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# Vectors

Engr. E. D. Dimaunahan

## 1. The system of units used by scientists and

engineers around the world is commonly called?
2. Write the equivalent of the following Greek
Prefixes?
Micro, mili, kilo, nano

## 3. Differentiate a scalar and

vector quantities.
4. Other name for vector sum.
5. Give examples of scalar and
vector quantities.

## Physics deals with quantities that have both size and

direction
A vector is a mathematical object with size and
direction
A vector quantity is a quantity that can be represented
by a vector

## Scalars are manipulated with ordinary algebra

VECTORS
resultant vector the vector sum of two or more
concurrent vectors.
equilibrant vector a single vector that balances two
or more concurrent vectors.
equivalent vectors two vectors that have the same
magnitude and direction.
parallel vectors two vectors that have the same
direction.
anti-parallel vectors two vectors that have opposite
directions.
negative of a vector a vector that has the same
magnitude as but opposite the direction of another
vector.

## The simplest example is a displacement vector

If a particle changes position from A to B, we represent
this by a vector arrow pointing from A to B

## In (a) we see that all three arrows have

the same magnitude and direction: they
are identical displacement vectors.
In (b) we see that all three paths
correspond to the same displacement
vector. The vector tells us nothing about
the actual path that was taken between
A and B.

o

## Is the result of performing vector addition

Represents the net displacement of two or more
displacement vectors

## 72.4 m, 32 degrees east of north

57.3 m, 36 degrees south of
west
17.8 m straight south

o

Eq. (3-2)

Figure (3-3)

o

Figure (3-4)

direction

subtraction

Eq. (3-4)

## These rules hold for all vectors, whether they represent

displacement, velocity, etc.
Only vectors of the same kind can be added
o

## (distance) + (velocity) does not

Answer:
(a) 3 m + 4 m = 7 m

(b) 4 m - 3 m = 1 m

## Rather than using a graphical method, vectors can be

added by components
o

## The process of finding components is called resolving

the vector
The components of a vector
can be positive or negative.
They are unchanged if the
vector is shifted in any
direction (but not rotated).

## Where is the angle the vector makes with the positive

x axis, and a is the vector length
The length and angle can also be found if the
components are known

## In the three dimensional case we need more

components to specify a vector
o

(a,,) or (ax,ay,az)

## Know the three basic trigonometric functions

Figure (3-11)
2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

A unit vector
o

Has magnitude 1

o

o

Eq. (3-9)

## Answer: (a) positive, positive

(c) positive, positive

## Vectors are independent of the

coordinate system used to measure
them
We can rotate the coordinate system,
without rotating the vector, and the
vector remains the same

## All such coordinate systems are

equally valid

Multiplying Vectors

o

## Its direction is the same as vector z, or opposite if c is

negative
To achieve this, we can simply multiply each of the
components of vector z by c

## To divide a vector by a scalar we multiply by 1/c

Example Multiply vector z by 5

z = -3 i + 5 j

5 z = -15 i + 25 j

Multiplying Vectors

o

## Also called the dot product

Results in a scalar, where a and b are magnitudes and is
the angle between the directions of the two vectors:

## The commutative law applies, and we can do the dot

product in component form

Multiplying Vectors

## A dot product is: the product of the magnitude of one

vector times the scalar component of the other vector in
the direction of the first vector
Eq. (3-21)

## Either projection of one

vector onto the other can
be used
To multiply a vector by the
projection, multiply the
magnitudes
2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Multiplying Vectors

(b) 0 degrees

## (c) 180 degrees

Multiplying Vectors

o

## The cross product of two vectors with magnitudes a & b,

separated by angle , produces a vector with magnitude:
Eq. (3-24)

## Direction is determined by the right-hand rule

Place vectors tail-to-tail, sweep fingers from the first to
the second, and thumb points in the direction of the
resultant vector

Multiplying Vectors

The upper shows vector a cross vector b, the lower shows vector b cross vector a

Multiplying Vectors

## To evaluate, we distribute over components:

Therefore, by expanding:

Multiplying Vectors

## Answer: (a) 0 degrees

(b) 90 degrees

UNIT VECTOR
A unit vector is a vector with a magnitude of exactly
1 and points in a particular direction.
A vector in its regular
form or magnitude-angle
form, such as

+y

i
+x

+z

## can be expressed in unit

vector form or rectangular
form.

A (8.66m)i (5.00m) j

VECTOR ADDITION

+y

+y

A y j

A
A z k
+z

B
A x i

+x

+x

B y j

B x i
B Z k
+z

C AB

## VECTOR PRODUCTS: Scalar/Dot Product

Given the following vectors:

A Ax i Ay j Az k

B Bx i B y j Bz k

## The scalar (or dot) product of these vectors is defined as:

A B AB cos
Where:

A is the magnitude of A

B is the magnitude of B

## VECTOR PRODUCTS: Scalar/Dot Product

A B AB cos
i i (1)(1) cos 0 1
i j (1)(1) cos 90 0
i k (1)(1) cos 90 0
j i (1)(1) cos 90 0
j j (1)(1) cos 0 1
j k (1)(1) cos 90 0

k i (1)(1) cos 90 0
k j (1)(1) cos 90 0
k k (1)(1) cos 0 1

## VECTOR PRODUCTS: Scalar/Dot Product

A B AB cos

A Ax i Ay j Az k

A B

A B

B Bx i B y j Bz k

A i A
x

j Az k Bx i B y j Bz k

Ax Bx Ay By Az Bz

A B

## B (8m) i (12m) j (4m) k

Ax Bx Ay By Az Bz

A B [(10m)(8m)] [(8m)(12m)] [(6m)(4m)]

A B 80m 2 96m 2 24m 2

2
A B 40m

A B AB cos
40

200

cos

224 cos
40
200 224

79.11

## VECTOR PRODUCTS: vector/Cross Product

Given the following vectors:

A Ax i Ay j Az k

B Bx i B y j Bz k

## The vector (or cross) product of these vectors is defined

as:

A B AB sin

Where:

A is the magnitude of A

B is the magnitude of B

## VECTOR PRODUCTS: Vector/Cross Product

A B AB sin
i i (1)(1) sin 0 0
i j (1)(1) sin 90 k
i k (1)(1) sin 90 j

k i (1)(1) sin 90 j

j i (1)(1) sin 90 k

k k (1)(1) sin 0 0

j j (1)(1) sin 0 0
j k (1)(1) sin 90 i

k j (1)(1) sin 90 i

## VECTOR PRODUCTS: Vector/Cross Product

A B AB sin

A Ax i Ay j Az k

A B

A i A
x

B Bx i B y j Bz k

j Az k Bx i B y j Bz k

A B Ay Bz Az By i Az Bx Ax Bz j Ax By Ay Bx k

## B (8m) i (12m) j (4m) k

A B Ay Bz Az By i Az Bx Ax Bz j Ax By Ay Bx k

A B 32 72 i 48 40 j 120 (64) k

2
2
2
A B 40 m i 88 m j 184 m k

PROBLEM:

PROBLEM:
In the figure at right, a cube is
placed so that one corner (point
O) is at the origin and three
edges are along the +x +y, and
+z axes of a coordinate system.
Use unit vectors to find the
(a) angle between the edge
along the z-axis (line OQ) and
the diagonal of the cube (line
OP).
(b) angle between the diagonal
of a face (line OR) and line OP.