or stationary phase
No growth
The limiting factors balance the
populations capacity to increase
The population reaches the Carrying
Capacity (K) of the environment
Added limiting factors will lower K
Removing a limiting factor will raise K

2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

Factors affecting the


carrying capacity
Food supply
Infectious disease/parasites
Competition
Predation
Nesting sites

2010 Paul Billiet ODWS