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Introduction

Electrified railway system as a special power user,


has the following features
- Load current is non linear,
- non-sinusoidal
- no symmetry,
- use of uncontrolled rectification to feed the
traction load contributes to the total unbalance
seen from the three phase supply
- produce reactive power,
- High level harmonics and
- negative sequence current.
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Out of the above, presence of high

degree of harmonic current on


traction load is more important.
A simple and cost effective and
practical method is suggested here for
reducing current harmonics
two no of passive filters-ie single
tuned and high pass filter- is
suggested here
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Electric Traction System


Electric traction supply for Description
25kV, 50Hz
single-phase AC supply is fed from the
state utilities.
The traction sub-stations generally
spaced 30-40 kM apart and they take
power from any two phases of the power
utility transmission lines.
They have an input voltage of
220/166/132/110 kV, which is step down
to single phase 25kV using traction
transformers
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Typical feeding arrangement


of 25kV electrified railway
system

T Y P IC A L S C H E M A T IC O F T R A C T IO N P O W E R S U P P L Y F E E D IN G A R R A N G E M E N T

IN C O M IN G E H V S U P P L Y
(2 2 0 /1 3 2 /1 1 0 /1 6 6 k v
DP
IS O L A T O R

CT

C IR C U IT B R E A K E R
L IG H T N IN G
ARRESTER
T R A C T IO N
TRANSFORM ER

25 kv
CT
T O B U R IE D R A IL &
N E A R E S T R U N N IN G
TRACK
2 5 K V S P IS O L A T O R
N O R M A L LY C L O S E D

4 2 k v L IG H T N IN G
ARRESTER
2 5 k v C IR C U IT B R E A K E R
25 kv C T
2 5 k v S P IS O L A T O R
1 0 0 k v a , 2 5 k v /2 4 0 V L T S U P P L Y
2 5 k v S P IS O L A T O R T R A N S F O R M E R
25 kv C T

2 5 K V /1 1 0 V P T
(P R O T E C T IO N )

2 5 k v F E E D E R C IR C U IT B R E A K E R
2 5 k v S P IS O L A T O R
25 kv B U S C O U PLER
IN T E R R U P T O R
(N O R M A L O P E N )
2 5 k v IN T E R R U P T O R
2 5 k v S P IS O L A T O R
25 kv PT

S U B S E C T IO N IN G &
P A R A L L E L IN G S T A T IO N (S S P )

4 2 K V L A S T A T IO N T Y P E :
HEAVY DUTY

SUB - SECTOR

S E C T IO N IN G A N D P A R A L L E L IN G P O S T (s p ) S P
SU B - SEC TO R
SUB - SECTOR
SECTOR

B R ID G IN G
IN T E R R U P T O R

Block Diagram of Electric


locomotive

25 kv Conventional OHE system


25 kVOHE

TSS

AC Loco

Issues due to Harmonics in


Electric traction

Harmonic Analysis

Load current measured at the feeder for one day


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Voltage measured at the feeder for one day


11

Current harmonics at the feeder


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The peak current is 409 A and peak THD is 99.9%.


The peak value of 3rd harmonic is 110% and average value
comes to 30%.
3rd and 17th harmonic frequencies is present along with the
fundamental.
Also a lesser amount of 7th and 15th harmonic frequencies
are present

presence of these harmonics creates problems in the


locomotive and the traction substation equipment

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Design of harmonic filter


Passive filter comprising capacitor and inductor is
suggested to provide at traction substation:
it is simple, cheap and economical
its maintenance and operation is easy
2 passive filters are introduced on 25 side of traction
substation one is Single tuned Filter and other is High
pass filter. It is connected in parallel with nonlinear
load to provide low-impedance paths for specific
harmonic frequencies thus resulting in absorbing the
dominant harmonic currents flowing out of the load

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single tuned passive LC filter is

designed for eliminating 3rd harmonic


frequency and a high pass filter is
designed for cancelling 17th and other
higher order harmonics

15

LC filter is designed using the following


equations
X filter
=KV2/MVar---------(1)
Where X
X

filter

=X

filter
cap

X cap = h2 X

is the net reactance of the filter


X L ------------------- (2)
filter

---------------- (3)

Where h= tuned harmonic frequency.

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LC filter connected to traction substation


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simulation current harmonics after introduction of filter

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CONCLUSION
Current Harmonic issues due to traction
load due to the use of power semiconductor
switches in ac locomotives is reduced by
introducing a single tuned harmonic filter
designed to eliminate the 3rd harmonic
frequency and a high pass filter designed to
eliminate 17thharmonic frequency contents.
The analysis of passive filtering was made
in MATLAB-SIMULINK environment

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REFERENCES
[1] Xiangzheng Xu, Baichao Chen, Study on Synthesis Control of Power Quality for
Electrified Railway, Workshop on Power Electronics and Intelligent Transportation System,
110-112, Aug 2008
[2] G. Celli, F. Pilo, S. B. Tennakoon, Voltage regulation on 25kV ac railway systems by
using thyristor switched capacitor, Proceedings of International conference on Harmonics and
Quality of Power, pp633-638, Vol.2, 2000
[3] Najwa Mahamad, C. M. Hadzer and SyafrudinMasri, Application of LC Filter in
Harmonics Reduction Proceedings of National Power &Energy Conference (PECon) 2004,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[4] T. Habetler, A. Bueno, J. M. Aller and J. Restrepo, Harmonic and Balance Compensation
using Instantaneous Active and Reactive Power Control on Electric Railway Systems,
Proceedings of Applied Power Conference and Exposition, 1139-1144 2010 IEEE Deng Mingli, WU Guang-ning, Zhang Xueyuan, Fan Chun-Lei, HeChang-hong, Ye Qiang, The
simulation analysis of harmonics and Negative sequence with Scott wiring transformer, 2008
International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis, Beijing, China,

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[5] R.Barnes, K.T. Wong, Unbalance and harmonic studies for the Channel Tunnel
railway system, IEE PROCEEDINGS-B on Electric Power Application, pp 41-50, Vol.
138, No. 2, March 1991.
[6] P. Kiss and A. Dn, The Application of the Double Domain Simulation by Different
Harmonic Filtering Methods of 25 kV Electric Traction Systems International
conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, pp 1-6, 2008.IEEE
[7] Roger C Dugan,Mark F McGranaghan, Surya Santoso, H Wayne Beaty, Electrical
Power System Quality 2nd edition, Tata McGraw Hill
[8] MIHAELA POPESCU, ALEXANDRU BITOLEANU, MIRCEA DOBRICEANU
Harmonic Current Reduction in Railway Systems WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on
SYSTEMS
[9] Vasanthi.V, S.Ashok Harmonic filter for Electric Traction System 2011 IEEE PES
Innovative Smart Grid Technologies India

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Thank you for your attention

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